Type 052B destroyer
The Type 052B or Guangzhou class destroyer is a class of multirole missile destroyers built by the People's Republic of China. Two ships have been built, with Guangzhou and Wuhan both being commissioned into the People's Liberation Army Navy Surface Force in July 2004; this class features a stealthy hull and improved air defence systems, an area, a major weakness on previous ships designed by China. These ships represent a major improvement over older generation vessels and reflects the PLAN's need for more modern destroyer designs; the Type 052B multirole missile destroyer was the first Chinese-built warship capable of area air defence. When domestic systems could not be ready in time for Type 051B destroyer, China was forced to purchase two pairs of Sovremennyy-class destroyer to fill the gap left behind in the fleet area air defense. By the time of Type 052B, China had gained tremendous experience from Russian systems and Chinese domestic systems were ready; as a result, Type 052B is built with considerable Russian technology including the Russian-made 9M38 Buk-M1-2 air defence missile system, an effective air defence system with a range of 38 km.
Most military analysts expect the Guangzhou class to be similar to the Russian Sovremenny class destroyer in terms of general performance. The modern capabilities of this vessel demonstrate the Chinese desire to build up their blue-water navy and ability to project force into deeper waters; this shows a strong internationally-influencing naval force is being developed and will be a force to contend with in the future. The displacement of the Type 052B is 6500 tons full load; the ship features a "low point" design and combines this with radar absorbing paint to reduce radar signature. The ship's funnel incorporates cooling devices to reduce infrared signatures; the stern flight deck can host a Kamov Ka-28 ASW helicopter. The chief designer of this class is the academician Mr. Pan Jingfu, the designer of the previous two classes; the Type 052Bs incorporate an extensive array of weapons systems. She is equipped with one aft on the ship; these launchers can launch the SA-N-12 Grizzly Surface-to-Air Missile.
Each launcher has two dedicated MR-90 Front Dome fire control radars and carries a total of 48 missiles. The primary mission of Type 052B is providing area air defense for the fleet, so anti-shipping mission is secondary, handled by 4 quad YJ-83 Anti-Ship Cruise Missile launchers located amidships. For guns she has a 100mm cannon in'A' position and this was the first PLAN vessel to be equipped with a Close-In Weapons System. For sub-surface threats, she is armed with 2 triple 324mm Yu-7 Anti-Submarine torpedo tubes and two Type 75 twelve-barrel 240mm antisubmarine rocket launchers; the Type 052B is equipped with four 18-barrel Type 724 chaff launchers for part of its self-defense suite. No 169 was used a testbed for domestic gas turbine propulsion system, with one of the original DN80 gas turbine replaced by domestic Chinese produced QC-280, experienced showed that domestic Chinese engine has performed satisfactorily; the Type 052B uses either a Fregat-MAE-5 3D search radar or a Type 382 Radar 3D air/surface search radar, mounted at the top of the forward mast.
Four MR90 Front-Dome radars provide fire control for the SA-N-12 missiles. A Type 344 fire control radar controls the main gun. A bandstand radar provides fire control for the YJ-83 ASCM missile. Unit cost - around US$400 million per ship by 2004's price Ships - Guangzhou and Wuhan as of 2006 Propulsion - 2 x Zorya-Mashproekt DN80 gas-turbines 2 x MTU Friedrichshafen 12V 1163TB83 diesels Length - 155 meters Beam - 17 meters Draft - 6 meters Displacement - 6,500 metric tons Speed - 30 knots Crew - 280 Combat Data System - ZKJ-7 information processing system designed by the 709th Institute Data link: HN-900 Communication: SNTI-240 SATCOM Armament 16 x YJ-83 SSM 48 x SA-N-12 SAM in 4 x 12 magazine 1 x 100 mm gun 2 x 30 mm Type 730 CIWS 2 x Triple 324 mm ASW torpedo tubes 2 x Type 75, 12-barrel 240 mm antisubmarine rocket launchers 4 x 18-barrel Type 726-4 decoy/chaff launchers Aviation: 1 Kamov Ka-28 ASW helicopter List of naval ship classes in service
Airbus Helicopters SAS is the helicopter manufacturing division of Airbus. It is the largest in the industry in terms of turbine helicopter deliveries, its head office is located at Marseille Provence Airport in Marignane, near Marseille. The main facilities of Airbus Helicopters are at its headquarters in Marignane, France and in Donauwörth, with additional production plants in Brazil, Australia and the United States; the company was renamed Airbus Helicopters on 2 January 2014. In 2018, Airbus delivered 356 helicopters, a 54% share of the civil or parapublic market over five seats, ahead of Leonardo Helicopters, Bell Helicopter and Russian Helicopters. Airbus Helicopters was formed in 1992 as Eurocopter Group, through the merger of the helicopter divisions of Aérospatiale and DASA; the company's heritage traces back to Blériot and Lioré et Olivier in France and to Messerschmitt and Focke-Wulf in Germany. Airbus Helicopters and its predecessor companies have established a wide range of helicopter firsts, including the first production turboshaft-powered helicopter.
As a consequence of the merger of Airbus Helicopters' former parents in 2000, the firm is now a wholly owned subsidiary of Airbus. The creation of what was called EADS in 2000 incorporated CASA of Spain, which itself had a history of helicopter-related activities dating back to Talleres Loring, including local assembly of the Bo105. Today, Airbus Helicopters has four main plants in Europe, plus 32 subsidiaries and participants around the world, including those in Brisbane, Albacete and Grand Prairie, USA. Since 2006, Eurocopter has been involved in the planning for the proposed pan-European Future Transport Helicopter project; as of 2014, more than 12,000 Airbus Helicopters were in service with over 3,000 customers in around 150 countries. Eurocopter delivered 497 helicopters that year. In 2014, AH built a concrete cylinder for testing helicopters before first flight. Historical emblems of the company: Some of the helicopters were renamed in 2015, resembling Airbus airplane naming; when the division changed its name from Eurocopter Group to Airbus Helicopters in 2014 the trade names of the products were changed to reflect this.
Suffixes, as well as the differentiation for single or twin engines, were no longer to be used. Military versions were to be symbolized by the letter M; the only exceptions to this new branding were the AS350 B2, AS635 and 565, the EC145e, the AS332 and 532, the Tiger and the NH90, which will keep their current names.: X³ rotorcraft – hybrid helicopter with two forward propellers, which achieved a 255-knot speed milestone in level flight in June 2011. Airbus Helicopters X6 – Two year concept study into the possible launch of an 11.5t helicopter to replace the H225. Airbus RACER, experimental high-speed compound helicopter developed from the X³, targeting a 2020 first flight. Comparable major helicopter manufacturers: AgustaWestland Bell Helicopter Boeing Rotorcraft Systems MD Helicopters Russian Helicopters Sikorsky Aircraft Official website Helibras Airbus Helicopters timeline at Helis.com Dominic Perry. "Faury leaves Airbus Helicopters a business transformed". Flightglobal
Guided missile destroyer
A guided-missile destroyer is a destroyer designed to launch guided missiles. Many are equipped to carry out anti-submarine, anti-air, anti-surface operations; the NATO standard designation for these vessels is DDG. Nations vary in their use of destroyer D designation in their hull pennant numbering, either prefixing or dropping it altogether; the U. S. Navy has adopted the classification DDG in the American hull classification system. In addition to the guns, a guided-missile destroyer is equipped with two large missile magazines in vertical-launch cells; some guided-missile destroyers contain powerful radar systems, such as the United States’ Aegis Combat System, may be adopted for use in an anti-missile or ballistic-missile defense role. This is true of navies that no longer operate cruisers, so other vessels must be adopted to fill in the gap. Hobart-class destroyer HMAS Hobart HMAS Brisbane HMAS Sydney Type 055 destroyer Innominate 1st ship Innominate 2nd ship Innominate 3rd ship Innominate 4th ship Innominate 5th ship Innominate 6th ship Type 052D destroyer Kunming Changsha Hefei Yinchuan Xining Xiamen Urumqi Nanjing Guiyang Hohhot Taiyuan Chengdu Qiqihar Zibo Ganzhou Huainan Nanning Innominate 18th ship Innominate 19th ship Innominate 20th ship Innominate 21st ship Innominate 22nd ship Innominate 23rd ship Innominate 24th ship Type 052C destroyer Lanzhou Haikou Changchun Zhengzhou Jinan Xi'an Type 052B destroyer Guangzhou Wuhan Type 052 destroyer Harbin Qingdao Type 051C destroyer Shenyang Shijiazhuang Type 051B destroyer Shenzhen Type 051 destroyer Kaifeng Dalian Zhanjiang Zhuhai Sovremenny-class destroyer Hangzhou Fuzhou Taizhou Ningbo Although the French Navy no longer uses the term "destroyer", the largest frigates are assigned pennant numbers with flag superior "D", which designates destroyer.
Visakhapatnam-class destroyer INS Visakhapatnam INS Mormugao INS Porbandar INS Paradip Kolkata-class destroyer INS Kolkata INS Kochi INS Chennai Delhi-class destroyer INS Delhi INS Mysore INS Mumbai Rajput-class destroyer INS Rajput INS Rana INS Ranjit INS Ranvir INS Ranvijay Durand de la Penne-class destroyer Luigi Durand De La Penne Francesco Mimbelli Maya-class destroyer JS Maya JS 28DDG Asahi-class destroyer JS Asahi JS Shiranui Akizuki-class destroyer JS Akizuki JS Teruzuki JS Suzutsuki JS Fuyuzuki Atago-class destroyer JS Atago JS Ashigara Kongō-class destroyer JS Kongo JS Kirishima JS Myoko JS Chokai Hatakaze-class destroyer JS Hatakaze JS Shimakaze Takanami-class destroyer JS Takanami JS Onami JS Makinami JS Sazanami JS Suzunami Murasame-class destroyer JS Murasame JS Harusame JS Yudachi JS Kirisame JS Inazuma JS Samidare JS Ikazuchi JS Akebono JS Ariake Asagiri-class destroyer JS Asagiri JS Yamagiri JS Yūgiri JS Amagiri JS Hamagiri JS Setogiri JS Sawagiri JS Umigiri Hatsuyuki-class destroyer JS Matsuyuki JS Asayuki Sejong the Great-class destroyer ROKS Sejong the Great ROKS Yulgok Yi I ROKS Seoae Yu Seong-ryong Chungmugong Yi Sun-sin-class destroyer ROKS Chungmugong Yi Sun-sin ROKS Munmu the Great ROKS Dae Jo-yeong ROKS Wang Geon ROKS Gang Gam-chan ROKS Choe Yeong Kashin-class destroyer Smetlivy Sovremenny-class destroyer Bystryy Gremyashchiy Bespokoynyy Nastoychivyy Admiral Ushakov Udaloy-class destroyer Vice-Admiral Kulakov Admiral Tributs Marshal Shaposhnikov Severomorsk Admiral Levchenko Admiral Vinogradov Admiral Panteleyev Admiral Chabanenko Kee Lung-class destroyer ROCS Kee Lung ROCS Su Ao ROCS Tso Ying ROCS Ma Kong Type 82 destroyer HMS Bristol Type 45 destroyer HMS Daring HMS Dauntless HMS Diamond HMS Dragon HMS Defender HMS Duncan Arleigh Burke-class destroyer USS Arleigh Burke USS Barry USS John Paul Jones USS Curtis Wilbur USS Stout USS John S. McCain USS Mitscher USS Laboon USS Russell USS Paul Hamilton USS Ramage USS Fitzgerald USS Stethem USS Carney USS Benfold USS Gonzalez USS Cole USS The Sullivans USS Milius USS Hopper USS Ross USS Mahan USS Decatur USS McFaul USS Donald Cook USS Higgins USS O'Kane USS Porter USS Oscar Austin USS Roosevelt USS Winston S. Churchill USS L
Vertical launching system
A vertical launching system is an advanced system for holding and firing missiles on mobile naval platforms, such as surface ships and submarines. Each vertical launch system consists of a number of cells, which can hold one or more missiles ready for firing; each cell can hold a number of different types of missiles, allowing the ship flexibility to load the best set for any given mission. Further, when new missiles are developed, they are fitted to the existing vertical launch systems of that nation, allowing existing ships to use new types of missiles without expensive rework; when the command is given, the missile flies straight up long enough to clear the cell and the ship, turns on course. A VLS allows surface combatants to have a greater number of weapons ready for firing at any given time compared to older launching systems such as the Mark 13 single-arm and Mark 26 twin-arm launchers, which were fed from behind by a magazine below the main deck. In addition to greater firepower, VLS is much more damage tolerant and reliable than the previous systems, has a lower radar cross-section.
The U. S. Navy now relies on VLS for its guided missile destroyers and cruisers; the most widespread vertical launch system in the world is the Mark 41, developed by the United States Navy. More than 11,000 Mark 41 VLS missile cells have been delivered, or are on order, for use on 186 ships across 19 ship classes, in 11 navies around the world; this system serves with the US Navy as well as the Australian, Dutch, Japanese, New Zealand, South Korean and Turkish navies, while others like the Greek Navy preferred the similar Mark 48 system. The advanced Mark 57 vertical launch system is used on the new Zumwalt-class destroyer; the older Mark 13 and Mark 26 systems remain in service on ships that were sold to other countries such as Taiwan and Poland. When installed on an SSN, a VLS allows a greater number and variety of weapons to be deployed, compared with using only torpedo tubes. A vertical launch system can be either hot launch, where the missile ignites in the cell, or cold launch, where the missile is expelled by gas produced by a gas generator, not part of the missile itself, the missile ignites.
"Cold" means cold compared with rocket engine exhaust. A hot launch system does not require an ejection mechanism, but does require some way of disposing of the missile's exhaust and heat as it leaves the cell. If the missile ignites in a cell without an ejection mechanism, the cell must withstand the tremendous heat generated without igniting the missiles in the adjacent cells. An advantage of a hot-launch system is that the missile propels itself out of the launching cell using its own engine, which eliminates the need for a separate system to eject the missile from the launching tube; this makes a hot-launch system light and economical to develop and produce when designed around smaller missiles. A potential disadvantage is; the advantage of the cold-launch system is in its safety: should a missile engine malfunction during launch, the cold-launch system can eject the missile thereby reducing or eliminating the threat. For this reason, Russian VLSs are designed with a slant so that a malfunctioning missile will land in the water instead of on the ship's deck.
As missile size grows, the benefits of ejection launching increase. Above a certain size, a missile booster cannot be safely ignited within the confines of a ship's hull. Most modern ICBMs and SLBMs are cold-launched. American surface-ship VLSs have the missile cells arranged in a grid with one lid per cell and are "hot launch" systems. France and Britain use a similar hot-launching Sylver system in PAAMS. Russia produces a revolver design with more than one missile per lid. Russia uses a cold launch system for some of its vertical launch missile systems, e.g. the Tor missile system. The People's Republic of China uses a Concentric Canister Launch system that can launch using both hot and cold method. Prior to the CCL, some of the surface combatants featured a circular "cold launch" system that ejects the missile from the launch tube before igniting the engine on the Type 052C destroyer, other parts of the fleet featured rectangular ”hot launch" systems, with one lid per cell arranged in a grid on the Type 054A frigate.
Transporter erector launchers are wheeled or tracked land vehicles for the launch of surface to air and surface to surface missiles. In most systems the missiles are transported in a horizontal out of battery configuration: in order to fire, the vehicle must stop and the transport/launch tube must be raised to the vertical before firing. BAe has filed patents relating to the use of Vertical Launch missiles from modified passenger aircraft. AustraliaAdelaide class frigate – Mark 41 Mod 5 Anzac class frigate – Mark 41 Mod 16 Hobart-class destroyer – Mark 41 Hunter-class frigate – Mark 41 BelgiumKarel Doorman class frigate – Mark 48 Mod 1 CanadaHalifax-class frigate – Mark 48 Mod 0 ChileKarel Doorman class frigate – Mark 48 Mod 1 Type 23 frigate – GWS.26 People's Republic of ChinaSurfaceType 055 destroyer – Concentric Canister Launch System Type 052D destroyer – Concentric Canister Launch System Type 052C destroyer – HHQ-9 Type 051C destroyer – 48N6E Type 051B destroyer – HQ-16 or Yu-8 Type 054A frigate – HQ-16 or Yu-8 SubmarineType 0
The Kamov Ka-27 is a military helicopter developed for the Soviet Navy, in service in various countries including Russia, Vietnam, South Korea, India. Variants include the Ka-29 assault transport, the Ka-28 downgraded export version, the Ka-32 for civilian use; the helicopter was developed for anti-submarine warfare. Design work began in 1969 and the first prototype flew in 1973, it was intended to replace the decade-old Kamov Ka-25, is similar in appearance to its predecessor due to the requirements of fitting in the same hangar space. Like other Kamov military helicopters it has coaxial rotors, removing the need for a tail rotor. Ka-32 variants, e.g. the Klimov-powered Ka-32A11BC, have been certified for commercial operations throughout the world, notably in Canada and Europe. A Russian Navy Ka-27 helicopter from the Russian Udaloy-class destroyer Severomorsk conducted interoperability deck landing training on board the American command ship USS Mount Whitney on 22 July 2010. Ka-32A11BC multipurpose helicopters have been operated in Portugal for over five years.
In 2006, KAMOV JSC won the tender for the supply of Ka-32A11BC firefighting helicopters, to replace Aérospatiale SA 330 Pumas, which have high operating costs. The Ka-32A11BC features a high power-to-weight ratio and ease of handling, owing to its coaxial rotor design; the rotors' diameters are not associated tail boom. The Ka-32A11BC may be equipped with the Bambi Bucket suspended fire-fighting system of up to five tons capacity; the service life has been extended to up to 32,000 flight hours. Since the 1990s, China has purchased the Ka-28 export version and Ka-31 radar warning version for the PLAN fleet. Ka-31 purchases were first revealed in 2010, it is believed that Chinese Ka-28s have been equipped with more enhanced avionics compared to Ka-28s exported to other countries. In 2013, Russia tested the new Kamov Ka-27M with an active electronically scanned array radar; the basis of the modernization of the Ka-27M is installed on the helicopter airborne radar with an active phased array antenna FH-A.
This radar is part of the command and tactical radar system that combines several other systems: acoustic, signals intelligence and radar. All the information on them is displayed on the display instrumentation. Ka-32s are used for construction of transmission towers for overhead power lines, as it has somewhat higher lift capacity than the Vertol 107. In Canada, the Ka-32 is used for selective logging as it is able to lift selective species vertically. In August 2013, a Kamov Ka-32, C-GKHL operating in Bella Coola, British Columbia, experienced failure of one of its Klimov TV3-117BMA engines; the subsequent technical investigation indicated that there was poor quality control in the assembly of the compressor turbine, leading to failure of the complete unit after several compressor blades separated. Ka-27s have been used by the Syrian Navy during the ongoing Syrian Civil War. Ka-25-2 First prototype. Ka-27K Anti-submarine warfare prototype. Ka-27PL Anti-submarine warfare helicopter. Ka-27PS Search and rescue helicopter, ASW equipment winch fitted.
Ka-27PV Armed version of the Ka-27PS. Ka-27M The latest modification of the helicopter, equipped with radar and tactical command systems that include the following systems: acoustic sensors, magnetometric sensors, signals intelligence, FH-A radar with active phased array antenna; the radar is mounted under the fuselage and provides all-around vision in the search and detection of surface and ground targets. Serial upgrading of Ka-27Ms to the level of combatant helicopters was planned to begin in 2014. By the end of 2016, 46 Ka-27PLs had been scheduled for modernization, commissioned by the Russian Navy; the first eight serial Ka-27M were transferred in December 2016. Mass production approved in June 2017 and started in early 2018. A new delivery of 5 helos in October 2018. Half of the fleet is modernized as of December 2018. Ka-28 Export version of the Ka-27PL. Ka-29TB Assault transport helicopter, with accommodation for two pilots and 16 troops. Ka-252RLD A radar picket variant of the Ka-31 early warning helicopter first displayed in 2008.
RLD designation: radiolokatsyonnogo dozora. Two units delivered to Russian MoD by 2010. Ka-32A Civil transport helicopter. Initial production version. Ka-32A1 Fire fighting helicopter, equipped with a helicopter bucket. Ka-32A2 Police version, equipped with two searchlights and a loudspeaker. Ka-32A4 Special search and rescue and evacuation version. Ka-32A7 Armed version developed from the Ka-27PS. Ka-32A11BC Canadian, European-certified version with Klimov TV3-117MA engines and Glass Cockpit. Ka-32A12 approved version. KA-32C Little-known custom version. Ka-32M Projected development with 1839kW TV3-117VMA-SB3 engines. Replaced by the Ka-32-10 project. Ka-32S Maritime utility transport and rescue helicopter, fitted with an undernose radar. Ka-32T Utility transport helicopter, with accommodation for two crew and 16 passengers. Ka-32K Flying crane helicopter, fitted with a retractable gondola for a second pilot. AlgeriaAlgerian Air Force ChinaPeople's Liberation Army Navy IndiaIndian Navy LaosLao People's Liberation Army Air Force RussiaRussian Navy Border Service of Russia South KoreaRepublic of Korea Air Force Republic of Korea Coast Guard Korea Forest Service SyriaSyrian Air Force UkraineUkrainian Navy Vietnam Vietnamese Air Force Vietnamese Navy BrazilHelicargo CanadaVancouv
A torpedo tube is a cylinder shaped device for launching torpedoes. There are two main types of torpedo tube: underwater tubes fitted to submarines and some surface ships, deck-mounted units installed aboard surface vessels. Deck-mounted torpedo launchers are designed for a specific type of torpedo, while submarine torpedo tubes are general-purpose launchers, are also capable of deploying mines and cruise missiles. Most modern launchers are standardised on a 12.75-inch diameter for light torpedoes or a 21-inch diameter for heavy torpedoes, although other sizes of torpedo tube have been used: see Torpedo classes and diameters. A submarine torpedo tube is a more complex mechanism than a torpedo tube on a surface ship, because the tube has to accomplish the function of moving the torpedo from the normal atmospheric pressure within the submarine into the sea at the ambient pressure of the water around the submarine, thus a submarine torpedo tube operates on the principle of an airlock. The diagram on the right illustrates the operation of a submarine torpedo tube.
The diagram does show the working of a submarine torpedo launch. A torpedo tube has a considerable number of interlocks for safety reasons. For example, an interlock prevents the breech muzzle door from opening at the same time; the submarine torpedo launch sequence is, in simplified form: Open the breech door in the torpedo room. Load the torpedo into the tube. Hook up the wire-guide connection and the torpedo power cable. Shut and lock the breech door. Turn on power to the torpedo. A minimum amount of time is required for torpedo warmup. Fire control programs are uploaded to the torpedo. Flood the torpedo tube; this may be done manually or automatically, from sea or from tanks, depending on the class of submarine. The tube must be vented during this process to allow for complete filling and eliminate air pockets which could escape to the surface or cause damage when firing. Open the equalizing valve to equalize pressure in the tube with ambient sea pressure. Open the muzzle door. If the tube is set up for Impulse Mode the slide valve will open with the muzzle door.
If Swim Out Mode is selected, the slide valve remains closed. The slide valve allows water from the ejection pump to enter the tube; when the launch command is given and all interlocks are satisfied, the water ram operates, thrusting a large volume of water into the tube at high pressure, which ejects the torpedo from the tube with considerable force. Modern torpedoes have a safety mechanism that prevents activation of the torpedo unless the torpedo senses the required amount of G-force; the power cable is severed at launch. However, if a guidance wire is used, it remains connected through a drum of wire in the tube. Torpedo propulsion systems vary but electric torpedoes swim out of the tube on their own and are of a smaller diameter. 21" weapons with fuel-burning engines start outside the tube. Once outside the tube the torpedo begins its run toward the target as programmed by the fire control system. Attack functions are programmed but with wire guided weapons, certain functions can be controlled from the ship.
For wire-guided torpedoes, the muzzle door must remain open because the guidance wire is still connected to the inside of the breech door to receive commands from the submarine's fire-control system. A wire cutter on the inside of the breech door is activated to release the wire and its protective cable; these are drawn clear of the ship prior to shutting the muzzle door. The drain cycle is a reverse of the flood cycle. Water can be moved as necessary; the tube must be vented to drain the tube since it is by gravity. Open the breech door and remove the remnants of the torpedo power cable and the guidance wire basket; the tube must be wiped dry to prevent a buildup of slime. This process is called "diving the tube" and tradition dictates that "ye who shoots, dives". Shut and lock the breech door. Spare torpedoes are stored behind the tube in racks. Speed is a desirable feature of a torpedo loading system. There are various manual and hydraulic handling systems for loading torpedoes into the tubes. Prior to the Ohio class, US SSBNs utilized manual block and tackle which took about 15 minutes to load a tube.
SSNs prior to the Seawolf class used a hydraulic system, much faster and safer in conditions where the ship needed to maneuver. The German Type 212 submarine uses a new development of the water ram expulsion system, which ejects the torpedo with water pressure to avoid acoustic detection. List of torpedoes by diameter The Fleet Type Submarine Online 21-Inch Submerged Torpedo Tubes United States Navy Restricted Ordnance Pamphlet 1085, June 1944 Torpedo tubes of German U-Boats