Lord of Mann
The title Lord or Lady of Mann is used on the Isle of Man to refer to the island's Lord Proprietor and head of state. The current holder of the title is Elizabeth II; the title is not used on its own. Since 1399, the kings and lords of Mann were vassals of the kings of England, subsequently of Great Britain and the United Kingdom, the ultimate sovereign of the island; this right of'Lord Proprietor' was revested into the Crown by the Isle of Man Purchase Act 1765 and hence ceased to exist separately. King George III became the first British monarch to reign over the Isle of Man as Lord of Mann in 1765. However, for reasons of culture and tradition, the title Lord of Mann continues to be used. For these reasons, the correct formal usage, as used on the Isle of Man for the Loyal Toast, is The Queen, Lord of Mann; the title is now Lord of Mann regardless of gender. However, during her reign, Queen Victoria was styled as Lady of Mann; the formal Latin style is Dominus Manniae. Prior to 1504, the ruler of the Isle of Man was styled King of Mann.
Thomas, Earl of Derby, 1504–1521 Edward, Earl of Derby, 1521–1572 Henry, Earl of Derby, 1572–1593 Ferdinando, Earl of Derby, 1593–1594 In 1598, a succession dispute between the daughters of Ferdinando and their uncle, Earl of Derby was heard by the Privy Council. They decided that the right to the Isle of Man belonged to Queen Elizabeth I, the letters patent of 1405 which conferred the lordship of the Isle of Man on the Stanley family were declared null and void as the previous ruler, Earl of Northumberland, had not been subject to legal attainder, despite his treason, the 1405 and 1406 letters patent had therefore not taken effect; the Queen, in consideration of the "many eminent services performed to herself and to her royal predecessors by the honourable and noble House of Stanley", withdrew her right and referred the contending claimants to the decision of the Privy Council as to the best claim of inheritance. The Law Lords on the Privy Council decided "the grant being by letters patent under the Great Seal of England, such right would descend according to the Common Law of England to the heirs general, not to the heirs male", the island was therefore awarded to Ferdinando's daughters.
The original letters patent having been declared void, the Parliament of England in 1609 under James I passed a Private Act of Parliament entitled "An Act for assuring and establishing the Isle of Man in the name and blood of William, Earl of Derby" which established the title in law as Lord of Mann. The lordship was conferred by letters patent dated 7 July 1609 upon William Stanley, 6th Earl of Derby. Subsequent succession was under the terms of this grant. Following the resolution of the succession dispute, it was ruled that the daughters of Ferdinando Stanley were the rightful heirs; as the oldest of them would not reach the age of majority until 1609, two temporary Lords of Mann were appointed by James I by letters patent, so that the daughters could benefit from the Island's revenues. Henry, Earl of Northampton, 1607–1608 Robert, Earl of Salisbury, 1608–1609Following the coming of age of the heirs, the rights over the island were sold to their uncle, William Stanley, he took up the title of Lord of Mann following the passing of an Act of Parliament.
William, Earl of Derby, 1609–1612 Elizabeth, Countess of Derby, 1612–1627 James, Earl of Derby, 1627–1651 Thomas, Lord Fairfax of Cameron, 1651–1660 Charles, Earl of Derby, 1660–1672 William, Earl of Derby, 1672–1702 James, Earl of Derby, 1702–1736 James, Duke of Atholl, 1736–1764 Charlotte, Duchess of Atholl and John, Duke of Atholl, 1764–1765 In 1765, Charlotte Murray, Duchess of Atholl, 8th Baroness Strange, sold the suzerainty of the island to the British government for £70,000 and an annuity of £2,000. By the passage of the Isle of Man Purchase Act 1765 the title of Lord of Mann was revested into the British Crown, it has therefore since been used on the Isle of Man to refer to the reigning Monarch of the United Kingdom. In 1828 all remaining property interests and rights of the Dukes of Atholl on the island were sold to HM Treasury, a department of the British government, for the sum of £417,144, equivalent to £35,093,319 in 2018; this was accomplished by two Private Acts of Parliament: "An Act empowering the Lords of the Treasury to Purchase all the Manorial Rights of the Duke of Atholl in the Isle of Man" 10 June 1824 "An Act to empower the Commissioners of His Majesty’s Treasury to purchase a certain Annuity in respect of Duties and Customs levied in the Isle of Man, any reserved sovereign rights in the said Island belonging to John Duke of Atholl" 10 June 1825 The Lord of Mann is now represented by the Lieutenant Governor of the Isle of Man.
Governor of the Isle of Man Lieutenant Governor of the Isle of Man Isle of Man Purchase Act 1765 History of the Isle of Man List of Manx consorts Noble and royal titles of the Isle of Man
Lieutenant Governor of the Isle of Man
The Lieutenant Governor of the Isle of Man is the British sovereign's official personal representative in the Isle of Man. He has the power to grant royal assent and is styled "His Excellency". In recent times the governor has been either a senior military officer. No Manx-born person has been appointed Lieutenant Governor, although Manx-born First Deemsters have taken on the role temporarily during an interregnum between governors, during periods when the lieutenant governor is off-island; the official residence of the governor is Governor's Road, Onchan. In the past, the Lieutenant Governor wielded judicial and executive power on the island, around 1900 had more power than any other governor in the British Empire. However, he lost his roles as Head of the Judiciary in 1921, as Head of Government in 1961, as President of the Legislative Council in 1980 and as President of Tynwald in 1990. Today the role of Lieutenant Governor is ceremonial, although certain powers under Isle of Man legislation do still fall to the governor or governor-in-council.
In October 2005 Tynwald sought to change the title of the Lieutenant Governor to Crown Commissioner. This proposal was sent to the British Department of Constitutional Affairs for submission to HM Queen Elizabeth II, Lord of Mann, for approval. However, in April 2006, after much public disapproval, Tynwald rejected its own proposal and withdrew its request for Royal Assent, thus the Lieutenant Governor's title remained unchanged. Before 2010 the Lieutenant Governor was appointed by the Crown on the advice of a panel led by the Government of the United Kingdom. In July 2010 the Government of the Isle of Man announced that the next lieutenant governor would be appointed on the advice of an local panel, comprising the Chief Minister, the President of Tynwald and the First Deemster; the new procedure was used for the first time a few months to choose Sir Paul Haddacks' successor. On 16 November 2010 the Isle of Man Government announced the appointment by the Crown of former UK diplomat Adam Wood as the next Lieutenant Governor of the Isle of Man.
His term was scheduled to start on 4 April 2011. It was asked what was the proper title of the chief executive of the island, whether there were any words in the Commissions of the lieutenant governors which suspended their functions during the presence in the island of the Lord of Mann or a governor of the Isle of Man; such a question was considered in 1877 by the eminent Manx advocate Sir James Gell, who referred to a search he undertook at the Rolls Office, the results of which are included in a list of 83 appointments of governors between 1595 and 1863. Not all appointments during that period are listed in this article as it was difficult to trace appointments prior to 1639. In addition, after that date certain commissions were omitted to be enrolled. For instance no record of the appointment of John Murray, 4th Duke of Atholl as governor in 1793 could be traced; the designations "governor", "lieutenant" and "captain" were synonymous. Only one reference to deputy lieutenant is made, that of Governor Horton's appointment in 1725.
In some commissions expressions designating the office, such as governor. If the sovereign intended not to bestow the full powers of a governor on a specific person the limitations had to be expressed on the face of the commission; however no record of such an amendment exists, although any legal power exercised could not be questioned as to its legality by any subject, a governor as between himself and the Crown, would be controlled as to the exercise of his powers by his instructions and would therefore be accountable for any injudicious use of them. A Lieutenant Governor or deputy governor having a commission with no express limitation to their powers, could perform all the functions of a governor while his powers were in force. Sir James Gell twice held the office of Governor of the Isle of Man: first during the illness of Lord Henniker, Sir James being appointed deputy and presiding at Tynwald. Whilst Sir James was appointed deputy governor on the first occasion, he was appointed acting governor in the second instance, an important distinction.
The Dukes of Atholl were the last supreme governors of the Isle of Man, until the Isle of Man Purchase Act 1765 known as the Act of Revestment. All governors since had been lieutenant governors, but Sir James' appointment as acting governor was on a par with the position of the Duke of Atholl, he had the right to appoint a lieutenant governor had he so wished. So his office as acting governor carried with it greater authority than that of Lieutenant Governor; the term "lieutenant governor" was not used before the Act of Revestment in 1765. The appointments of Peter Legh, Ratcliffe Gerrard, Roger Nowell, William Sacheverel
Isle of Man
The Isle of Man, sometimes referred to as Mann, is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between Great Britain and Ireland. The head of state is Queen Elizabeth II, who holds the title of Lord of Mann and is represented by a lieutenant governor. Defence is the responsibility of the United Kingdom; the island has been inhabited since before 6500 BC. Gaelic cultural influence began in the 5th century AD, the Manx language, a branch of the Gaelic languages, emerged. In 627, Edwin of Northumbria conquered the Isle of Man along with most of Mercia. In the 9th century, Norsemen established the Kingdom of the Isles. Magnus III, King of Norway, was King of Mann and the Isles between 1099 and 1103. In 1266, the island became part of Scotland after being ruled by Norway. After a period of alternating rule by the kings of Scotland and England, the island came under the feudal lordship of the English Crown in 1399; the lordship revested into the British Crown in 1765, but the island never became part of the 18th-century Kingdom of Great Britain or its successors the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the present-day United Kingdom.
It retained its internal self-government. In 1881, the Isle of Man parliament, became the first national legislative body in the world to give women the right to vote in a general election, although this excluded married women. In 2016, the Isle of Man was awarded biosphere reserve status by UNESCO. Insurance and online gambling generate 17% of GNP each, followed by information and communications technology and banking with 9% each. Internationally, the Isle of Man is best known for the Isle of Man TT competition; the Manx name of the Isle of Man is Ellan Vannin: ellan is a Manx word meaning "island". The short form used in English, Mann, is derived from the Manx Mannin, though sometimes the name is written as Man; the earliest recorded Manx form of the name is Mana. The Old Irish form of the name is Mano. Old Welsh records named it as Manaw reflected in Manaw Gododdin, the name for an ancient district in north Britain along the lower Firth of Forth; the oldest known reference to the island calls it Mona, in Latin.
Latin references have Mevania or Mænavia, Eubonia or Eumonia by Irish writers. It is found in the Sagas of Icelanders as Mön; the name is cognate with the Welsh name of the island of Anglesey, Ynys Môn derived from a Celtic word for'mountain', from a Proto-Celtic *moniyos. The name was at least secondarily associated with that of Manannán mac Lir in Irish mythology. In the earliest Irish mythological texts, Manannán is a king of the otherworld, but the 9th-century Sanas Cormaic identifies a euhemerised Manannán as "a famous merchant who resided in, gave name to, the Isle of Man". A Manannán is recorded as the first king of Mann in a Manx poem; the island was cut off from the surrounding islands around 8000 BC, but was colonised by sea some time before 6500 BC. The first residents were fishermen. Examples of their tools are kept at the Manx Museum; the Neolithic Period marked the beginning of farming, megalithic monuments began to appear, such as Cashtal yn Ard near Maughold, King Orry's Grave at Laxey, Meayll Circle near Cregneash, Ballaharra Stones at St John's.
There were the local Ronaldsway and Bann cultures. During the Bronze Age, burial mounds became smaller. Bodies were put in stone-lined graves with ornamental containers; the Bronze Age burial mounds created long-lasting markers around the countryside. The ancient Romans knew of the island and called it Insula Manavia although it is uncertain whether they conquered the island. Around the 5th century AD, large-scale migration from Ireland precipitated a process of Gaelicisation evidenced by Ogham inscriptions, giving rise to the Manx language, a Goidelic language related to Irish and Scottish Gaelic. Vikings arrived at the end of the 8th century, they introduced many land divisions that still exist. In 1266 King Magnus VI of Norway ceded the islands to Scotland in the Treaty of Perth. In 1290 King Edward I of England sent Walter de Huntercombe to take possession of Mann, it remained in English hands until 1313, when Robert Bruce took it after besieging Castle Rushen for five weeks. A confused period followed when Mann was sometimes under English rule and sometimes Scottish, until 1346, when the Battle of Neville's Cross decided the long struggle between England and Scotland in England's favour.
English rule was delegated to a series of magnates. The Tynwald passed laws concerning the government of the island in all respects and had control over its finances, but was subject to the approval of the Lord of Mann. In 1866, the Isle of Man obtained limited home rule, with democratic elections to the House of Keys, but an appointed Legislative Council. Since democratic government has been extended; the Isle of Man has designated more than 250 historic sites as registered buildings. The Isle of Man is located in the middle of t
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city. Legislatures form important parts of most governments. Laws enacted by legislatures are known as primary legislation. Legislatures observe and steer governing actions and have exclusive authority to amend the budget or budgets involved in the process; the members of a legislature are called legislators. In a democracy, legislators are most popularly elected, although indirect election and appointment by the executive are used for bicameral legislatures featuring an upper chamber. Names for national legislatures include "parliament", "congress", "diet", "assembly", depending on country; each chamber of the legislature consists of a number of legislators who use some form of parliamentary procedure to debate political issues and vote on proposed legislation. There must be a certain number of legislators present to carry out these activities; some of the responsibilities of a legislature, such as giving first consideration to newly proposed legislation, are delegated to committees made up of a few of the members of the chamber.
The members of a legislature represent different political parties. Legislatures vary in the amount of political power they wield, compared to other political players such as judiciaries and executives. In 2009, political scientists M. Steven Fish and Matthew Kroenig constructed a Parliamentary Powers Index in an attempt to quantify the different degrees of power among national legislatures; the German Bundestag, the Italian Parliament, the Mongolian State Great Khural tied for most powerful, while Myanmar's House of Representatives and Somalia's Transitional Federal Assembly tied for least powerful. Some political systems follow the principle of legislative supremacy, which holds that the legislature is the supreme branch of government and cannot be bound by other institutions, such as the judicial branch or a written constitution; such a system renders the legislature more powerful. In parliamentary and semi-presidential systems of government, the executive is responsible to the legislature, which may remove it with a vote of no confidence.
On the other hand, according to the separation of powers doctrine, the legislature in a presidential system is considered an independent and coequal branch of government along with both the judiciary and the executive. Legislatures will sometimes delegate their legislative power to administrative or executive agencies. Legislatures are made up of individual members, known as legislators. A legislature contains a fixed number of legislators. For example, a legislature that has 100 "seats" has 100 members. By extension, an electoral district that elects a single legislator can be described as a "seat", as, example, in the phrases "safe seat" and "marginal seat". A legislature may debate and vote upon bills as a single unit, or it may be composed of multiple separate assemblies, called by various names including legislative chambers, debate chambers, houses, which debate and vote separately and have distinct powers. A legislature which operates as a single unit is unicameral, one divided into two chambers is bicameral, one divided into three chambers is tricameral.
In bicameral legislatures, one chamber is considered the upper house, while the other is considered the lower house. The two types are not rigidly different, but members of upper houses tend to be indirectly elected or appointed rather than directly elected, tend to be allocated by administrative divisions rather than by population, tend to have longer terms than members of the lower house. In some systems parliamentary systems, the upper house has less power and tends to have a more advisory role, but in others presidential systems, the upper house has equal or greater power. In federations, the upper house represents the federation's component states; this is a case with the supranational legislature of the European Union. The upper house may either contain the delegates of state governments – as in the European Union and in Germany and, before 1913, in the United States – or be elected according to a formula that grants equal representation to states with smaller populations, as is the case in Australia and the United States since 1913.
Tricameral legislatures are rare. Tetracameral legislatures no longer exist, but they were used in Scandinavia. Legislatures vary in their size. Among national legislatures, China's National People's Congress is the largest with 2 980 members, while Vatican City's Pontifical Commission is the smallest with 7. Neither legislature is democratically elected: the National People's Congress is indirectly elected. Legislature size is a trade off between representation. Comparative analysis of national legislatures has found that size of a country's lower house tends to be proportional to the cube root of its population.
Chief Minister of the Isle of Man
The Chief Minister is the executive head of the Isle of Man Government. The office derives from that of Chairman of the Executive Council. Before 1980 the Executive Council was chaired by the Lieutenant Governor, but thereafter the chairman was elected by Tynwald, the parliament of the Isle of Man; the title was changed to "Chief Minister" in 1986. The Chief Minister is appointed by the Lieutenant Governor on the nomination of Tynwald after a general election of the House of Keys, he holds office until the next general election, is eligible for re-appointment, but may be removed from office by Tynwald on a vote of no confidence in the Council of Ministers. After the general election in November 2006, Mr John Shimmin MHK, Mr Stephen Rodan MHK and Mr David Cannan MHK sought nomination as Chief Minister, but none received the necessary majority of votes in Tynwald. On a second vote Mr Tony Brown was nominated unopposed. Tony Brown stepped down from the role as Chief Minister on 29 September 2011.
His successor from 9 December 2011 was Allan Bell. On 1 August 2016 Allan Bell announced that he would retire, after 32 years representing Ramsey in the House of Keys, following seven years as a Ramsey Commissioner, his successor, Howard Quayle, took office on 4 October 2016. Miles Walker MHK Donald Gelling MLC Richard Corkill MHK Allan Bell MHK Donald Gelling MLC Tony Brown MHK Allan Bell MHK Howard Quayle MHK Chief Minister Chairman of the Executive Council List of current heads of government in the United Kingdom and dependencies
Elizabeth II is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms. Elizabeth was born in London as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York King George VI and Queen Elizabeth, she was educated at home, her father acceded to the throne on the abdication of his brother King Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. She began to undertake public duties during the Second World War, serving in the Auxiliary Territorial Service. In 1947, she married Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, a former prince of Greece and Denmark, with whom she has four children: Charles, Prince of Wales; when her father died in February 1952, she became head of the Commonwealth and queen regnant of seven independent Commonwealth countries: the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Ceylon. She has reigned as a constitutional monarch through major political changes, such as devolution in the United Kingdom, Canadian patriation, the decolonisation of Africa. Between 1956 and 1992, the number of her realms varied as territories gained independence and realms, including South Africa and Ceylon, became republics.
Her many historic visits and meetings include a state visit to the Republic of Ireland and visits to or from five popes. Significant events have included her coronation in 1953 and the celebrations of her Silver and Diamond Jubilees in 1977, 2002, 2012 respectively. In 2017, she became the first British monarch to reach a Sapphire Jubilee, she is the longest-lived and longest-reigning British monarch as well as the world's longest-reigning queen regnant and female head of state, the oldest and longest-reigning current monarch and the longest-serving current head of state. Elizabeth has faced republican sentiments and press criticism of the royal family, in particular after the breakdown of her children's marriages, her annus horribilis in 1992 and the death in 1997 of her former daughter-in-law Diana, Princess of Wales. However, support for the monarchy has been and remains high, as does her personal popularity. Elizabeth was born at 02:40 on 21 April 1926, during the reign of her paternal grandfather, King George V.
Her father, the Duke of York, was the second son of the King. Her mother, the Duchess of York, was the youngest daughter of Scottish aristocrat the Earl of Strathmore and Kinghorne, she was delivered by Caesarean section at her maternal grandfather's London house: 17 Bruton Street, Mayfair. She was baptised by the Anglican Archbishop of York, Cosmo Gordon Lang, in the private chapel of Buckingham Palace on 29 May, named Elizabeth after her mother, Alexandra after George V's mother, who had died six months earlier, Mary after her paternal grandmother. Called "Lilibet" by her close family, based on what she called herself at first, she was cherished by her grandfather George V, during his serious illness in 1929 her regular visits were credited in the popular press and by biographers with raising his spirits and aiding his recovery. Elizabeth's only sibling, Princess Margaret, was born in 1930; the two princesses were educated at home under the supervision of their mother and their governess, Marion Crawford.
Lessons concentrated on history, language and music. Crawford published a biography of Elizabeth and Margaret's childhood years entitled The Little Princesses in 1950, much to the dismay of the royal family; the book describes Elizabeth's love of horses and dogs, her orderliness, her attitude of responsibility. Others echoed such observations: Winston Churchill described Elizabeth when she was two as "a character, she has an air of authority and reflectiveness astonishing in an infant." Her cousin Margaret Rhodes described her as "a jolly little girl, but fundamentally sensible and well-behaved". During her grandfather's reign, Elizabeth was third in the line of succession to the throne, behind her uncle Edward and her father. Although her birth generated public interest, she was not expected to become queen, as Edward was still young. Many people believed he would have children of his own; when her grandfather died in 1936 and her uncle succeeded as Edward VIII, she became second-in-line to the throne, after her father.
That year, Edward abdicated, after his proposed marriage to divorced socialite Wallis Simpson provoked a constitutional crisis. Elizabeth's father became king, she became heir presumptive. If her parents had had a son, she would have lost her position as first-in-line, as her brother would have been heir apparent and above her in the line of succession. Elizabeth received private tuition in constitutional history from Henry Marten, Vice-Provost of Eton College, learned French from a succession of native-speaking governesses. A Girl Guides company, the 1st Buckingham Palace Company, was formed so she could socialise with girls her own age, she was enrolled as a Sea Ranger. In 1939, Elizabeth's parents toured the United States; as in 1927, when her parents had toured Australia and New Zealand, Elizabeth remained in Britain, since her father thought her too young to undertake public tours. Elizabeth "looked tearful", they corresponded and she and her parents made the first royal transatlantic telephone call on 18 May.
In September 1939, Britain entered the Second World War. Lord Hailsham suggested that the two princesses should be evacuated to Canada to avoid the frequent aerial bombing; this was rejected by Elizabeth's mother. I won't leave wit