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Tydeus

In Greek mythology, Tydeus was an Aeolian hero of the generation before the Trojan War. He was one of the Seven Against Thebes, the father of Diomedes, known by the patronymic Tydides. Tydeus was either Periboea, Oeneus's second wife, or Gorge, Oeneus's daughter, he was the husband of the mother of Diomedes. Tydeus was banished from Calydon by his uncle Agrius, because he killed either his brother or a different uncle or six of his cousins, he travelled to Argos, where he married daughter of king Adrastus. While housing Tydeus, King Adrastus of Argos lodged Polynices, the exiled son of Oedipus who had shared the rule of Thebes with his brother Eteocles before he was expelled by the latter. Late one night, the two young exiles got into a fierce dispute over the guest room in Adrastus's palace. Awakened by the clamor, Adrastus rushed to the hall to find the two men locked in a brawl, it was that Adrastus recalled a prophecy that had instructed him to “yoke his daughters to a boar and a lion”. Adrastus recognized Tydeus as the boar and Polynices as the lion and wed his daughters to them, keeping them as his sons-in-law in Argos.

Through marriage into Adrastus's family and Tydeus became princes of Argos, had children, lived well. Adrastus promised that he would help restore their kingdoms to them ) and he orchestrated the construction of the seven armies that became known as Seven Against Thebes; the armies were raised from Argolis, the largest army that had appeared in Greece till that time. Shortly after the expedition arrived in Nemea, the young son of King Lycourgos was killed by a snake. In turn, Adrastus's men killed the serpent, buried the boy and held the first Nemean Games in his honor. Tydeus won the boxing event at these games; when the expedition reached Cithaeron, Tydeus was sent ahead to demand that the Thebans reinstate Polynices. Frustrated with being ignored by Eteocles, Tydeus issued one-on-one challenges to multiple men and vanquished each one with power granted to him by Athena. While Tydeus returned to his allies, the Thebans amassed a force of fifty men, led by Maeon and Polyphontes, ambushed him.

Tydeus killed every man with the exception of Maeon, whom he allowed to live due to signs from the gods. The 7th century poet Mimnermus attributes the murder of the sister of Antigone, to Tydeus. No other Classical writer mentions the story, but the scene is represented on a 6th-century Corinthian black-figure amphora now housed in the Louvre. Tydeus appears in Aeschylus's play Seven against Thebes, as one of the "Seven", in the same guise in Euripides' play The Phoenician Women, he was mortally wounded himself. In other versions of the myth, the detail is added that the goddess Athena had planned to make him immortal but refused after Tydeus in a hubristic fit devoured the brains of the defeated Melanippus. Tydeus is mentioned multiple times in the Iliad. One of the most notable mentions is in Book IV where Agamemnon reminds Diomedes of the deeds of his father Tydeus. Agamemnon recites. Aeschylus, Seven Against Thebes 377-394 Homer, Iliad 4.396–435, 5.853–861 Mimnermus, fr. 21 Pseudo-Apollodorus 1.8.5, 3.6.1–8

Sclerodactylidae

Sclerodactylidae is a family of sea cucumbers, marine invertebrates with elongated bodies, leathery skins and tentacles. Members of the family are characterised by the complex ring of ossicles they have near the anterior end; these may or may not take the form of a short tube but are quite unlike the long tubes found in the phyllophorids. The tentacles number ten to twenty; the World Register of Marine Species recognizes the following genera: genus Afrocucumis Deichmann, 1944 genus Apentamera Deichmann, 1941 genus Athyone Deichmann, 1941 genus Cladolabes Brandt, 1835 genus Clarkiella Heding in Heding & Panning, 1954 genus Coronatum Martins & Souto in Martins, Souto & Menegola, 2012 genus Deichmannia Cherbonnier, 1958 genus Engeliella Cherbonnier, 1968 genus Eupentacta Deichmann, 1938 genus Euthyonidiella Heding & Panning, 1954 genus Globosita Cherbonnier, 1958 genus Havelockia Pearson, 1903 genus Neopentamera Deichmann, 1941 genus Neothyone Deichmann, 1941 genus Ohshimella Heding & Panning, 1954 genus Pachythyone Deichmann, 1941 genus Pseudothyone Panning, 1949 genus Sclerodactyla Ayres, 1851 genus Sclerothyone Thandar, 1989 genus Temparena Thandar, 1989 genus Thandarum Martinez & Brogger, 2012 Sclerodactyla briareus

Lithuanian Liberty League

The Lithuanian Liberty League or LLL was a dissident organization in the Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic and a political party in independent Republic of Lithuania. Established as an underground resistance group in 1978, LLL was headed by Antanas Terleckas. Pro-independence LLL published organized protest rallies. While it enjoyed limited popularity in 1987–1989, it grew irrelevant after the independence declaration in 1990, it registered as a political party in November 1995 and participated in parliamentary elections without gaining any seats in the Seimas. On 23 August 1987, the 48th anniversary of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, LLL organized the first anti-Soviet rally, not forcibly dispersed by the police; the event tested the limits of glastnost and other liberal Soviet reforms and is cited as one of the first signs of the Lithuanian independence movement. The rally took place near St. Anne's Church and attracted some 500–1,000 participants. While the police monitored the event and KGB agents took pictures and video of the protesters, the speakers were not interrupted.

Demands raised at the event included publication of the Pact, rehabilitation of those deported into Siberia, greater rights to the Catholic Church. TASS, the official Soviet news agency, labeled the event as a "hate rally" and participants as "aggressive extremists." Other major rallies took place on February 16, 1988, the anniversary of the Act of Independence of Lithuania, on other sensitive dates from the history of Lithuania. On 28 September 1988, the League organized an unsanctioned rally to commemorate the German–Soviet Treaty of Friendship and Demarcation in the Cathedral Square, Vilnius. Activists of more moderate reform movement Sąjūdis distanced themselves from the event; the protesters were met by security forces from Minsk. The peaceful protest soon broke out into a 3-hour riot; the protesters threw bottles at the police, which responded by employing batons. Around 25 people were arrested; when the police left the scene, the peaceful protest continued for another hour and a half. In the early morning of September 29, policemen beat and arrested a group of dissidents on a hunger strike near Vilnius Cathedral.

The group, under leadership of Algimantas Andreika, protested the treatment of political prisoners. Outraged by such an unprovoked attack, LLL organized a follow-up rally the same day. Activists of Sąjūdis, including its leader Vytautas Landsbergis, not only participated in the rally but aggressively questioned the Soviet authorities how such an incident fit into the official program of glastnost and perestroika, it was the first time that Sąjūdis supported and advocated on behalf of LLL. The arrested people were released the same day. In the following weeks the activists called for the resignation of Ringaudas Songaila, the First Secretary of the Communist Party of Lithuania; the calls reached Moscow, which approved Songaila's replacement with Algirdas Brazauskas on October 19, 1988. Due to LLL's uncompromising agenda of full independence, the organization did not enjoy widespread support among the skeptic Lithuanian society. More prominent scientists and other activists joined Sąjūdis reform movement, which had more moderate agenda and was established with permission from the Soviet authorities.

The relationship between the two organizations was complex. While both organizations shared similar goals, LLL was more willing to confront and Sąjūdis preferred to compromise; the League was a "doer" while Sąjūdis was the "talker." Lithuanians abroad described Sąjūdis as "government approved" and LLL as "patriotic." At first Sąjūdis distanced itself from the dissident organization hoping not to tarnish its good reputation and respectable image. In the public opinion, dissidents were discredited, brought fear of arrest or other persecution, were seen as people without a future; the presence of LLL saved Sąjūdis from the "extremist" label. However, after a violent suppression of one of the LLL's rallies, both organizations grew closer together; when Sąjūdis opted for open membership, dissidents were free to join its ranks and in fact became its left wing. The League played an important role by marking all more sensitive dates from the history of Lithuania with protest rallies or declarations thus stirring up suppressed collective memory and revising official Soviet versions of the events.

It helped to radicalize the independence movement, hastening political reforms and declaration of independence. Notes References

South Central Rockies forests

The South Central Rockies forests is a temperate coniferous forest ecoregion of the United States located in Wyoming and Montana. It has a drier climate than the North Central Rockies forest; this ecoregion is located in western Wyoming, but in eastern and central Idaho, central Montana, northeastern Wyoming and southwestern South Dakota. It is centered on the Yellowstone Plateau, extending outward on connected mountain ranges, but the ecoregion includes the isolated Bighorn Mountains and Black Hills, as well as smaller isolated ranges in central Montana; the area has a dry continental climate, with long, cold winters. The ecoregion is predominantly coniferous forest, dominated by lodgepole pine due to recent major fires in the area. Other trees include Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir, subalpine fir and trembling aspen. Whitebark pine is an important species at the upper tree line/krummholz zone; this ecoregion contains mountain meadows, foothills grasslands, riparian woodlands, alpine tundra. In some areas, geothermal activity creates warm habitats with unique floral communities.

Mammals of this ecoregion include elk, mule deer, bighorn sheep, plains bison, Shiras moose, grizzly bear, northwestern wolf, black bear and Canada lynx, North American beaver, North American river otter, snowshoe hare. Birds are typical of the forested portions of the northern Rocky Mountains, including Steller's jay, black-capped chickadee, pine siskin; this ecoregion boasts a rich avifauna, including such specialists as white pelican, trumpeter swan, rosy finch. Other typical species include harlequin duck, Barrow's goldeneye, Swainson's hawk, bald eagle, sage grouse, sandhill crane, Franklin's gull, American dipper, Townsend's solitaire, yellow-rumped warbler, Brewer's sparrow. Herpetofauna typical of this ecoregion are the spotted frog, prairie rattlesnake, rubber boa, boreal toad, blotched tiger salamander. Though large portions of this ecoregion are protected, its conservation status is listed as "vulnerable". Indiscriminate logging of unprotected areas and the deaths of grizzly bears and wolves by ungulate hunters are the main threats to this ecoregion's integrity.

Protected areas include Yellowstone National Park in northwestern Wyoming, south-central Montana and eastern Idaho, Grand Teton National Park in western Wyoming, Cloud Peak Wilderness in north-central Wyoming, Black Elk Wilderness in southwestern South Dakota. Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem

Western Sahara War

The Western Sahara War was an armed struggle between the Sahrawi indigenous Polisario Front and Morocco between 1975 and 1991, being the most significant phase of the Western Sahara conflict. The conflict erupted after the withdrawal of Spain from the Spanish Sahara in accordance with the Madrid Accords, by which it transferred administrative control of the territory to Morocco and Mauritania, but not sovereignty. In late 1975, the Moroccan government organized the Green March of some 350,000 Moroccan citizens, escorted by around 20,000 troops, who entered Western Sahara, trying to establish a Moroccan presence. While at first met with just minor resistance by the POLISARIO, Morocco engaged a long period of guerrilla warfare with the Sahrawi nationalists. During the late 1970s, the Polisario Front, desiring to establish an independent state in the territory, attempted to fight both Mauritania and Morocco. In 1979, Mauritania withdrew from the conflict after signing a peace treaty with the POLISARIO.

The war continued in low intensity throughout the 1980s, though Morocco made several attempts to take the upper hand in 1989–1991. A cease-fire agreement was reached between the Polisario Front and Morocco in September 1991; some sources put the final death toll between 20,000 people. The conflict has since shifted from military to civilian resistance. A peace process, attempting to resolve the conflict has not yet produced any permanent solution to Sahrawi refugees and territorial agreement between Morocco and the Sahrawi Republic. Today most of the territory of Western Sahara is under Moroccan control, while the inland parts are governed by the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, managed by the Polisario Front. In 1884 Spain claimed a protectorate over the coast from Cape Bojador to Cap Blanc; the Spanish extended their area of control. In 1958 Spain joined the separate districts of Saguia el-Hamra and Río de Oro to form the province of Spanish Sahara. Raids and rebellions by the indigenous Saharan population kept the Spanish forces out of much of the territory for a long time.

Ma al-Aynayn, the Saharan caïd of Smara, started an uprising against the French in the 1910s, at a time when France had expanded its influence and control in North-West Africa, he died in the same year and his son El Hiba succeeded him. French forces defeated him when he tried to conquer Marrakesh, in retaliation damaged the holy city of Smara in 1913. Not until the second destruction of Smara in 1934, by joint Spanish and French forces, did the territory become subdued. Another uprising in 1956 – 1958, initiated by the Moroccan Army of Liberation, led to heavy fighting, but the Spanish forces regained control, again with French aid. However, unrest simmered, in 1967 the Harakat Tahrir arose to challenge Spanish rule peacefully. After the events of the Zemla Intifada in 1970, when Spanish police destroyed the organization and "disappeared" its founder, Muhammad Bassiri, Sahrawi nationalism again took a militant turn. In 1971 a group of young Sahrawi students began organizing what came to be known as The Embryonic Movement for the Liberation of Saguia el-Hamra and Rio de Oro.

After attempting in vain to gain backing from several Arab governments, including both Algeria and Morocco, but only drawing faint notices of support from Libya and Mauritania, the movement relocated to Spanish-controlled Western Sahara to start an armed rebellion. The Polisario Front was formally constituted on 10 May 1973 in the Mauritanian city of Zouirate, with the express intention of militarily forcing an end to Spanish colonization, its first Secretary General was El-Ouali Mustapha Sayed. On 20 May he led the Khanga raid, Polisario's first armed action, in which a Spanish post manned by a team of Tropas Nomadas was overrun and rifles seized. Polisario gradually gained control over large swaths of desert countryside, its power grew from early 1975 when the Tropas Nomadas began deserting to the Polisario, bringing weapons and training with them. At this point, Polisario's manpower included 800 men, but they were backed by a larger network of supporters. A UN visiting mission headed by Simeon Aké, conducted in June 1975 concluded that Sahrawi support for independence amounted to an "overwhelming consensus" and that the Polisario Front was by far the most powerful political force in the country.

While Spain started negotiating a handover of power in the summer of 1975, it ceded the administrative control of the territory to Mauritania and Morocco only after signing the Madrid Accords. However, on 31 October 1975, Moroccan troops crossed into the territory from the north-east, advancing towards Mahbes and Farciya. Moroccan government organized the Green March of some 350,000 Moroccan citizens, escorted by around 20,000 troops, who entered Western Sahara, trying to establish Moroccan presence. While, at first meeting just minor resistance by the Polisario, Morocco had engaged in a long guerrilla warfare with the Sahrawi nationalists. During the late 1970s, After Moroccan pressure through the Green March of 6 November, Spain entered negotiations that led to the signing of the Madrid Accords by which it ceded unilaterally the administrative control of the territory to Mauritania and Morocco on November 14, 1975; the United Nations did not recognize the accord, considering Spain as the administrative power of the territory.

In the fall of 1975, as a result of the Moroccan advance, tens of thousands of Sahrawis fled Morocco-controlled cities into

Christopher Nugent (Medal of Honor)

Christopher Nugent was an orderly sergeant serving in the United States Marine Corps who received the United States military's highest decoration for bravery, the Medal of Honor, for his actions during the American Civil War. Nugent was born in Ireland and after immigrating to the United States, joined the United States Marine Corps, he served on several vessels including the USS Fort Henry where he saw action during the American Civil War. It was while assigned to the Fort Henry that he became the third Marine to receive the Medal of Honor, for his actions, while in charge of a reconnoitering party in Florida, that forced an enemy group to retreat into a swamp. In addition to eliminating the enemy fortification they captured weapons and destroyed equipment so it could no longer be used by the enemy. Nugent was born in 1838 in County Cavan and entered the Marine Corps from Charleston, Massachusetts on February 8, 1858. Nugent served on several different ships until he was assigned to the marine detachment aboard the steamer USS Fort Henry as an orderly sergeant.

On June 15, 1863, while serving aboard Fort Henry, Sergeant Nugent was placed in charge of a small group and sent to reconnoiter an area along the Crystal River in Florida. When they were six miles up the river they discovered. Nugent with the other four assaulted the enemy fortification. A woman was among the enemy force so he ordered his men not to fire so that she would not be injured. Although they withheld their fire they were able to drive the enemy force from their fortification, forcing them to seek safety in the swamp; the rebel officer took. When the enemy was pushed from their fortification and forced to retreat into the swamp for safety they left weapons and equipment and documents behind that Nugent and his Marines were able to capture. Nugent's party took the weapons and items they needed and destroyed the rest so they couldn't be used again by the enemy before returning to their vessel. On July 30, 1863, Nugent was involved in another incident off Depot Key, when he and other members of the ship's crew captured a boat containing 2 men and a woman with their baggage.

They were Unionists trying to escape from the locals. For these incidents he was recommended for the United States highest decoration for bravery, the Medal of Honor, his medal was approved along with several others in General Order # 32 dated April 16, 1864 making him the third Marine in history to receive it. His complete citation reads: Serving on board the U. S. S. Fort Henry, Crystal River, Fla. 15 June 1863. Reconnoitering on the Crystal River on this date and in charge of a boat from the Fort Henry, Orderly Sgt. Nugent ordered an assault upon a rebel breastwork fortification. In this assault, the orderly sergeant and his comrades drove a guard of 11 rebels into the swamp, capturing their arms and destroying their camp equipage while gallantly withholding fire to prevent harm to a woman among the fugitives. On 30 July 1863, he further proved his courage by capturing a boat off Depot Key, Fla. containing 2 men and a woman with their baggage. Nugent was discharged from the Marine Corps on 9 October 1865, but the Department of the Navy did not issue a discharge certificate until 25 July 1901, 3 years after his death.

He is buried at Saint Raymond Cemetery in Bronx, New York. His grave can be found in the section 6, range 27, grave 39. List of American Civil War Medal of Honor recipients: M–P "Christopher Nugent". Hall of Valor. Military Times. Retrieved August 12, 2010. Robert Niepert. "Florida Reenactors Online news magazine". Retrieved August 12, 2010