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Twist and Shout

"Twist and Shout" is a 1961 song written by Phil Medley and Bert Berns credited as "Bert Russell". It was recorded by The Top Notes, but it became a chart hit as a single by the Isley Brothers in 1962; the song has been covered by several artists, including the Beatles on their first album Please Please Me, the Tremeloes in 1962, the Who in 1970 and 1984. In 1961, one year after Phil Spector became a staff producer at Atlantic Records, he was asked to produce a single by an up-and-coming vocal group, The Top Notes; this was before Spector perfected his "Wall of Sound" technique, the recording, at the Atlantic Studios on February 23, 1961, arranged by Teddy Randazzo with musicians including saxophonist King Curtis, guitarist John Pizzarelli, drummer Panama Francis, with backing vocals by the Cookies, lacked much of the energy the Top Notes exhibited in their live performances. The Top Notes included a cousin of Dave "Baby" Cortez. Guyton provided the lead vocals on "Twist and Shout". Guyton and Cortez had all been members of vocal groups the Pearls in their home city of Detroit, of the Sheiks in New York.

Derek Martin recorded a succession of singles on the Roulette label, in the 1960s and early 1970s, including a version of Otis Blackwell's "Daddy Rollin' Stone", before moving to live in France where he has continued to perform. Guyton sang in a touring version of the Platters, died of a heart attack in 1977, aged 39, while touring in Argentina. Songwriter Bert Berns felt Spector had ruined the song and went out to show Spector how it should be done; when the Isley Brothers decided to record the song in 1962, Bert Berns opted to produce, thus demonstrate to Spector what he had intended to be the "sound" of the record. The resulting recording captured the verve of an Isley Brothers performance, became the trio's first record to reach a Top 20 position in the Billboard Hot 100 singles chart; the Isley Brothers' version, with Ronald Isley on lead vocals, was the first major hit recording of the song, peaking at No. 17 on the U. S. pop top 40 charts, No. 2 on the US R&B charts. The song became a covered R&B tune in the early 1960s.

According to Ronald, the song was supposed to be the B-side to the Burt Bacharach standard, "Make It Easy on Yourself", a hit for Jerry Butler. When the Isleys recorded "Twist and Shout", the brothers did not think the song would do well, as they had not had a hit in the three years since "Shout" established them. To their surprise, it became their first Top 40 hit on both the pop and R&B charts, for a time established the group's reputation for producing fast-paced songs during their earlier career. Ronald Isley – lead vocals O'Kelly Isley Jr. – backing vocals Rudolph Isley – backing vocals King Curtis – saxophone Eric Galeguitar Trade Martin – guitar Cornell Dupree – guitar Paul Griffinpiano Chuck Raineybass Gary Chesterdrums Production by Bert Russell The Beatles' rendition of "Twist and Shout" was released on their first UK album Please Please Me, based on the Isley Brothers' version and featuring John Lennon on lead vocals. The song was the last to be recorded during the marathon 13-hour album session.

Lennon was drinking milk and sucking on cough drops to soothe his throat. His coughing is audible on the album, he remarked that his voice was not the same for a long time afterward, that it "felt like sandpaper" to swallow. He felt ashamed of his performance in the song "because I could sing better than that, but now it doesn't bother me. You can hear that I'm just a frantic guy doing his best." A second take was attempted, but Lennon had nothing left, it was abandoned. The song was released as a single in the US on March 1964, with "There's a Place" as its B-side, it was released by Chicago-based Vee-Jay Records on the Tollie label and reached number two on April 4, during the week that the top five places on the chart were all Beatles singles. It was the only million-selling Beatles single in the U. S., a cover song, the only Beatles cover single to reach the Top 10 on a national record chart. The song failed to hit number one. In the UK, "Twist and Shout" was released by Parlophone on an EP with "Do You Want to Know a Secret", "A Taste of Honey", "There's a Place" from the Please Please Me album.

Both the EP and album reached number one. In Canada, it became the title track to the second album of Beatles material to be issued by Capitol Records of Canada on February 3, 1964, it is regarded as one of the finest examples of British roll for its vocal performance. The song was used as a closing number on Sunday Night at the London Palladium in October 1963 and at The Royal Variety Show in November 1963; the Beatles performed the song on their Ed Sullivan Show appearance in February 1964, they continued to play it live until the end of their 1965 American tour. Additionally, they recorded "Twist and Shout" on nine occasions for BBC television and radio broadcasts, the earliest of, for the Talent Spot radio show on November 27, 1962; the intro sounds similar to "La Bamba" by Ritchie Valens (which is comically evident in the 1987 movie Born in

George Law (financier)

George Law was an American financier from New York. His only early education was winter night school. At the age of eighteen, he left his father's farm and after walking to Troy, he learned the trades of masonry and stonemasonry in Hoosic, he was employed with the Delaware and Hudson Canal in 1825 superintended the making of canal-locks at High Falls. Afterward he went to the mountains of Pennsylvania to quarry stone for locks, was employed as a mechanic on canals. In June 1829, he was awarded a contract for a small lock and aqueduct on the Delaware and Hudson Canal. Self-taught, he studied and made himself a good engineer and draughtsman and became a large contractor for the construction of railroads and canals. In August 1837, one of his brothers was engaged in the construction of the Croton waterworks, he went to New York city. In 1839 he was awarded the contract for the High Bridge. In 1842 he took on the management of the Dry Dock bank, he purchased and extended the New York and Harlem Railroad and Mohawk Railroad.

He bought the steamer SS Neptune in 1843 built the SS Oregon in 1845. With Marshall O. Roberts and Bowes R. McIlvaine he formed the U. S. Mail Steamship assumed the contract to carry the US mails to California; the company built the SS Ohio and the SS Georgia and with the purchased SS Falcon in early 1849 carried the first passengers by steamship to Chagres, on the east coast of the Isthmus of Panama. Soon the rapid transit time the steamship lines and the trans isthumus passage made possible when the California Gold Rush began made it a profitable company; that same year Law completed the High Bridge. When the Pacific Mail Steamship Company established a competing line between New York and Chagres, George Law placed on the Pacific his own competing line of four steamerships, SS Antelope, SS Columbus, SS Isthumus and SS Republic. In April 1851, the rivalry was ended when he purchased their steamers on the Atlantic side, sold his new Pacific Line and its ships on the Panama City to San Francisco run.

Impressed by the returns from the short amount of line of William Henry Aspinwall's Panama Railway, he acquired a large interest in the project in 1852. He went to the isthmus to examine the route, located the terminus at Aspinwall, where he began to build the railroad depot next to the steamship wharf. Aspinwall soon became the destination of the Panama steamships. Meanwhile, in New York he purchased the franchise of the Eighth Avenue street-railroad in New York, he sold his interest in the Panama Railroad in the winter of 1853. He built the Ninth Avenue Railroad, purchased the steam ferry to Staten Island, the Grand and Roosevelt Street ferries between New York and Brooklyn. In 1852 George Law had a quarrel with Captain Valentín Cañedo y Miranda, the Spanish Captain General of Cuba, which brought him prominent public notice. Cañedo was offended because Purser Smith, the purser of one of Law's vessels, had published statements in US publications critical of the colonial government of the Island of Cuba.

He was further offended by the anti-Cuban remarks of Admiral David Porter. The Spanish government refused entrance to any vessel with Purser Smith or Admiral David Porter aboard; the US government did not support George Law in his determination to send the SS Crescent City to Havana with the purser on board. In fact, Fillmore wrote to Cañedo to request that he rescind his ban and presented Cañedo with an affidavit clearing Smith of wrongdoing. Cañedo withdrew the ban at Fillmore's request. Law despatched Captain-general Cañedo failed to fire on her. In several public letters, Law attacked both the Fillmore and the Pierce administrations for cowardice. Law was nicknamed "Live-Oak George", coined by the workmen in his shipyard because of Law's insistence on building ships with the best materials. Law was recognized by some for his stand against government inactivity in the face of a threat to a U. S. citizen, was nominated as the Native American Party or Know-Nothing candidate for President of the United States in February 1855 by the Pennsylvania Legislature, but Millard Fillmore, one of the U.

S. Presidents whom Law had attacked, was chosen as that party's candidate for the 1856 Election. George Law was nominated as the Vice Presidential candidate; the U. S. Mail Steamship Company only operated for 11 years. On the expiration of the mail contract and its subsidy in 1859 the company withdrew from the business and sold its ships. Law had a steamship named after him; the SS George Law was renamed SS Central America. She sank in a three-day and night hurricane carrying most of her passengers, gold bullion valued at US$2,000,000 and Commander William Lewis Herndon down with her; the sinking of the ship with the loss of so much gold contributed to the Panic of 1857. State Senator Henry Marshall was his nephew. A sketch of events in the life of George Law, published in advance of his autobiography J. C. Derby, New York, 1855 "Ship of Gold"

Ċ½eljava Air Base

Željava Air Base, situated on the border between Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina under the mountain Plješevica, near the city of Bihać, was the largest underground airport and military air base in Yugoslavia, one of the largest in Europe. The facilities are shared by the local governments of Lika-Senj County in Croatia. Construction of the Željava or Bihać Air Base was inspired by mountain hangars used by the Swedish Göta Air Force Wing, began in 1948 and was completed in 1968. During those two decades, SFRJ spent $6 billion on its construction, three times the combined current annual military budgets of Serbia and Croatia, it was one of the largest and most expensive military construction projects in Europe. The role of the facility was to establish and coordinate a nationwide early warning radar network in SFRJ akin to NORAD; the complex was designed and built to sustain a direct hit from a 20-kiloton nuclear bomb, equivalent to the one dropped on Nagasaki. The main advantage of the base was the strategic location of its "Celopek" intercept and surveillance radar on Mount Pljesevica, at the nerve center of an advanced integrated air defense network covering the airspace and territory of Yugoslavia, further.

In addition to its main roles as a protected radar installation, control center, secure communications facility, the airbase contained tunnels housing two full fighter squadrons, one reconnaissance squadron, associated maintenance facilities. The units based there were the 124. LAE and 125. LAE, both equipped with MiG-21bis fighter aircraft, the 352. IAE, equipped with MiG-21R reconnaissance-fighter aircraft; the tunnels ran a total length of 3.5 kilometers, the bunker had four entrances protected by 100-ton pressurized doors, three of which were customized for use by fixed-wing aircraft. It was hoped that the base would be re-equipped with the indigenously developed Yu Supersonik aircraft; the underground facility was lined with semicircular concrete shields, arranged every ten meters, to cushion the impact of incoming munitions. The complex included an underground water source, power generators, crew quarters, other strategic military facilities, it housed a mess hall that could feed 1,000 people along with enough food and arms to last 30 days without resupply.

Fuel was supplied by a 20-kilometer underground pipe network that ran from a military warehouse on Pokoj Hill near Bihać. Above ground, the facility had five runways and within the immediate vicinity of the base, there were numerous short-range mobile tracking and targeting radars. Access points were monitored and guards were authorized to fire upon anyone attempting to enter without authorization. In practice, only special permits were required and unauthorized visitors turned away; the airbase was used intensively in 1991, during the Yugoslav Wars. During its withdrawal, the Yugoslav People's Army destroyed the runway by filling pre-built spaces with explosives and detonating them. To prevent any possible further use of the complex by Croatian and Bosnia-Herzegovinan forces, the Military of Serbian Krajina completed the destruction in 1992 by setting off an additional 56 tons of explosives there; the ensuing explosion was so powerful that it shook the nearby city of Bihać. Residents of nearby villages claimed that smoke continued to rise from the tunnels for six months after the explosion.

Local police forces and the CPA use the area to train canines with actual land mines, given the extensive number of mines still in the vicinity. Because of the mines, extreme caution must be used. In November 2000, a Bosnian Air Force Major died from his injuries after setting off a PROM-2 anti-personnel mine while searching for mushrooms; the toll of the destruction on base buildings and equipment is incalculable and caused great environmental damage. Potential reconstruction endeavors are limited by a lack of financial resources. An international border cuts the base area in two, the entire area is mined; the barracks in the nearby village of Ličko Petrovo Selo are operated by the Croatian Army. Today, the base serves as a waypoint for illegal migrants. A facility for asylum seekers was scheduled to open there in 2004 or 2005, but the idea was abandoned, new plans were developed for it to become part of the Slunj military training grounds, barracks from the nearby Udbina complex; this idea was dropped, however, in line with the agreement between the countries of former Yugoslavia which bans any military facility up to 15 km inside the borders.

The Bihać Municipality launched an initiative to open a local airport using the runway. Armijska Ratna Komanda D-0 1992 European Community Monitor Mission helicopter downing Novi Avion Rudolf Perešin Slatina Air Base Yugoslav Air Force Željava runways layout & numbering scheme

After Dinner

After Dinner is a play by Australian playwright Andrew Bovell. It was first performed at La Mama Theatre in 1988, went on to be performed throughout Australia. An acutely observed but tender-hearted account of relationships and behaviour in a suburban pub bistro on a Friday night. After Dinner was first performed at La Mama, Melbourne, on 20 April 1988 with the following cast: GORDON: Tom Gutteridge DYMPIE: Kim Trengove PAULA: Eugenia Fragos MONIKA: Leigh Morgan STEPHEN: Peter Murphy Director, Kim Durban Designer, Amanda Johnson Stage Manager, Jane Allen Music, Tom Gillick and The Heartbreaks

Afrika Rising

Afrika Rising is the second album by American jazz flautist Nicole Mitchell with her group Black Earth Ensemble, released in 2002 on Dreamtime, the label she established with David Boykin. The Exclaim! Review by David Dacks says "Afrika Rising builds on Mitchell's successful debut, Vision Quest, a year ago and is forward-thinking jazz that swings like crazy." All compositions by Nicole Mitchell except. "Afrika Rising Mvmt I: The Ancient Power Awakens" –8:34 "Afrika Rising Mvmt II: Metemorphosis" – 7:33 "Afrika Rising Mvmt III: Intergalactic Healing" – 5:39 "Peaceful Village Town" – 5:17 "Emerging Light" – 0:53 "Umoja" – 1:01 "Umoja" – 5:42 "Bluerise" – 10:49 "Goldmind" – 2:07 "Wheatgrass" – 7:57 "Toward Vision Quest" – 3:21 Nicole Mitchell – flute, vocals David Boykin – saxophone, vocals Tony Herrera – trombone, vocals Steve Berry – trombone Savoir Faireviolin, vocals Edith Yokley – violin Tomeka Reidcello Miles Tate III – piano Jim Baker – piano Wanda Bishop – piano, vocals Darius Savage – double bass Josh Abrams – bass, vocals Hamid Drakedrums Isaiah Spencer – drums Arveeayl Ra – drums, vocals Jovia Armstrong – percussion Coco Elysses – percussion

IV Bomber Command

The IV Bomber Command is an inactive United States Army Air Forces unit. It was last assigned based at San Francisco, California, it was inactivated on 31 March 1944. It trained bombardment personnel. Flew antisubmarine patrols along the west coast. In early 1941, the Army Air Forces redesignated its geographical air districts in the United States as Air Forces. In the fall of that year, the new air forces were organized into commands, which included a bomber command, an interceptor command, an air support command and an air base command. In this reorganization IV Bomber Command was formed at Davis-Monthan Field, Arizona to control the bombardment units of Fourth Air Force in September; the new command drew much of its initial cadre from the 1st Bombardment Wing, stationed there since May. Shortly after the command became organized, the attack on Pearl Harbor caused the command to relocate to move to Hamilton Field and concentrate its efforts on antisubmarine patrols off the southern Pacific coast, reinforcing units of the Western and Northwestern Sea Frontiers of the United States Navy.

However, it shortly became apparent. And the command shifted its focus to the training of bomber crews; the AAF moved all its heavy bomber training in Second Air Force, while Fourth Air Force focused on fighter aircraft, training, so the command did not grow. In the spring of 1944, the AAF reorganized its training units to provide more flexibility in manning, rather than continuing to use rigid table of organization units. In this reorganization, the command was disbanded on 31 March 1944 and its personnel absorbed into the 400th AAF Base Unit. Constituted as the 4th Bomber Command on 1 September 1941Redesignated IV Bomber Command on 18 September 1942 Activated on 19 September 1941 Disbanded on 31 March 1944 Fourth Air Force, 1 September 1941 – 31 March 1944 14th Pursuit Group, 19 September 1941 – 26 January 1942 19th Bombardment Group, 19 September– c. 23 October 1941 30th Bombardment Group, 20 January 1942 – 11 October 1943 41st Bombardment Group, 19 September 1941 – October 1943 42d Bombardment Group, 25 January 1942 – 14 March 1943 47th Bombardment Group, attached 17 December 1941 – 15 February 1942 399th Bombardment Group, 3 December 1943 – 31 March 1944 456th Bombardment Group, c. 2 October 1943 – January 1944 470th Bombardment Group, 6 January–31 March 1944 483d Bombardment Group, 20 September–7 November 1943 Davis-Monthan Field, Arizona, 19 September 1941 Hamilton Field, California, c. 8 December 1941 San Francisco, California, 5 January 1942 – 31 March 1944 Notes Citations This article incorporates public domain material from the Air Force Historical Research Agency website

Goss, William A.. "The Organization and its Responsibilities, Chapter 2 The AAF". In Craven, Wesley F.. The Army Air Forces in World War II. Vol. VI, Men & Planes. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. LCCN 48003657. OCLC 704158. Retrieved December 17, 2016. Maurer, Maurer, ed.. Air Force Combat Units of World War II. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-02-1. LCCN 61060979. Retrieved December 17, 2016