South Tyneside is a metropolitan borough in Tyne and Wear in North East England. It is bordered by three other boroughs - Gateshead to the west, Sunderland in the south and North Tyneside to the north; the border county of Northumberland lies further north. The borough was formed on 1 April 1974 by the merger of the County Borough of South Shields along with the municipal borough of Jarrow and the urban districts of Boldon and Hebburn from County Durham. South Tyneside forms part of the Tyneside conurbation, the sixth largest in the United Kingdom, with a geographical area of 64.43 km2 and an estimated population of 153,700, measured at the 2011 Census as 148,127. It is bordered to the north by the River Tyne. A Green Belt of 23.64 km2 is at its southern boundary. The main administrative centre and largest town is South Shields. Other riverside towns are Jarrow and Hebburn, while the villages of Cleadon and The Boldons border the South Tyneside green belt, with Wearside to the south at Sunderland.
South Tyneside is represented by two Members of Parliament with two constituencies: South Shields and Jarrow. Mr. Martin Swales has been Chief Executive at South Tyneside Council since December 3, 2009. Mr. Swales served as Strategic Director of Development at North Tyneside Council. Celts, Angles, Jutes, the early 20th century arrival of the Arabs and more the settling of people from the Commonwealth, notably the Indian sub-continent, the European Union reflect the present-day culture of South Tyneside. In South Shields, excavations and a reconstructed fort are found at Arbeia; this fort served as a garrison and an outpost of the Roman Empire, is part of Hadrian's Wall World Heritage Site. The hospitality strip at Ocean Road is famed throughout the region for its Indian, Middle Eastern and Chinese cuisine. Mill Dam, with former Customs House, cobbled lanes and Mission to Seafarers centre, stands tribute to the long and proud history of shipping in the town and the river Tyne. Bede's World in Jarrow is dedicated to the life of the Venerable Bede, the'Father of English History'.
The nominated World Heritage Site is straddled by two rivers - the Don. There is a medieval monastery, an Anglo-Saxon farm with rare breed animals and buildings constructed in original materials from that period, the Georgian Jarrow Hall; the Jarrow Crusade of 1936 was a key event in the town's history and the original banner carried by the marchers to London can be viewed at Jarrow Town Hall. There has been a sizeable Arab community in South Shields since the 1890s; this is one hypothesised explanation of the term "Sandancer" for people born and brought up in South Shields. South Tyneside Council is formed of 54 members. Following the 2018 local elections this consists of fifty-three Labour councillors and one Conservative. Shipbuilding and repairing, coal mining and exports, the chemical industries declined from the latter half of the 20th Century, resulting in mass unemployment. In more recent years, this trend has reversed and South Tyneside attracts new industries, most notably in the service sector.
There is still a considerable manufacturing base of ship-repair and offshore services, electronics, furniture, paper products and small precision engineering. At one time, Tyneside built 25% of the world's ships. South Tyneside College attracts students from around the world. Tourism is an important and growing industry. South Shields town centre and riverside are undergoing significant regeneration, with new housing, business and leisure uses replacing old industrial sites; the town centre offers high street shopping, a regular market by the Grade I listed old town hall, a new library and exhibition space called The Word, the head post office, museum & art gallery, a new bus/Metro interchange due to open in 2019, cross-river pedestrian ferry to North Shields, Harton Quays office development and promenade, the town hall and civic offices. The Customs House is located within the historic Mill Dam conservation area and hosts a theatre, art gallery and restaurant. Arbeia formed the easternmost extremity of the Roman Empire at Hadrian's Wall and is located at the mouth of the River Tyne on the North Sea coast.
Excavations, a reconstructed fort and museum are open to the public on the historic Lawe Top site. The foreshore boasts a quality seaside experience, with the local landmarks of the Groyne lighthouse and mile-long South Pier to the north, Marsden Rock and Souter Lighthouse to the south. There are award-winning sandy beaches at Littlehaven and Marsden Bay. In summer there is a free festival, including a
Heworth Interchange serves the Heworth area of Gateshead, England. There is a station here on the Yellow and the Green Lines of the Tyne and Wear Metro as well as one on the Carlisle to Middlesbrough rail line operated by Northern. Heworth opened in 1981 as the terminus of the Wear Metro. In 1984, the line extended eastwards to South Shields; the railway station had opened on 5 November 1979, with the closure of Felling and Pelaw railway stations. Prior to that, BR passenger trains had run on the southern pair of tracks, now used by Metro services, for a short period they ran through the completed Metro platforms. For much of the time Heworth was a Metro terminus, trains reversed in the platforms, using the crossovers west of the station in passenger service. Reversals took place at the new sidings at Pelaw once they had been completed. Above the four platforms there is a bus station; the services that operate there are operated by Go North East. This interchange provides connections from the Tyne and Wear Metro to South Tyneside and Washington as well as other areas of Gateshead.
The National Rail side of the station is unstaffed and the Nexus Travel Shop closed in 2014. Other facilities available include an newsagents and public telephone. Train running information is offered via timetable posters, digital CIS displays and automated announcements. Step-free access to both Metro and heavy rail platforms is available via ramps. There are one for short-stay and one long-stay. Both sites are on Nexus land and are operated by Gateshead Council Northern run hourly services westbound to Newcastle and eastbound to Middlesbrough via Sunderland and Hartlepool. Most westbound trains continue through to MetroCentre and Hexham, with a few running all the way to Carlisle; the majority of eastbound trains are extended to Nunthorpe. On Sundays, there is an hourly service between Middlesbrough & MetroCentre, plus three through trains to/from Whitby. Northern services serving this station are used by British Rail Class Class 156 trains. From 2019, Northern will withdraw British Rail Class 142 trains, replacing them with refurbished Class 158 trains.
Heworth is served by both Yellow line and Green Line routes - each run every 12 minutes during the daytime and 15 minutes in the evenings and all day Sunday, with extra trains running at peak times between Pelaw and Regent Centre/Monkseaton. Train times and station information for Heworth Interchange from National Rail
Tyne Dock is a neighbourhood within the town of South Shields, North East England, on the south bank of the River Tyne. It takes its name from the large dock on the river, opened in 1859 by the North Eastern Railway to handle Tyneside's coal exports. At its height the trade amounted to 7 million tons of coal transported via the four staiths, built to facilitate the process; this trade declined in the second half of the twentieth century and the bridges that carried the coal trains into the dock, the famous Tyne Dock Arches, were demolished in the early 1980s. The dock itself has been progressively infilled since closure, allowing for the building of modern storage warehouses; this process concluded with the final 13 acres that were filled in as part of the project to build the second Tyne Tunnel. The Tyne Dock basin was filled with 400,000 cubic metres of sediment dredged from the Tyne. Tyne Dock Metro station, on the Tyne and Wear Metro, serves the Tyne Dock area, as well as neighbouring West Harton.
Meredith, John H.. "Coals to Newcastle again". Rail Enthusiast. EMAP National Publications. Pp. 12–13. ISSN 0262-561X. OCLC 49957965
World Geodetic System
The World Geodetic System is a standard for use in cartography and satellite navigation including GPS. This standard includes the definition of the coordinate system's fundamental and derived constants, the ellipsoidal Earth Gravitational Model, a description of the associated World Magnetic Model, a current list of local datum transformations; the latest revision is WGS 84, established in 1984 and last revised in 2004. Earlier schemes included WGS 72, WGS 66, WGS 60. WGS 84 is the reference coordinate system used by the Global Positioning System; the coordinate origin of WGS 84 is meant to be located at the Earth's center of mass. The WGS 84 meridian of zero longitude is the IERS Reference Meridian, 5.3 arc seconds or 102 metres east of the Greenwich meridian at the latitude of the Royal Observatory. The WGS 84 datum surface is an oblate spheroid with equatorial radius a = 6378137 m at the equator and flattening f = 1/298.257223563. The polar semi-minor axis b equals a × = 6356752.3142 m. WGS 84 uses the Earth Gravitational Model 2008.
This geoid defines the nominal sea level surface by means of a spherical harmonics series of degree 360. The deviations of the EGM96 geoid from the WGS 84 reference ellipsoid range from about −105 m to about +85 m. EGM96 differs from the original WGS 84 geoid, referred to as EGM84. WGS 84 uses the World Magnetic Model 2015v2; the new version of WMM 2015 became necessary due to extraordinarily large and erratic movements of the north magnetic pole. The next regular update will occur in late 2019. Efforts to supplement the various national surveying systems began in the 19th century with F. R. Helmert's famous book Mathematische und Physikalische Theorien der Physikalischen Geodäsie. Austria and Germany founded the Zentralbüro für die Internationale Erdmessung, a series of global ellipsoids of the Earth were derived. A unified geodetic system for the whole world became essential in the 1950s for several reasons: International space science and the beginning of astronautics; the lack of inter-continental geodetic information.
The inability of the large geodetic systems, such as European Datum, North American Datum, Tokyo Datum, to provide a worldwide geo-data basis Need for global maps for navigation and geography. Western Cold War preparedness necessitated a standardised, NATO-wide geospatial reference system, in accordance with the NATO Standardisation AgreementIn the late 1950s, the United States Department of Defense, together with scientists of other institutions and countries, began to develop the needed world system to which geodetic data could be referred and compatibility established between the coordinates of separated sites of interest. Efforts of the U. S. Army and Air Force were combined leading to the DoD World Geodetic System 1960; the term datum as used here refers to a smooth surface somewhat arbitrarily defined as zero elevation, consistent with a set of surveyor's measures of distances between various stations, differences in elevation, all reduced to a grid of latitudes and elevations. Heritage surveying methods found elevation differences from a local horizontal determined by the spirit level, plumb line, or an equivalent device that depends on the local gravity field.
As a result, the elevations in the data are referenced to the geoid, a surface, not found using satellite geodesy. The latter observational method is more suitable for global mapping. Therefore, a motivation, a substantial problem in the WGS and similar work is to patch together data that were not only made separately, for different regions, but to re-reference the elevations to an ellipsoid model rather than to the geoid. In accomplishing WGS 60, a combination of available surface gravity data, astro-geodetic data and results from HIRAN and Canadian SHORAN surveys were used to define a best-fitting ellipsoid and an earth-centered orientation for each of selected datum; the sole contribution of satellite data to the development of WGS 60 was a value for the ellipsoid flattening, obtained from the nodal motion of a satellite. Prior to WGS 60, the U. S. Army and U. S. Air Force had each developed a world system by using different approaches to the gravimetric datum orientation method. To determine their gravimetric orientation parameters, the Air Force used the mean of the differences between the gravimetric and astro-geodetic deflections and geoid heights at selected stations in the areas of the major datums.
The Army performed an adjustment to minimize the difference between astro-geodetic and gravimetric geoids. By matching the relative astro-geodetic geoids of the selected datums with an earth-centered gravimetric geoid, the selected datums were reduced to an earth-centered orientation. Since the Army and Air Force systems agreed remarkably well for the NAD, ED and TD areas, they were consolidated and became WGS 60. Improvements to the global system included the Astrogeoid of Irene Fischer and the astronautic Mercury datum. In January 1966, a World Geodetic System Committee composed of representatives from the United States Army and Air Force was charged with developing an improved WGS, needed to satisfy mapping and geodetic requirements. Additional surface gravity observa
St James Metro station
St James Metro station is a station on the Tyne and Wear Metro, in the west end of the centre of Newcastle upon Tyne, England. The station is situated next to St James' Park, the stadium of Newcastle United F. C.. The station, which opened in 1982, is one of two terminals of the Yellow line of the Metro system; the interior of the station is distinct, as the walls are decked out in black and white stripes and depicts Newcastle United players and managers past and present. However, when it was first opened, it was finished in the same colours as the other underground stations on the system, it has two platforms. In 2008-9, the station was used by around 246,000 passengers. Train times and station information for St James Metro station from Nexus
Simonside Metro station
Simonside Metro station is the name of a Tyne and Wear Metro station in South Tyneside, which opened on 17 March 2008. Costing £3 million, it is the 60th station on the network; the decision to construct a new Metro station here was not universally welcomed by all local residents, with some worried it would lead to an increase in both crime and local road traffic. Train times and station information for Simonside Metro station from Nexus Nexus webpage on the new station includes an artist's impression Nexus press release announcing the start of construction work
South Shields Metro station
South Shields Metro station is the main Tyne and Wear Metro station for South Shields, England. In 2008-9 the station was used by over 1 million passengers; the station is located on a bridge above King Street, the main shopping street in South Shields Town Centre. The Metro station is located about 200 metres down the line from the former South Shields railway station, which it replaced; the station includes a sandwich bar at ground level. The station can be accessed via the main concourse by either lift or stairs from King Street or Keppel Street Bus Station; the station can be accessed via the Mile End Road concourse by ramp. The original two-platform railway station closed on 1 June 1981, when the line was closed for conversion to Metro standards. However, the Grade II-listed station building survived for many years, housing a newsagent and a barber, but has since been demolished; the Metro line continues beyond the station and through the site of the BR station to some engineering sidings.
The new Metro station was opened on 24 March 1984 and completed the initial Tyne and Wear Metro system. It was the terminus of the Green line, but is now the terminus of the Yellow line. In June 2015, plans were unveiled for a new transport interchange to be built, featuring a new Metro station and enclosed bus station; this development would replace the existing Metro station, the adjacent Keppel Street Bus Station. Building work started in 2018 and is expected to be completed in the summer of 2019; the opening date has not yet been announced. Train times and station information for South Shields Metro station from Nexus