Prince Edward Island
Prince Edward Island is a province of Canada consisting of the Atlantic island of the same name along with several much smaller islands nearby. PEI is one of the three Maritime Provinces, it is the smallest province of Canada in both land area and population, but it is the most densely populated. Part of the traditional lands of the Mi'kmaq, it became a British colony in the 1700s and was federated into Canada as a province in 1873, its capital is Charlottetown. According to the 2016 census, the province of PEI has 142,907 residents; the backbone of the economy is farming. The island has several informal names: "Garden of the Gulf", referring to the pastoral scenery and lush agricultural lands throughout the province. PEI is one of Canada's older settlements and demographically still reflects older immigration to the country, with Scottish, Irish and French surnames being dominant to this day. PEI is located about 200 kilometres north of Halifax, Nova Scotia, 600 kilometres east of Quebec City.
It consists of 231 minor islands. Altogether, the entire province has a land area of 5,686.03 km2. The main island is 5,620 km2 in size larger than the U. S. state of Delaware. It is the 104th-largest island in Canada's 23rd-largest island. In 1798, the British named the island colony for Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn, the fourth son of King George III and the father of Queen Victoria. Prince Edward has been called "Father of the Canadian Crown"; the following island landmarks are named after the Duke of Kent: Prince Edward Battery, Victoria Park, Charlottetown Kent College, Charlottetown Kent Street, Charlottetown West Kent Elementary School Kent Street, GeorgetownIn French, the island is today called Île-du-Prince-Édouard, but its former French name, as part of Acadia, was Île Saint-Jean. The island is known in Scottish Gaelic as Eilean a' Phrionnsa or Eilean Eòin for some Gaelic speakers in Nova Scotia though not on PEI; the island is known in the Mi'kmaq language as Abegweit or Epekwitk translated as "land cradled in the waves".
Prince Edward Island is located in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, west of Cape Breton Island, north of the Nova Scotia peninsula, east of New Brunswick, its southern shore bounds the Northumberland Strait. The island has two urban areas; the larger surrounds Charlottetown Harbour, situated centrally on the island's southern shore, consists of the capital city Charlottetown, suburban towns Cornwall and Stratford and a developing urban fringe. A much smaller urban area surrounds Summerside Harbour, situated on the southern shore 40 km west of Charlottetown Harbour, consists of the city of Summerside; as with all natural harbours on the island and Summerside harbours are created by rias. The island's landscape is pastoral. Rolling hills, reddish white sand beaches, ocean coves and the famous red soil have given Prince Edward Island a reputation as a province of outstanding natural beauty; the provincial government has enacted laws to preserve the landscape through regulation, although there is a lack of consistent enforcement, an absence of province-wide zoning and land-use planning.
Under the Planning Act of the province, municipalities have the option to assume responsibility for land-use planning through the development and adoption of official plans and land use bylaws. Thirty-one municipalities have taken responsibility for planning. In areas where municipalities have not assumed responsibility for planning, the Province remains responsible for development control; the island's lush landscape has a strong bearing on its culture. The author Lucy Maud Montgomery drew inspiration from the land during the late Victorian Era for the setting of her classic novel Anne of Green Gables. Today, many of the same qualities that Montgomery and others found in the island are enjoyed by tourists who visit year-round, they enjoy a variety of leisure activities, including beaches, various golf courses, eco-tourism adventures, touring the countryside, enjoying cultural events in local communities around the island. The smaller, rural communities as well as the towns and villages throughout the province, retain a slower-paced, old-world flavour.
Prince Edward Island has become popular as a tourist destination for relaxation. The economy of most rural communities on the island is based on small-scale agriculture. Industrial farming has increased as businesses consolidate older farm properties; the coastline has a combination of long beaches, red sandstone cliffs, salt water marshes, numerous bays and harbours. The beaches and sandstone cliffs consist of sedimentary rock and other material with a high iron concentration, which oxidises upon exposure to the air; the geological properties of a white silica sand found at Basin Head are unique in the province. Large dune fields on the north shore can be found on barrier islands at the entrances to various bays and harbours
18 to Life
18 to Life is a Canadian television sitcom that debuted on January 4, 2010, on CBC Television. The series is shown in Quebec on Vrak. TV with the title Majeurs et mariés; the show stars Stacey Farber and Michael Seater as Jessie Hill and Tom Bellow, a young couple who decide, on a dare, to get married right out of high school. The cast includes Peter Keleghan and Ellen David as Tom's parents Ben and Judith Bellow, Alain Goulem and Angela Asher as Jessie's parents Phil Hill and Tara Mercer; the two families live next door to each other and ascribe to the adage that "good fences make good neighbors." Jessie's parents are free-spirited and do not believe in societal constructs of marriage or organized religion. They have a refugee from Iraq living in their basement. Tom's parents are traditional white-collar sticklers for rules. Tom's father is a judge who converted to Judaism when his mother is a homemaker. Jessie and Tom settle into the attic suite of Tom's parents' house as their first marital home and try to balance college and the trials of being young newlyweds.
The show is set in Quebec. The series was announced in 2008 as a co-production between CBC and the American television network ABC, although ABC dropped out of the production; the pilot was filmed in 2008 and the rest of the first season was filmed in the summer of 2009. The CW, another U. S. network, had interest in the series and announced on July 15, 2010 that it would pick up the show. Season 2 was filmed in the summer of 2010 and returned to CBC on January 3, 2011, with 13 new episodes. CBC has canceled the show and there will be no season three; the final episode, the 25th, was telecast on March 28, 2011. 18 to Life was broadcast in the United States on The CW. The first six episodes were shown in August 2010. On August 19, 2010, The CW announced. On August 24, 2010 it was reported that Arnie Gelbart, executive producer of the series and CEO of the production company Galafilm Productions, said The CW would show the remaining six episodes of the first season in December 2010. In India, Zee Café began broadcasting the first season on February 9, 2011.
John Doyle of The Globe and Mail said that 18 to Life "crackles with wit" and that "Peter Keleghan is in fine fettle as Tom's uptight dad." Quebecor Media's Bill Harris called the premise "kind of refreshing" and described it as a "Canadian combination of Meet the Parents and Modern Family." Rob Owen of the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette described the series as a "gentle, intermittently entertaining Canadian import." He compared 18 to Life to the sitcom Dharma & Greg. Roger Catlin of The Hartford Courant found 18 to Life to be "kind of sweet in a Disney/ABC Family kind of way."Brad Oswald of the Winnipeg Free Press said there is "plenty of next-door comedy" however he found the premise "simply isn't believable". Glenn Garvin of The Miami Herald does not like the series. "The CW, a network aimed at teenage girls couldn't find an American network stupid or venal enough to make a sitcom about the amusing foibles of teen marriage. Thanks for stepping in, Canada. What would we do without you?" Megan Angelo of The Wall Street Journal leads off her review by mistakenly claiming this is "adapted from a Canadian hit" when there is no American adaptation of the show.
She mentioned the general critical decrying of the glamourisation of out-of-wedlock pregnancy in the films Juno and Knocked Up and says that out-of-pregnancy wedlock is not any better for teenagers. Angelo goes on to say that "what makes it hard to watch is Tom and Jessie's casual discourse on sex." She further explains that what makes 18 to Life so difficult to watch compared to shows such as Gossip Girl and 90210 is that creating a believable world and "trying to legitimize the whole thing only makes it worse – and the CW doesn't try." Mary McNamara, television critic for The Los Angeles Times, opens her review by saying, "The setup for this CW show isn't anything new. Except in its old-fashioned commitment to marriage." McNamara says "It is much more shocking to see these young people leap into matrimony than it would be if they were just having sex or moving in together." As to the writing, McNamara says it "plays like an improv exercise in a high school drama class". Jaime Weinman of Maclean's reviewed the negative American reviews, in particular those from The LA Times and The Wall Street Journal, had concern about their "criticizing the show because it's about two over-18 teenagers who get married."
In writing of The Wall Street Journal review Weinman said it is an "odd presumption" that "a realistic portrayal of teenage sex, of somewhat normal and de-glamorized teens who have been sexually active, is worse than the glossy version we get on the CW's own shows." In response to McNamara's comment in The LA Times about the marriage of the two main characters being shocking Weinman said, "That's part of the point of the show: the characters make a decision that has more impact and culturally, than any other, one that their parents fear will ruin their lives." The show premiered on January 4, 2010 on CBC. Only the weekly top 30 ratings are available to the public in Canada and 18 to Life never ranked in the top 30 during its first season; the U. S. premiere on The CW on August 3, 2010 garnered 1.01 million viewers and a 0.4 rating with adults 18–49 and lost viewers from an encore of the low rated summer reality series Plain Jane which preceded the premiere. The next two episodes aired on The CW on August 10 and fell in the ratings further with only 0.76 million viewers and a 0.3 rating in the adults 18–49 demographic.
On January 18, 2011 the first season was released o
Halifax, Nova Scotia
Halifax, formally known as the Halifax Regional Municipality, is the capital of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. It had a population of 403,131 with 316,701 in the urban area centred on Halifax Harbour; the regional municipality consists of four former municipalities that were amalgamated in 1996: Halifax, Dartmouth and Halifax County. Halifax is a major economic centre in Atlantic Canada with a large concentration of government services and private sector companies. Major employers and economic generators include the Department of National Defence, Dalhousie University, Saint Mary's University, the Halifax Shipyard, various levels of government, the Port of Halifax. Agriculture, mining and natural gas extraction are major resource industries found in the rural areas of the municipality. Halifax is located within the traditional ancestral lands of the Mi'kmaq indigenous peoples, known as Mi'kma'ki; the Mi'kmaq have resided in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick and Prince Edward Island since prior to European landings in North America in the 1400s and 1500s to set up fisheries.
The Mi'kmaq name for Halifax is K'jipuktuk, pronounced "che-book-took". The first permanent European settlement in the region was on the Halifax Peninsula; the establishment of the Town of Halifax, named after the 2nd Earl of Halifax, in 1749 led to the colonial capital being transferred from Annapolis Royal. The establishment of Halifax marked the beginning of Father Le Loutre's War; the war began when Edward Cornwallis arrived to establish Halifax with 13 transports and a sloop of war on June 21, 1749. By unilaterally establishing Halifax, the British were violating earlier treaties with the Mi'kmaq, which were signed after Father Rale's War. Cornwallis brought along their families. To guard against Mi'kmaq and French attacks on the new Protestant settlements, British fortifications were erected in Halifax, Bedford and Lawrencetown, all areas within the modern-day Regional Municipality. St. Margaret's Bay was first settled by French-speaking Foreign Protestants at French Village, Nova Scotia who migrated from Lunenburg, Nova Scotia during the American Revolution.
December 1917 saw one of the greatest disasters in Canadian history, when the SS Mont-Blanc, a French cargo ship carrying munitions, collided with the Belgian Relief vessel SS Imo in "The Narrows" between upper Halifax Harbour and Bedford Basin. The resulting explosion, the Halifax Explosion, devastated the Richmond District of Halifax, killing 2,000 people and injuring nearly 9,000 others; the blast was the largest artificial explosion before the development of nuclear weapons. Significant aid came from Boston; the four municipalities in the Halifax urban area had been coordinating service delivery through the Metropolitan Authority since the late 1970s, but remained independent towns and cities until April 1, 1996, when the provincial government amalgamated all municipal governments within Halifax County to create the Halifax Regional Municipality. The municipal boundary thus now includes all of Halifax County except for several First Nation reserves. Since amalgamation, the region has been known as the Halifax Regional Municipality, although "Halifax" has remained in common usage for brevity.
On April 15, 2014, the regional council approved the implementation of a new branding campaign for the region developed by the local firm Revolve Marketing. The campaign would see the region referred to in promotional materials as "Halifax", although "Halifax Regional Municipality" would remain the region's official name; the proposed rebranding was met with mixed reaction from residents, some of whom felt that the change would alienate other communities in the municipality through a perception that the marketing scheme would focus on Metropolitan Halifax only, while others expressed relief that the longer formal name would no longer be primary. Mayor Mike Savage defended the decision, stating: "I'm a Westphal guy, I'm a Dartmouth man, but Halifax is my city, we’re all part of Halifax. Why does that matter? Because when I go and travel on behalf of this municipality, there isn’t a person out there who cares what HRM means." Unlike most municipalities with a sizeable metropolitan area, the Halifax Regional Municipality's suburbs have been incorporated into the "central" municipality by referendum.
For example, the community of Spryfield, in the Mainland South area, voted to amalgamate with Halifax in 1968. The most recent amalgamation, which brought the entirety of Halifax County into the Municipality, has created a situation where a large "rural commutershed" area encompasses half the municipality's landmass; the Halifax Regional Municipality occupies an area of 5,577 km2, 10% of the total land area of Nova Scotia. The land area of HRM is comparable in size to the total land area of the province of Prince Edward Island, measures 165 km in length between its eastern and western-most extremities, excluding Sable Island; the nearest point of land to Sable Island is not in HRM, but rather in adjacent Guysborough County. However, Sable Island is considered part of District 7 of the Halifax Regional Council; the coastline is indented, accounting for its length of 400 km, with the northern boundary of the municipality being between 50–60 km inland. The coast is rock with small isolated sand beaches in sheltered bays.
The largest coastal features include St. Margarets Bay, Halifax Harbour/Bedford Basin, Cole Harbour, Musquodoboit Harbour, Jeddore Harbour, Ship Harbour, Sheet Harbou
Big Star was an American rock band formed in Memphis, Tennessee, in 1971 by Alex Chilton, Chris Bell, Jody Stephens, Andy Hummel. The group broke up in early 1975, reorganized with a new lineup 18 years following a reunion concert at the University of Missouri. In its first era, the band's musical style drew on the Beatles, the Rolling Stones, the Byrds. Big Star produced a style that foreshadowed the alternative rock of the 1990s. Before it broke up, Big Star created a "seminal body of work that never stopped inspiring succeeding generations," in the words of Rolling Stone, as the "quintessential American power pop band," and "one of the most mythic and influential cult acts in all of rock & roll". Big Star's first album—1972's #1 Record—was met by enthusiastic reviews, but ineffective marketing by Stax Records, limited distribution stunted its commercial success. Frustration took its toll on band relations: Bell left not long after the first record's commercial progress stalled, Hummel left to finish his college education after a second album, Radio City, was completed in December 1973.
Like #1 Record, Radio City received excellent reviews, but label issues again thwarted sales—Columbia Records, which had assumed control of the Stax catalog effectively vetoed its distribution. After a third album, recorded in the fall of 1974, was deemed commercially unviable and shelved before receiving a title, the band broke up late in 1974. Four years the first two Big Star LPs were released together in the UK as a double album; the band's third album was issued soon afterward. Shortly thereafter, Chris Bell was killed in a car accident at the age of 27. During the group's hiatus in the 1980s, the Big Star discography drew renewed attention when R. E. M. and the Replacements, as well as other popular bands, cited the group as an influence. In 1992, interest was further stimulated by Rykodisc's reissues of the band's albums, complemented by a collection of Bell's solo work. In 1993, Chilton and Stephens reformed Big Star with recruits Jon Auer and Ken Stringfellow of the Posies, gave a concert at the University of Missouri.
The band remained active, performing tours in Europe and Japan, released a new studio album, In Space, in 2005. Chilton died in March 2010 after suffering from heart problems. Hummel died of cancer four months later; these deaths left Stephens as the sole surviving founding member. Big Star was inducted into the Memphis Music Hall of Fame in 2014. Since December 2010, several surviving members have appeared in a series of live tribute performances of the album Third/Sister Lovers, under the billing "Big Star's Third"; as of 2017, that project has remained active. From 1967 to 1970, Chilton was the lead singer for the blue-eyed soul group the Box Tops, who scored a No. 1 hit with the song "The Letter" when he was 16. After leaving the group, he recorded a solo studio album, he was offered the role of lead vocalist for Blood, Sweat & Tears, but turned down the offer as "too commercial". Chilton had known Chris Bell for some time: Both lived in Memphis, each had spent time recording music at Ardent Studios, each, when aged 13, had been impressed by the music of the Beatles during the band's 1964 debut U.
S. tour. A song Chilton wrote nearly six years after he first witnessed a Beatles performance, "Thirteen", referred to the event with the line "rock'n' roll is here to stay". Chilton asked Bell to work with him as a duo modeled on Garfunkel. Attracted by Icewater's music, Chilton showed the three his new song "Watch the Sunrise", was asked to join the band. Both "Watch the Sunrise" and "Thirteen" were subsequently included on Big Star's first album, #1 Record; the now four-piece band adopted the name Big Star when one member was given the idea from a grocery store visited for snacks during recording sessions. One of many Big Star Markets outlets in the Memphis region at the time, it had a logo consisting of a five-pointed star enclosing the words "Big Star". Although all four members contributed to songwriting and vocals on the first album and Bell dominated as a duo intentionally modeled on John Lennon and Paul McCartney; the album was recorded by Ardent founder John Fry, with Terry Manning contributing occasional backing vocals and keyboards.
The title #1 Record was decided towards the end of the recording sessions and evinced, albeit as a playful hope rather than a serious expectation, the chart position to be achieved by a big star. Although Fry—at the band's insistence—was credited as "executive producer", publicly he insisted that "the band themselves produced these records". Fry recalled how Ardent, one of the first recording studios to use a sixteen-track tape machine, worked experimentally with the band members: "We started recording the songs with the intent that if it turned out OK we'd put it out I wound up being the one that worked on it: I recorded all the tracks and they would come late at night and do overdubs. One by one, they all learned enough engineering." Describing the mix of musical styles present on #1 Record, Rolling Stone's Bud Scoppa notes that the album includes "reflective and acoustic" numbers, saying that "even the prettiest tunes have tension and subtle energy to them, the rockers reverberate with power".
Scoppa finds that in each mode, "the guitar sound is sharp-edged and full". #1 Record was released in June 1972, received strong reviews. Billboard went
One Tree Hill (TV series)
One Tree Hill is an American television drama series created by Mark Schwahn, which premiered on September 23, 2003, on The WB. After the series' third season, The WB merged with UPN to form The CW, from September 27, 2006, the series was broadcast by The CW in the United States until the end of its run in 2012; the show is set in the fictional town of Tree Hill in North Carolina and follows the lives of two half-brothers, Lucas Scott and Nathan Scott, who compete for positions on their school's basketball team, the drama that ensues from the brothers' romances. Most of the filming took place around Wilmington, North Carolina. Many of the scenes were shot near the battleship USS North Carolina and on the University of North Carolina Wilmington campus; the first four seasons of the show focus on the main characters' lives through their high school years. With the beginning of the fifth season, Schwahn advanced the timeline by four years to show their lives after college, he made it jump a further fourteen months from the end of the sixth to the start of the seventh season.
The opening credits were accompanied by the song "I Don't Want to Be" by Gavin DeGraw. The theme was removed from the opening in the fifth season; the credits consisted only of the title written on a black background. The theme was restored for season 8, in response to audience demand, was sung by different artists each week; the series premiered to 2.5 million viewers and rose to 3.3 million in its second week, becoming one of only three shows to rise in their second episode during the 2003–2004 television season. Season one went on to average 3.5 million viewers, the second season was the highest rated in the series, averaging 4.3 million viewers weekly and a 1.9 Adults 18–49 rating. The series received numerous award nominations. On May 12, 2009, it was confirmed that Murray and Hilarie Burton had declined to return for the seventh season, although accounts of what transpired vary, their characters had been two of the five main protagonists, had provided one of its central love stories, throughout the show.
On May 17, 2011, The CW renewed One Tree Hill for a ninth and final season, placing an order for 13 episodes. Bethany Joy Lenz and Sophia Bush were signed as full-time regulars for one final season, Lafferty appeared as a part-time regular. Murray returned for a special appearance during the final season, which premiered on January 11, 2012; the show is the fourth-longest-running series on The CW network, or the networks that came together to make it up, after Smallville, 7th Heaven, Supernatural. The series concluded on April 4, 2012; the main storyline in the early seasons is the relationship between two half-brothers and Nathan Scott, who start out as enemies but bond as the show progresses. In the pilot episode, Lucas becomes a member of the Tree Hill Ravens with the help of his uncle Keith. Nathan the head of the team, is threatened by this and it becomes the basis of their rivalry fueled by Lucas's romantic interest in Nathan's girlfriend Peyton Sawyer. On, Peyton's best friend Brooke Davis tries to date Lucas, while Nathan attempts to date Lucas's best friend Haley James.
The character of Lucas and Nathan's father Dan Scott is explored throughout, including his relationships with Karen Roe, Lucas's mother, Deb Scott, Nathan's mother, how he ended up with one woman rather than the other, thus abandoning Lucas as his son. The first season deals with the first half of the main teenage characters' junior year; the focus is on the rivalry between Nathan during the state basketball championship. Other major storylines are Nathan and Haley's developing relationship, the Peyton-Lucas-Brooke love triangle, the love quadrangle involving Lucas and Nathan's parents; the second season focuses on the second half of the characters' junior year. It explores new romances and characters. Lucas dates Anna Taggaro, Jake Jagielski dates Peyton, there is a love triangle between Felix Taggaro and Mouth McFadden; this season shows the disintegration of Nathan and Haley's relationship because of Chris Keller, the repercussions – for Lucas – of Dan's hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, an inherited disease.
Peyton deals with drug problems and the return of her biological mother, Karen opens a nightclub and begins a relationship with professor. A troubled Deb struggles with a drug addiction; the third season focuses on the characters' first half of their senior year, has the return of basketball. It features the arrival of Rachel Gatina, who brings conflict between Lucas. Peyton deals with the return of her mom and tries to get to know her when she finds out she is dying from cancer. Jake and Peyton's relationship draws to a close and Peyton's romantic feelings for Lucas resurface in the season; the episodes of the season sees Nathan and Haley plan their wedding. A major subplot consists of Dan's efforts to solve the murder attempt, made against him during the previous season's cliffhanger. A major episode involves most of the main cast in a hostage situation at Tree Hill High and culminates in Peyton getting shot in the leg, Jimmy Edwards committing suicide and Dan murdering Keith. At the end of the season finale after Nathan and Haley renew their vows, he, Cooper are l
Gossip Girl is an American teen drama television series based on the book series of the same name written by Cecily von Ziegesar. The series, created by Josh Schwartz and Stephanie Savage ran on The CW network for six seasons from September 19, 2007, to December 17, 2012. Narrated by the omniscient blogger "Gossip Girl", the series revolves around the lives of privileged upper-class adolescents living in Manhattan's Upper East Side; the series begins with the return of Upper East Side teenage it girl Serena van der Woodsen from a mysterious absence. She is reunited with her frenemy Blair Waldorf and her mother Lily van der Woodsen, while she meets Dan Humphrey, an aspiring writer from Brooklyn. Other main characters are played by Chace Crawford, Ed Westwick, Taylor Momsen, Jessica Szohr, Matthew Settle and Kaylee DeFer; the success of Gossip Girl led to adaptations outside the United States. The show has received numerous award nominations; the CW renewed Gossip Girl for a sixth and final season on May 11, 2012.
The final season, consisting of 10 episodes, premiered on October 8, 2012 and ended on December 17, 2012. The Gossip Girl book series was supposed to be adapted into a film starring Lindsay Lohan with head Gilmore Girls creator Amy Sherman-Palladino; when the film project did not get off the ground, Stephanie Savage and Josh Schwartz took over the project to create a television series. As of October 2006, Schwartz was working on the pilot, he said, "I was skeptical. I don't want to do The O. C. NYC, but I thought. The characters are worldly in a way that Orange County kids aren't." The characteristics for each character in the pilot were based on the first Gossip Girl book. In January 2007, the show was given the green light by The CW; the O. C. creator Josh Schwartz and fellow writer Stephanie Savage served as the show's executive producers throughout the series' run, followed by Bob Levy and Leslie Morgenstein of Alloy Entertainment, who were assigned in aiding the adaptation of the novels into the series.
Following the success of Gossip Girl, Gilmore Girls co-producer, John Stephens was approached by Schwartz and Savage, having worked with him on The O. C. and hired him as an executive producer. Joshua Safran, who started as a writer/consulting producer before becoming co-executive producer, was added as an executive producer. On April 24, 2012, it was announced that he would leave the show at the end of the fifth season to be the new showrunner of NBC's now-cancelled musical series Smash. To fill in Safran's void, co-executive producer Sara Goodman was promoted to executive producer for the sixth season. Alexandra Patsavas who worked with Schwartz on The O. C. was in charge of the music. Eric Daman was at the head of the costume department. Featuring nine regular speaking roles, the majority of the ensemble cast was assembled from February to April 2007. Leighton Meester and Blake Lively–who started auditioning in December 2006–were the first two actresses to be chosen in February for the lead roles of Blair Waldorf and Serena van der Woodsen, respectively.
Penn Badgley, who had worked with Stephanie Savage on The Mountain, Taylor Momsen, Chace Crawford, Kelly Rutherford, Connor Paolo auditioned and landed roles in the series in March, as did Florencia Lozano who appeared only in the pilot, was replaced by Margaret Colin. Badgley at first turned down the part of Dan, as did Lively—who planned to attend college—for the role of Serena. Actors for the roles of Chuck Bass and Rufus Humphrey were found in April when English actor Ed Westwick, Matthew Settle were cast. Westwick first read for the role of Nate but was asked to try Chuck; as rumors swirled about the impending cancellation of Veronica Mars, it was revealed at The CW's 2007 Upfronts on May 17, 2007, that Kristen Bell had narrated the pilot, thus making her the title character of another show on the network. Jessica Szohr was signed on to portray the recurring role of Vanessa Abrams and received regular status during the fourteenth episode of the first season. Kaylee DeFer joined the series in the eighteenth episode of the fourth season and was promoted to series regular for the show's fifth season.
At the conclusion of the fourth season, who went on an indefinite hiatus during the season while retaining regular billing, Jessica Szohr both left the show. Throughout the series' run, Connor Paolo declined to elevate his recurring role of Eric van der Woodsen to regular status, citing personal reasons for his decision. After becoming a regular on the ABC series Revenge, Paolo confirmed his departure from Gossip Girl in August 2011; as the show progressed, numerous recurring guest stars appeared in the show. Michelle Trachtenberg signed on to portray Georgina Sparks; the role had been offered to Mischa Barton who declined the role. Francie Swift and Sam Robards took the parental roles of Howard Archibald, respectively. Caroline Lagerfelt portrayed Celia "CeCe" Rhodes and Eric's grandmother and Lily's mother. Sebastian Stan made several appearances as Carter Baizen throughout the show's first three seasons. Filming in New York, Gossip Girl has been declared by New York Magazine as the "Most Restauranty Show Since Sex and the City", citing the pilot episode filming locales such as the Japanese restaurant, the Campbell Apartment where Nate and Serena were filmed having sex and the New York Palace Hotel bar Gilt.
Other New York City landmarks and well-known establishments were filmed throughout the first season. Victor/Victrola filmed the fictiona
Nicholas Drain Lowe, known as Nick Lowe, is an English singer-songwriter and producer. A noted figure in UK pub rock, power pop and new wave, Lowe has recorded a string of well-reviewed solo albums. Along with vocals, Lowe plays guitar, bass guitar and harmonica, he is best known for his songs "Cruel to Be Kind" and "I Love the Sound of Breaking Glass", as well as his production work with Elvis Costello, Graham Parker, others. Lowe wrote " Peace and Understanding", a hit for Costello, he lives in Brentford, England. Lowe attended the independent Woodbridge School in Suffolk, he began his musical career in 1967, when he joined the band Kippington Lodge, along with his school friend Brinsley Schwarz. They released a few singles on the Parlophone record label as Kippington Lodge before they renamed the band Brinsley Schwarz in late 1969 and began performing country and blues-rock; the band were launched by their management company Famepushers Ltd with an appearance at New York's Fillmore East. Lowe wrote some of his best-known compositions while a member of Brinsley Schwarz, including " Peace and Understanding", a hit for Elvis Costello in 1979.
After leaving Brinsley Schwarz in 1975 Lowe began playing bass in Rockpile with Dave Edmunds. In August 1976, Lowe released "So It Goes" b/w "Heart of the City", the first single on the Stiff Records label, where he was an in-house producer; the single and the label were funded by a loan of £400 from Dr. Feelgood's Lee Brilleaux; the label's first EP was Lowe's 1977 four-track release Bowi named in response to David Bowie's contemporaneous LP Low. The joke was repeated when Lowe produced the Rumour's album Max as an'answer' to Fleetwood Mac's Rumours. Lowe continued producing albums on other labels. In 1977 he produced Dr. Feelgood's album, Be Seeing You, which included "That's It, I Quit", written by Lowe. Private Practice, issued the next year, written by Lowe and Gypie Mayo; this song and "I Love the Sound of Breaking Glass" are the only Lowe compositions to reach the Top 10 of the UK Singles Chart. Because the two main singers in Rockpile had recording contracts with different record labels and managers, albums were always credited to either Lowe or Edmunds, so there is only one official Rockpile album, 1980's Seconds of Pleasure, not released until the waning days of the collaboration.
Seconds of Pleasure featured the Lowe songs "When I Write the Book" and "Heart". However, two of the pair's most significant solo albums from the period, Lowe's Labour of Lust and Edmunds' Repeat When Necessary, were Rockpile albums, as was Carlene Carter's Lowe-produced Musical Shapes album. Lowe's album Labour of Lust received a gold certification in Canada in November 1979. Lowe was quoted as saying that he had "escaped from the tyranny of the snare drum" in No Depression, when explaining his move away from regular pop music that would get played on mainstream radio. Other well-known Lowe songs include "I Love the Sound of Breaking Glass", "All Men Are Liars", "Cruel to Be Kind", co-written with Ian Gomm and recorded with Brinsley Schwarz for their unreleased final album It's All Over Now. A re-recording of "Cruel to Be Kind" was his only US Top 40 hit, reaching No. 12 on the Billboard Hot 100 chart in 1979. In 1979, Lowe married country singer Carlene Carter, daughter of fellow country singers Carl Smith and June Carter Cash and stepdaughter of Johnny Cash.
He adopted Tiffany Anastasia Lowe. The marriage ended in 1990, but they remained friends, Lowe remained close to the Carter/Cash family, he played and recorded with Johnny Cash, Cash recorded several of Lowe's songs. Lowe and Carter's 1979 wedding was filmed and the footage became the basis for the promotional video clip for "Cruel to be Kind". After the demise of Rockpile, Lowe toured for a period with his band Noise to Go and with the Cowboy Outfit, which included the noted keyboard player Paul Carrack. Lowe was a member of the short-lived studio project Little Village with John Hiatt, Ry Cooder and Jim Keltner, who got together to record Hiatt's 1987 album Bring the Family. In 1990 he wrote a song, "Who Was That Man?" about a man who died in the King's Cross fire. In 1992, " Peace and Understanding" was covered by Curtis Stigers on the soundtrack album to The Bodyguard, an album that sold about 44 million copies worldwide. A New York Daily News article quoted Lowe as saying his greatest fear in recent years was "sticking with what you did when you were famous."
"I didn't want to become one of those thinning-haired, jowly old geezers who still does the same shtick they did when they were young and beautiful," he said. "That's revolting and rather tragic." Rock critic Jim Farber observed, "Lowe's recent albums, epitomised by the new At My Age, moved him out of the realms of ironic pop and animated rock and into the role of a worldly balladeer, specialising in grave vocals and graceful tunes. Lowe's four most recent solo albums mine the wealth of American roots music, drawing on vintage country, soul and R&B to create an elegant mix of his own." In 2008, Yep Roc and Proper Records released a thirtieth anniversary edition of Lowe's first solo album, Jesus of Cool (entitled Pure Pop for Now People in the US, with a diff