Tyburn was a village in the county of Middlesex close to the current location of Marble Arch and the southern end of Edgware Road in present-day London. It took its name from a tributary of the River Westbourne; the name Tyburn, from Teo Bourne means'boundary stream', but Tyburn Brook should not be confused with the better known River Tyburn, the next tributary of the River Thames to the east of the Westbourne. For many centuries, the name Tyburn was synonymous with capital punishment, it having been the principal place for execution of London criminals and convicted traitors, including many religious martyrs, it was known as'God's Tribunal', in the 18th century. The village was one of two manors of the parish of Marylebone, itself named after the stream, St Marylebone being a contraction of St Mary's church by the bourne. Tyburn was recorded in the Domesday Book and stood at the west end of what is now Oxford Street at the junction of two Roman roads; the predecessors of Oxford Street and Edgware Road were roads leading to the village joined by Park Lane.

In the 1230s and 1240s the village of Tyburn was held by Gilbert de Sandford, the son of John de Sandford, the chamberlain to Eleanor of Aquitaine. In 1236 the city of London contracted with Sir Gilbert to draw water from Tyburn Springs, which he held, to serve as the source of the first piped water supply for the city; the water was supplied in lead pipes that ran from where Bond Street Station stands today, one-half mile east of Hyde Park, down to the hamlet of Charing, along Fleet Street and over the Fleet Bridge, climbing Ludgate Hill to a public conduit at Cheapside. Water was supplied free to all comers. Tyburn had significance from ancient times and was marked by a monument known as Oswulf's Stone, which gave its name to the Ossulstone Hundred of Middlesex; the stone was covered over in 1851 when Marble Arch was moved to the area, but it was shortly afterwards unearthed and propped up against the Arch. It has not been seen since 1869. For much of its history, public executions took place at Tyburn, with prisoners processed from Newgate Prison in the City, via St Giles in the Fields and Oxford Street.

After the late 18th century, when public executions were no longer carried out at Tyburn, they were carried out at Newgate Prison itself and at Horsemonger Lane Gaol in Southwark. The first recorded execution took place at a site next to the stream in 1196. William Fitz Osbert, populist leader who played a major role in an 1196 popular revolt in London, was cornered in the church of St Mary-le-Bow, he was dragged naked behind a horse to Tyburn. In 1537, Henry VIII used Tyburn to execute the ringleaders of the Pilgrimage of Grace, including Sir Nicholas Tempest, one of the northern leaders of the Pilgrimage and the King's own Bowbearer of the Forest of Bowland. In 1571, the Tyburn Tree was erected at the junction of today's Edgware Road, Bayswater Road and Oxford Street, near where Marble Arch is situated; the "Tree" or "Triple Tree" was a novel form of gallows, consisting of a horizontal wooden triangle supported by three legs. Several felons could thus be hanged at once, so the gallows were used for mass executions, such as on 23 June 1649 when 24 prisoners—23 men and one woman—were hanged having been conveyed there in eight carts.

The Tree stood in the middle of the roadway, providing a major landmark in west London and presenting a obvious symbol of the law to travellers. After executions, the bodies would be buried nearby or in times removed for dissection by anatomists; the crowd would sometimes fight over a body with surgeons, for fear that dismemberment could prevent the resurrection of the body on Judgement Day. The first victim of the "Tyburn Tree" was John Story, a Roman Catholic, convicted and tried for treason. A plaque to the Catholic martyrs executed at Tyburn in the period 1535–1681 is located at 8 Hyde Park Place, the site of Tyburn convent. Among the more notable individuals suspended from the "Tree" in the following centuries were John Bradshaw, Henry Ireton and Oliver Cromwell, who were dead but were disinterred and hanged at Tyburn in January 1661 on the orders of the Cavalier Parliament in an act of posthumous revenge for their part in the beheading of King Charles I; the gallows seem to have been replaced several times because of wear, but in general, the entire structure stood all the time in Tyburn.

After some acts of vandalism, in October 1759 it was decided to replace the permanent structure with new moving gallows until the last execution in Tyburn carried out in November 1783. The executions were public spectacles and proved popular, attracting crowds of thousands; the enterprising villagers of Tyburn erected large spectator stands so that as many as possible could see the hangings. On one occasion, the stands collapsed killing and injuring hundreds of people; this did not prove a deterrent and the executions continued to be treated as public holidays, with London apprentices being given the day off for them. One such event was depicted by William Hogarth in his satirical print, The Idle'Prentice Executed at Tyburn. Tyburn was invoked in euphemisms for capital punishment—for instance, to "take a ride to Tyburn" was to go to one's hanging, "Lord of the Manor of Tyburn" was the public hangman, "dancing the Tyburn jig" was the act of being hanged, so on. Convicts would be transported to the site in an open ox-


Ruwido is an Austria-based broadcast electronics company that manufactures input devices for television, specialising in universal remote controls, set-top boxes, IPTV platforms and keyboards that use multi-touch navigation and infrared technology to operate digital television and digital media through a central user interface. It is known for developing a fingerprint recognition system to give users access to personalized TV content via the remote control. Ruwido is deployed in the broadcast TV industry. Customers include CE device manufacturers, IPTV, interactive TV, Pay TV service providers, such as Unitymedia, Orange Mobile, Vodafone and Virgin Media; the company was founded in 1969 in Salzburg, where it first entered the electronics market, launching its first infrared remote control in 1975. Ruwido continues to operate from its headquarters in Austria, where there are 190 Ruwido employees, of which 20 per cent work in research and development. On 5 July 2010, the Ruwido Tau remote control was awarded a Red Dot Design Award at the Aalto-Theater, Germany.

‘tau’ is due to be part of a 4-week special exhibition in the red dot design museum in Essen. On 4 May 2010, Ruwido supplied German cable operator Unitymedia with the remote control for its new HD box. On 23 March 2010, Ruwido was made technology partner to supply remote controls for UK cable operator Virgin Media's new HDTV set-top box: the V HD box; the agreement extended the 10-year relationship between Virgin Ruwido. Ruwido develops infrared products and solutions based on the findings of consumer research into the functionality required and how the new technology would impact and enhance user experience. Tau is based on the results of a set of ethnographic studies investigating consumer needs and behaviors; the Tau is the first remote control to be designed with an interaction concept. In July 2010, Ruwido launched a new design of the model, with the development of a capacitive sensor; the model provides navigation for services and applications, designed as a response to consumer ethnography.

The Tau remote control is an element used between the customer and a broadcast operating service, a tool used in pay-tv. The technology developed for Tau has been developed for set-top boxes; the Invitro is a remote control developed for IPTV operators. The device comprises multi-touch technology for navigation and interaction with a television set, or to activate IPTV. Official site

Philipp Gschwandtner

Philipp Gschwandtner is a former Austrian Grass skiing competitor. He started for the ski club Bad Tatzmannsdorf and belonged to the A-team of the Austrian Ski Federation. In 2009, he was the World Junior Champion in the giant slalom, his brother, Daniel, is a grass skier. Philipp Gschwandtner played his first international race in July 2004 at the World Junior Championships in his hometown of Rettenbach, he finished 16th place in the slalom and in combination, ranked 24th in the giant slalom and 38th in the super-G. After three FIS races, he started in late August for the first time in the World Cup, but still could not win World Cup points. In the 2005 season, he played in FIS races in which he, on 2 July, in the slalom events in Marbachegg was the first among the top ten, the World Junior Championships in Nové Mesto na Moravě, where he worked in all competitions under the fastest 30 and went as the best result achieved rank 21 in the combination. In the World Junior Championships 2006, he came in the 22nd Rank in the super-G.

In August and September of that year, he again took part in several World Cup races and received for the first time points. His best finish was 17th place in the slalom in saddle on 26 August, which he in the | was Grass Skiing World Cup 2006 Season 2006 ranked 31 in the standings. In the 2007 season Gschwandtner reached on August 26 with number ten in the second slalom of saddle his best World Cup result, the day before, he had occupied the twelfth. Still, he could improve in the standings from the previous year only and he was ranked 28th. In the World Junior Championships 2007, he went to ninth in the giant slalom and in the twelfth ranked 15th in super combined. In the Next Season Gschwandtner, in his FIS races ranked among the Top Ten in the World Cup, but only two go into the top 20, which he finished in 27th place overall, he achieved good results at the World Junior Championships 2008 in Rieden, Switzerland In the super-G, he went to coincide with the Czechs Lukáš Kolouch at number six and in the super-combined in seventh place.

In the slalom, he coincided with his brother in eighth place in eleventh. In the 2009 season, the Burgenland native, in the World Cup could increase his performance significantly, he came six times in the top 16. He enjoyed great success at the World Youth Championship 2009 in the Czech Republic Horní Lhota u Ostravy by winning the gold medal in giant slalom and the bronze medal in the super-G. In the slalom, he finished in sixth place. In September 2009, Gschwandtner was for the first time part of the general class at the World Cup. In his hometown Rettenbach, he was number 16 in the Super-G, number 19 in the giant slalom and 32nd in the super combined. In the slalom, he left in the first round. In the 2010 season, he started only in the FIS race in Rettenbach, at the same time as the Austrian Championships included; this was his only result of the tenth place in the Super-G, which earned him the bronze medal in the Austrian Championships. Rettenbach 2004: 16 Slalom, 16 Combination, 24 Giant Slalom, 38 Super-G Nové Mesto na Moravě 2005: 21 Combination, 25 Slalom, 26 Giant Slalom, 30 Super-G Horní Lhota 2006: 22 Super-G Nova Levante, 2007: 9 Slalom, 12 Giant Slalom, 15 Super Combined Rieden 2008: 6 Super-G, 7 Super Combined, 8th Slalom, 11 Giant Slalom Horní Lhota 2009: 1 Giant Slalom, 3rd Super-G, 6 Slalom Rettenbach 2009: 16 Super-G, 19 Giant Slalom, 32 Super Combined A rank in the top ten, ten times more best among the 20.

As of 2011, Gschwandtner is retired from professional Grass Skiing and now competes as an amateur bodybuilder. Template:FISDB results on ]