SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Typeface

A typeface is the overall design of lettering. Each of these variations of the typeface is a font. There are thousands of different typefaces with new ones being developed constantly; the art and craft of designing typefaces is called type design. Designers of typefaces are called type designers and are employed by type foundries. In digital typography, type designers are sometimes called font developers or font designers; every typeface is a collection of glyphs, each of which represents an individual letter, punctuation mark, or other symbol. The same glyph may be used for characters from different scripts, e.g. Roman uppercase A looks the same as Cyrillic uppercase А and Greek uppercase alpha. There are typefaces tailored for special applications, such as map-making or astrology and mathematics; the term typeface is confused with the term font. Before the advent of digital typography and desktop publishing, the two terms had more understood meanings. In professional typography, the term typeface is not interchangeable with the word font, because the term font has been defined as a given alphabet and its associated characters in a single size.

For example, 8-point Caslon Italic was one font, 10-point Caslon Italic was another. Fonts came in specific sizes determining the size of characters, in quantities of sorts or number of each letter provided; the design of characters in a font took into account all these factors. As the range of typeface designs increased and requirements of publishers broadened over the centuries, fonts of specific weight and stylistic variants have led to font families, collections of related typeface designs that can include hundreds of styles. A font family is a group of related fonts which vary only in weight, width, etc. but not design. For example, Times is a font family, whereas Times Roman, Times Italic and Times Bold are individual fonts making up the Times family. Font families include several fonts, though some, such as Helvetica, may consist of dozens of fonts; the distinction between font and typeface is that a font designates a specific member of a type family such as roman, boldface, or italic type, while typeface designates a consistent visual appearance or style which can be a "family" or related set of fonts.

For example, a given typeface such as Arial may include roman and italic fonts. In the metal type era, a font meant a specific point size, but with digital scalable outline fonts this distinction is no longer valid, as a single font may be scaled to any size; the first "extended" font families, which included a wide range of widths and weights in the same general style emerged in the early 1900s, starting with ATF's Cheltenham, with an initial design by Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue, many additional faces designed by Morris Fuller Benton. Examples include Futura, Lucida, ITC Officina; some became superfamilies as a result such as Linotype Syntax, Linotype Univers. Typeface superfamilies began to emerge when foundries began to include typefaces with significant structural differences, but some design relationship, under the same general family name. Arguably the first superfamily was created when Morris Fuller Benton created Clearface Gothic for ATF in 1910, a sans serif companion to the existing Clearface.

The superfamily label does not include quite different designs given the same family name for what would seem to be purely marketing, rather than design, considerations: Caslon Antique, Futura Black and Futura Display are structurally unrelated to the Caslon and Futura families and are not considered part of those families by typographers, despite their names. Additional or supplemental glyphs intended to match a main typeface have been in use for centuries. In some formats they have been marketed as separate fonts. In the early 1990s, the Adobe Systems type group introduced the idea of expert set fonts, which had a standardized set of additional glyphs, including small caps, old style figures, additional superior letters and ligatures not found in the main fonts for the typeface. Supplemental fonts have included alternate letters such as swashes and alternate character sets, complementing the regular fonts under the same family. However, with introduction of font formats such as OpenType, those supplemental glyphs were merged into the main fonts, relying on specific software capabilities to access the alternate glyphs.

Since Apple's and Microsoft's operating systems supported different character sets in the platform related fonts, some foundries used expert fonts in a different way. These fonts included the characters which were missing on either Macintosh or Windows computers, e.g. fractions, ligatures or some accented glyphs. The goal was to deliver the whole character set to the customer regardless of which operating system was used; the size of typefaces and fonts is traditionally measured in points. When specified in typographic sizes, the height of an em-square, an invisible box, a bit larger than the distance from the tallest ascender to the lowest descender, is scaled to equal the specified size. For example, when setting Helvetica

Bohdan Zadura

Bohdan Zadura is a Polish poet and literary critic. Zadura debuted in 1962 in "Kamena", he was editor of the Lublin literary magazine "Akcent", from 2004 editor of "Twórczość" / Warsaw. He is a translator of poetry from the English and Hungarian. Zadura had a participation in the German-Polish poets steamer 1997. Translations Zaduras into German made by Henryk Bereska, Andreas Reimann, Dieter Kalka and Doreen Daume, into Ukrainian of Dmytro Pavlychko, Andriy Bondar, Mykola Rjabchuk and Andrij Ljubka. Zadura was an honorary citizen of Puławy. For the band "Nocne życie / Nightlife" him of Silesius Award was in the category "książka roku / Book of the Year" award. In 1995 he was with Wacław Waldemar Michalski and Bogusław Wróblewski initiator establishing the East Cultural Foundation "Akcent". Since October 2004 Bohdan Zadura has been the editor in chief of the monthly literary journal Twórczość. W krajobrazie z amfor, Warszawa 1968 Podróż morska, Warszawa 1971 Pożegnanie Ostendy, Warszawa 1974 Małe muzea, Warszawa 1977 Zejście na ląd, Warszawa 1983 Starzy znajomi, Warszawa 1986 Prześwietlone zdjęcia, Wydawnictwo Lubelskie, Lublin 1990 Cisza, Wydawnictwo a5, Poznań 1994 Cisza, Wrocław 1996 Noc poetów.

Warszawa pisarzy, Centrum Sztuki – Teatr Dramatyczny, Legnica 1998 Kaszel w lipcu, Wrocław 2000 Więzień i krotochwila, Zielona Sowa, Kraków 2001 Poematy, Biuro Literackie, Legnica 2001 Ptasia grypa, Biuro Literackie, Legnica 2002 Kopiec kreta, Biuro Literackie, Wrocław 2002 Stąd: wiersze puławskie, Towarzystwo Przyjaciół Puław, Puławy 2002 Wiersze zebrane, Biuro Literackie, Wrocław 2005/2006 Wszystko, Biuro Literackie, Wrocław 2008 Nocne życie, Biuro Literackie, Wrocław 2010 Zmartwychwstanie ptaszka 2012 Lata spokojnego słońca, Lublin: Wydawnictwo Lubelskie, 1968 A żeby ci nie było żal, Lublin: Wydawnictwo Lubelskie, 1972 Patrycja i chart afgański, Warsaw: Czytelnik, 1976 Do zobaczenia w Rzymie, Warszawa: Czytelnik, 1980 Lit, Gdańsk: Marabut, 1997 Proza tom 1. Opowiadania/Prosa volume 1, Breslau: Biuro Literackie, 2005 Proza tom 2. Powieści/Prosa volume 2, Breslau: Biuro Literackie, 2006 Radość czytania. Tadeusz Nowak. Daj mu tam, gdzie go nie ma. Między wierszami, Biuro Literackie, Legnica 2002 Szkice, felietony.

Volume 1, Biuro Literackie, Wrocław 2007 D. J. Enright, Księga Fausta, Wydawnictwo Lubelskie, Lublin 1984. Tony Harrison, Kumkwat dla Johna Keatsa, PIW, Warszawa 1990. John Ashbery, No i wiesz. D. J. Enright, Rok akademicki. Tony Harrison, Sztuka i zagłada, Biuro Literackie, Legnica 1999 TV recording, literary news

Courtney Fortune

Courtney Fortune is an American singer-songwriter from Seattle, Washington. Fortune is a singer, songwriter and entrepreneur, she has been recognized by the John Lennon Foundation and Genlux magazine as "America's Next Big Jazz Singer", has written and performed songs for Atlantic Records, Universal Music Group, Sony Japan, Cartoon Network, MTV and ABC. She received the Brian Wilson Musical Achievement Award for her work in the songwriting field and earned her Bachelor of Science degree in Music Industry from the University of Southern California. Fortune performs with jazz pianist David Benoit and co-hosts the Jazz Eclectic Concert Series, TJE Music Festival and radio hour on 91.5 FM Las Vegas. Her EP You Make It Easy was produced by Chris Walden, she is the founder of Songmaker Sessions and recording workshops for teens and adults which aims to help young songwriters improve their skills and confidence. Speak Love You Make It Easy Official website