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Tydings–McDuffie Act

The Tydings–McDuffie Act the Philippine Independence Act, is a United States federal law that established the process for the Philippines an American colony, to become an independent country after a ten-year transition period. Under the act, the 1935 Constitution of the Philippines was written and the Commonwealth of the Philippines was established, with the first directly elected President of the Philippines, it established limitations on Filipino immigration to the United States. The act was authored in the 73rd United States Congress by Senator Millard E. Tydings of Maryland and Representative John McDuffie of Alabama, signed into law by President Franklin D. Roosevelt; the Tydings–McDuffie Act specified a procedural framework for the drafting of a constitution for the government of the Commonwealth of the Philippines within two years of its enactment. The act specified a number of mandatory constitutional provisions, required approval of the constitution by the U. S. President and by Filipinos.

The act mandated U. S. recognition of independence of the Philippine Islands as a separate and self-governing nation after a ten-year transition period. Prior to independence, the act allowed the U. S to maintain military forces in the Philippines and to call all military forces of the Philippine government into U. S. military service. The act empowered the U. S. President, within two years following independence, to negotiate matters relating to U. S. naval reservations and fueling stations of in the Philippine Islands. The act reclassified all Filipinos, including those who were living in the United States, as aliens for the purposes of immigration to America. A quota of 50 immigrants per year was established. Before this act, Filipinos were classified as United States nationals, but not United States citizens, while they were allowed to migrate freely, they were denied naturalization rights within the US, unless they were citizens by birth in the mainland US. In 1934, Manuel L. Quezon, the President of the Senate of the Philippines, headed a "Philippine Independence mission" to Washington, D.

C. It lobbied Congress and secured the act's passage. In 1935, under the provisions of the act, the 1935 Constitution of the Philippines was drafted and became law, establishing the Commonwealth of the Philippines with an elected executive, the President of the Philippines. In accordance with the act, President Harry S. Truman issued Proclamation 2695 of July 4, 1946 recognizing the independence of the Philippines; the immigration quota under the act was low, immigration continued at levels much higher than the legal quota. This was due to the strength of agricultural lobbies, such as the Hawaiian sugar planters, which were able to lobby the federal government to allow more male Filipino agricultural workers provided that they demonstrated a need; this further increased the Filipino population in Hawaii which had at one point been 25% of agricultural workers on the islands. The act led to the Filipino Repatriation Act of 1935; this act extended the Asian-exclusion policy of the Immigration Act of 1924 to the soon-to-be-former territory.

This policy hampered the domestic lives of many Filipinos within the US because any Filipino who wished to go to the Philippines and return to the United States would be subject to the restrictions on Asian immigration to America and would never be allowed to return. In 1946, the US decreased the tight restrictions of the Tydings–McDuffie Act with the Luce–Celler Act of 1946, which increased the quota of Filipino immigrants to 100 per year and gave Filipinos the right to become naturalized American citizens. Filipinos would have been barred from immigrating to the U. S. without the Act. Two days on July 4, 1946, the Philippines became independent with the signing of the Treaty of Manila. History of the Philippines Philippine Organic Act Hare–Hawes–Cutting Act Text of the Tydings–McDuffie Act

John Mayer (composer)

John Mayer was an Indian composer known for his fusions of jazz with Indian music in the British-based group Indo-Jazz Fusions with the Jamaican-born saxophonist Joe Harriott.. Mayer was born in Calcutta, British India, to an Anglo-Indian father and Tamil mother, after studying with Phillipe Sandre in Calcutta and Melhi Mehta in Bombay, he won a scholarship to London's Royal Academy of Music in 1952, where he studied comparative music and religion in eastern and western cultures, he worked as a violinist with the London Philharmonic Orchestra and with the Royal Philharmonic Orchestra, but was composing fusions of Hindustani classical and Western classical forms fused with jazz undertones from 1952 onwards. His Violin Sonata was performed by Yehudi Menuhin in 1955. In the 1960s he worked extensively with the Jamaican-born jazz musician Joe Harriott, with whom he formed the group Indo-Jazz Fusions, a ten-piece featuring a jazz quintet and five Indian musicians; the new incarnation of the band, called John Mayer's Indo Jazz Fusions, was revived in the 1990s by his students Richard Dray, Will Joss, Simon Gray led by Mayer himself, continued to play live gigs—featuring his son Jonathan Mayer on sitar—until John's death.

The Joe Harriott-John Mayer Double Quintet composed the distinctive theme tune, "Acka Raga", for the early episodes of the BBC quiz show Ask the Family, broadcast between 1967 and 1984. The theme featured Mayer on sitar. From 1989 onwards, who lived in north London, taught composition at Birmingham Conservatoire where he introduced the BMus Indian music course in 1997. In March 2004, Mayer was fatally injured, he was 74. John Mayer page Guardian obituary John Mayer | All Music JohnMayerComposer.co.uk

History of R.S.C. Anderlecht

The history of R. S. C. Anderlecht started with the foundation of the association football club Sporting Club Anderlechtois on 27 May 1908 by a dozen of football lovers gathered by Charles Roos at the Concordia café. Charles Roos was named as the club's first chairman. SC Anderlechtois won their first game 11–8 against Institut Saint-Georges; the ground of the club was located near a cemetery in the current Rue du serment/Eedstraat, in the Scheut neighbourhood, about 800 metres away from the present stadium. As they were winning most of their matches, club secretary Michel Hames decided to join the official competitions in 1909, they began at the third level of provincial football and at the end of the season, they had qualified to play in the higher division, finishing third behind the C teams of U Saint-Gilloise and Uccle Sport. In 1911, Théo Verbeeck a forward at the club, became the club's second chairman at the age of 23. In 1913, Anderlecht reached the national level of football, gaining promotion to the Promotion the second level of football in Belgium.

They ended the following season in fourth place. Because of World War I, the championship was stopped until 1919. With the popularity of the team increasing, however, it was decided in 1917 that Anderlecht would move to the Astrid Park in a new stadium, they baptized the stadium Stade Emile Versé in honour of the club's first major patron, the industrialist Emile Versé. In 1919 -- 20, Anderlecht finished third. For the following season, Sylva Brébart was appointed at the head of the team, becoming the first manager of the club, Anderlecht finished together with FC Liégeois in third place once again. However, this time, the Royal Belgian Football Association had decided to let two more clubs play in the first division, which meant that the top three clubs in the Promotion would be promoted. FC Liégeois and SC Anderlechtois thus played a play-off game for promotion at the Daring Stadium in Molenbeek-Saint-Jean, which ended in a 1–1 draw; the replay was played in Tilleur and won by SC Anderlechtois with a decisive goal by midfielder Maurice Versé.

Ferdinand Adams was one of the major contributors to this success, as he scored 30 goals in the championship in his second season with the club. The first season at the top level for Anderlecht was tough, it was striker Henri Thaels who scored the club's first goal in the first division, on 4 September 1921 in a game against FC Brugeois. In August 1922, Sylva Brébart was replaced by the Belgium national team's former manager Charles Bunyan, Sr.. Ten days after the contract was signed, the new manager died and was replaced by his own son, Cyrille Bunyan. With only 15 points from 26 matches at the end of the 1922–23 season, Anderlecht was unable to secure their status in the first division, they won the second division in the following season and finished ninth in the first division in 1924–25, but were relegated again in 1926. In total, they were relegated four times in ten years to the second division, earning themselves the mockery of local rival clubs Union Saint-Gilloise and Daring de Bruxelles.

Anderlecht achieved their best league position up to that point in 1929–30, when they reached the fifth spot in the top division. Twenty-five years after their formation, in 1933, the club changed their name to Royal Sporting Club Anderlechtois. During the 1934–35 season, the club was trained by Charles Gillis, but the team was composed by manager Claude Leclercq. After a bad start, Claude Leclercq was sacked and the team was composed by a committee up to the end of the season; this was a success, with Anderlecht winning one of the two tiers of the second division and promoting to the first division again, where they have remained since. Anderlecht reached fifth place in the first division again in 1938–39; the championship was suspended due to World War II for two seasons. When it resumed in 1941–42, they finished sixth. At the end of this season, Anderlecht signed striker Jef Mermans from K Tubantia FC for 125,000 Belgian francs, a record fee in Belgium at that time. With the help of their striker, soon nicknamed "The Bomber", Anderlecht won their first league title in 1946–47 after having finished second in 1943–44 and third in 1945–46.

Their success increased in the following years as they won six more titles between 1948–49 and 1955–56, winning three consecutive titles twice. After the 1949–50 season and the club's third league title, Bill Gormlie was appointed as a manager to replace Ernest Churchill Smith. Gormlie would become the longest-serving manager of the club, working at the head of the first team for nine seasons and 294 matches, he would become the manager with the most championship titles for Anderlecht, with five wins. In the summer of 1952, Anderlecht celebrated the 40th years of Théo Verbeeck as chairman of the club and the club's fourth title, the municipality changed the name of the stadium's street to Avenue Théo Verbeeck/Théo Verbeecklaan in his honour. A couple of weeks however, on 2 August, he died, he was replaced by Albert Roosens, at the club since 1943 as a joint secretary. Their 1954–55 title earned them the right to represent Belgium in the first European competition, the 1955–56 European Cup. Anderlecht lost both legs of the

Arthur Gerald Knight

Captain Arthur Gerald Knight was a British World War I flying ace credited with eight aerial victories. He was under attack by Erwin Böhme when they collided, causing Boelcke's death. Two months Knight would fall under the guns of Manfred von Richthofen, in the dogfight when Boelcke was killed. Arthur Gerald Knight was the son of Isabella Jael Knight; the younger Knight was a student of Applied Science at Upper Canada College when he joined the Royal Flying Corps in 1915. Knight was assigned to the command of Major Lanoe Hawker, he began his victory string on 22 June 1916, using an Airco DH.2 of No. 24 Squadron RFC to destroy an LVG C model reconnaissance aircraft over Courcelette. His next two wins were of the "driven down out of control" variety, but for his fourth triumph on 14 September he helped Stanley Cockerell flame a Fokker fighter; the following day, he singlehandedly flamed another German fighter. II down out of control. On 9 November 1916, he shared the destruction of an enemy fighter with Alfred Edwin McKay and Eric Pashley.

Knight's Military Cross was awarded five days later. On 28 October, Knight was under attack by Boelcke and Böhme when McKay, pursued by Richthofen, cut across between Knight and his assailants. In the resultant dodges and swerves, Böhme's plane's landing gear wheels damaged Boelcke's upper wing, Boelcke fell to his death. Knight transferred to No. 29 Squadron RFC as the flight commander, B Flight, still flying a DH.2. On 11 December 1916, he was awarded the Distinguished Service Order, he scored his eighth victory five days downing an enemy fighter northeast of Arras, continuing his assault on a second despite a broken machine gun extractor. Four days he led his final patrol before ten days' leave, he did not return. His patrol of four made it back, but badly battered by combat. Knight had become the Red Baron's thirteenth victim; the only known description of Knight's end comes from the victor's combat report: "... I attacked him at closest range.... I saw that I had hit the enemy. First he went down in curves he crashed to the ground.

I pursued him until 100 metres above the ground." Military Cross Second Lieutenant Arthur Gerald Knight, Royal Flying Corps, Special Reserve. "For conspicuous skill and gallantry. He has shown great pluck in fights with enemy machines, has accounted for several. On one occasion, when a hostile machine was interfering with a reconnaissance, he attacked at close range, brought down the enemy machine in flames. Distinguished Service Order Second Lieutenant Arthur Gerald Knight, MC, Royal Flying Corps. "For conspicuous gallantry in action. He led four machines against 18 hostile machines. Choosing a good moment for attack he dispersed the remainder, he has shown the utmost dash and judgment as a leader of offensive patrols." Citations BibliographyGuttman, Jon & Dempsey, Harry. Pusher Aces of World War I. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-84603-417-6. Shores, Christopher F.. Above the Trenches: a Complete Record of the Fighter Aces and Units of the British Empire Air Forces 1915–1920. London, UK: Grub Street. ISBN 978-0-948817-19-9

J. Arthur Ross

James Arthur Ross was a Manitoba politician. He served in the House of Commons of Canada for thirteen years, was a candidate for the leadership of the Progressive Conservative Party of Manitoba in 1953. Ross was born in Lyleton, the son of John Alexander Ross and Jessie Mary Sellar, was educated in Melita and at the Manitoba Agricultural College, he enlisted as a soldier in World War I, served in France, was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. After the war, he served as reeve of Arthur municipality for twelve years, he was an active Freemason. In 1930, Ross married Hilda Morrison. Ross ran as a candidate of the Manitoba Conservative Party in the southwestern riding of Arthur for the provincial elections of 1927, 1932 and 1936, he was defeated on all three occasions by candidates of the governing Progressive Party. In 1940, Ross was elected to the House of Commons of Canada for the riding of Souris, narrowly defeating Liberal candidate George William McDonald, he was re-elected by a wider margin in 1945, once again by a narrow margin in 1949.

He remained an MP until 1953, serving for the entire time in the opposition Progressive Conservative caucus. Ross retired from federal politics in 1953. Ross returned to provincial politics for the 1953 provincial election, was elected for Arthur on his fourth attempt, he defeated John R. Pitt, his opponent in 1936; the Manitoba Progressive Conservatives were in a state of transformation during the early 1950s. From 1940 to 1950, they had been part of a coalition government with the Liberal-Progressives; this coalition ended soon after Douglas Campbell became premier in 1948, the Progressive Conservatives were struggling to re-define themselves as the "government in waiting". The Conservatives had been led since 1936 by Errick Willis, a figure from the party's rural base, a prominent cabinet minister in the coalition years. Willis had been an ineffective campaigner in the 1953 election, many Conservatives believed that new leadership would be needed for an electoral breakthrough. In October 1953, Willis bowed to internal pressure and called a leadership convention for the following year.

Willis announced. Ross was unskilled at province-wide campaigning, was unable to develop an organization comparable with those of Willis and Roblin, he was damaged by reports that he and other MLAs were preparing to start a new party if Willis was re-elected. Ross finished third with 55 votes. Most of his supporters went to Roblin. Ross died in Melita just before the election of 1958

Canfield's Diet Chocolate Fudge

Canfield's Diet Chocolate Fudge soda is a zero-calorie, aspartame-sweetened carbonated soft drink canned and distributed by the A. J. Canfield Company of Elgin, Illinois, USA, a division of Select Beverages. Production for the midwestern United States is handled by the American Bottling Company, a subsidiary of Keurig Dr Pepper and distribution by Kehe Foods of Chicago; the beverage was introduced in 1972 by 32-year-old Alan B. Canfield, senior vice president of Elgin, Illinois-based A. J. Canfield Beverages, a company founded by his grandfather. Canfield was a regular dieter and chocolate lover, got the idea the year before and brought a two-pound box of fudge to Manny Wesber, the company's chief chemist. Wesber succeeded in creating a saccharin-sweetened chemically-created concoction artificially flavored; the drink sold moderately well among Canfield's other brands, with sales remaining steady over the next 13 years. Canfield's Diet Chocolate Fudge by this time sweetened with aspartame; when Chicago Tribune reporter Bob Greene reviewed the product and described it as tasting "like a calorie-free hot fudge sundae," sales went from lukewarm to successful in the soft drink market overnight.

By 1985, regional bottlers across the United States were seeking franchise rights. With these rights in place, more than 200 million cans of Canfield's Diet Chocolate Fudge soda were sold in 1985; as competition from other makers increased, Canfield's grew protective of their "Chocolate Fudge" moniker, going so far as to sue rival maker Vess Beverages over their use of the name, "Vess Diet Chocolate Fudge." A federal district court judge ruled in favor of Canfield and issued a preliminary injunction disallowing the use of the word "fudge" on their packaging. Though the injunction was overturned, the case, known as Canfield v. Honickman, continues to be used as an example during the study of trademark product law. Spinoffs proved less successful. 1987 saw the introduction of "Diet Cherry Chocolate Fudge" and "Diet Peanut Chocolate Fudge," both of which are still sold today in limited numbers. In 1995, the A. J. Canfield Company was sold to Select Beverages for an undisclosed sum; the company's plant in Elgin, operating since the 1930s, closed the following year.

Production of the Diet Chocolate Fudge drinks were moved to another plant. Diet food List of chocolate drinks