A typewriter is a mechanical or electromechanical machine for writing characters similar to those produced by a printer's movable type. A typewriter has an array of keys, each one causes a different single character to be produced on the paper, by means of a ribbon with dried ink struck against the paper by a type element similar to the sorts used in movable type letterpress printing. On some typewriters, a separate type element corresponds to each key. At the end of the nineteenth century, the term typewriter was applied to a person who used a typing machine; the first commercial typewriters were introduced in 1874, but did not become common in offices until after the mid-1880s. The typewriter became an indispensable tool for all writing other than personal handwritten correspondence, it was used by professional writers, in offices, for business correspondence in private homes. Typewriters were a standard fixture in most offices up to the 1980s. Thereafter, they began to be supplanted by computers.
Typewriters remain common in some parts of the world, are required for a few specific applications, are popular in certain subcultures. In many Indian cities and towns, typewriters are still used in roadside and legal offices due to a lack of continuous, reliable electricity; the QWERTY keyboard layout, developed for typewriters, remains the standard for computer keyboards. Notable typewriter manufacturers included E. Remington and Sons, IBM, Imperial Typewriter Company, Oliver Typewriter Company, Royal Typewriter Company, Smith Corona, Underwood Typewriter Company, Adler Typewriter Company and Olympia Werke. Although many modern typewriters have one of several similar designs, their invention was incremental, developed by numerous inventors working independently or in competition with each other over a series of decades; as with the automobile and telegraph, a number of people contributed insights and inventions that resulted in more commercially successful instruments. Historians have estimated that some form of typewriter was invented 52 times as thinkers tried to come up with a workable design.
Some early typing instruments include: In 1575, an Italian printmaker, Francesco Rampazetto, invented the scrittura tattile, a machine to impress letters in papers. In 1714, Henry Mill obtained a patent in Britain for a machine that, from the patent, appears to have been similar to a typewriter; the patent shows that this machine was created: " hath by his great study and paines & expence invented and brought to perfection an artificial machine or method for impressing or transcribing of letters, one after another, as in writing, whereby all writing whatsoever may be engrossed in paper or parchment so neat and exact as not to be distinguished from print. In 1802, Italian Agostino Fantoni developed a particular typewriter to enable his blind sister to write. In 1808, Italian Pellegrino Turri invented a typewriter, he invented carbon paper to provide the ink for his machine. In 1823, Italian Pietro Conti di Cilavegna invented a new model of typewriter, the tachigrafo known as tachitipo. In 1829, American William Austin Burt patented a machine called the "Typographer" which, in common with many other early machines, is listed as the "first typewriter".
The London Science Museum describes it as "the first writing mechanism whose invention was documented", but that claim may be excessive, since Turri's invention pre-dates it. In the hands of its inventor, this machine was slower than handwriting. Burt and his promoter John D. Sheldon never found a buyer for the patent, so the invention was never commercially produced; because the typographer used a dial, rather than keys, to select each character, it was called an "index typewriter" rather than a "keyboard typewriter". Index typewriters of that era resemble the squeeze-style embosser from the 1960s more than they resemble the modern keyboard typewriter. Giuseppe Ravizza, a prolific typewriter inventor, born in Italy in 1811, spent nearly 40 years of his life obsessively grappling with the complexities of inventing a usable writing machine, he called his invention Cembalo scrivano o "macchina da scrivere a tasti" because of its piano-type keys and keyboard. The story of the 16 models he produced between 1847 and the early 1880s is described in The Writing Machine and illustrated from Ravizza’s 1855 patent, which bears similarities to the upstroke design of the Sholes and Glidden typewriter.
By the mid-19th century, the increasing pace of business communication had created a need for mechanization of the writing process. Stenographers and telegraphers could take down information at rates up to 130 words per minute, whereas a writer with a pen was limited to a maximum of 30 words per minute. From 1829 - 1870, many printing or typing machines were patented by inventors in Europe and America, but none went into commercial production. American Charles Thurber developed multiple patents, of which his first in 1843 was developed as an aid to the blind, such as the 1845 Chirographer. In 1855, the Italian Giuseppe Ravizza created a prototype typewriter called Cembalo scrivano o macchina da scrivere a tasti, it was an advanced machine. In 1861, Father Francisco João de Azevedo, a Brazilian prie
Jacqueline Manina Cole is the Head of the Molecular Engineering group in the Cavendish Laboratory at the University of Cambridge. Her research considers the design of functional materials for optoelectronic applications. Cole earned her first degree in chemistry at Durham University in 1994, she remained there for her graduate studies, completing a PhD in 1997. Her thesis, Structural studies of organic and organometallic compounds using x-ray and neutron techniques, described the structure-property relationships of non-linear optical materials, including studies of transition metal complexes, she was supervised by Judith Howard. Cole was appointed a postdoctoral research associate at the University of Kent where she worked on the structure of amorphous materials. Cole moved to the University of Cambridge as a Junior Research Fellow in St Catharine's College, Cambridge in 2001. Here she began to investigate photo-crystallography, In her spare time, Cole competed a bachelor's degree in Mathematics at the Open University.
After the bachelor's degree in Mathematics, Cole earned Diplomas in Statistics and Astronomy as well as a second bachelor's degree in engineering from the Open University. Cole earned a second doctorate in physics at the University of Cambridge in 2010; as a Royal Society University Research Fellow, Cole developed a new analytical approach to establish the photo-induced structures of optoelectronic materials. Photo-crystallography permits the 4D structural determination of photo-activated states. Photo-activation can result in structural changes that are irreversible, long-lived and short-lived. Cole uses single-crystal X-ray crystallography to monitor the minute structural changes that occur during photo-excitation. Photo-crystallography allows the visualisation of switching processes in single crystals. In 2008 she was appointed Vice-Chancellor's Research Chair at the University of New Brunswick. Cole is interested in nonlinear optics and optical data storage. In dye-sensitized solar cells, the dye absorbs sunlight, injecting electrons into titanium dioxide nanoparticles and starting an electric circuit.
Cole worked on the design of organic fluorophores in an effort to improve the performance of the dye. She investigated how data mining and Quantum chemical calculations could be used to predict which dyes might perform best, she uses the EPSRC National Service for Computational Chemistry Software. She has looked to use some of the dyes, as a laser. Whilst inorganic materials dominate the photonic device industry, the need for high-speed telecommunications has exceed their limitations. Organic electronic materials have a faster response time. Whilst working at the Argonne National Laboratory, Cole used in situ neutron reflectometry to study the interaction between the electrolytes and electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells, she designed cells that achieve a 14.3 % efficiency. The cells incorporated an organic sensitiser, MK-44, an organic dye, MK-2, based on thiophenylcyanoacrylate. Cole optimised the anchoring characteristics of the dye on titanium dioxide nanoparticles to improve charge-transfer pathways.
Her early work considered. Cole studied the origins of the nonlinear optics observed in N-methylurea, where solid-state intermolecular interactions and electron-donation from the methyl group separate it from the reference material urea, she has investigated the molecular design rules of organometallic second-harmonic generation active materials. In 2018 Cole was appointed a Royal Academy of Engineering Senior Research Fellow; the fellowship is a collaboration between the Science and Technology Facilities Council, BASF and ISIS neutron source to discover functional materials systematically. As of 2019, Cole leads the Molecular Engineering group in the Cavendish Laboratory, she buried interfaces. She has designed new databases of magnetic materials. 2000 British Crystallographic Association Chemical Crystallography Prize 2001 Royal Society University Research Fellowship 2009 Royal Society of Chemistry SAC Silver Medal
The article provides an overview of the entire chain of command and organization of the Hellenic Air Force as of 2018 and includes all active units. The Hellenic Air Force is commanded by the Chief of the Air Force General Staff in Athens; the source for this article is the organization sections on the website of the Hellenic Air Force. The Hellenic Air Force is overseen by the Ministry of National Defense under the Minister of Defense Panagiotis Kammenos. Ministry of National Defence, in Athens Air Force General Staff, at Papagou Military Base Air Force Tactical Command, at Larissa Air Base Air Force Training Command, at Dekelia Air Base Air Force Support Command, at Elefsina Air Base The Air Force General Staff based at Papagou Military Base in Filothei is structured as follows: Air Force General Staff, at Papagou Military Base A Branch A1 Directorate A3 Directorate A4 Directorate A7 Directorate Operational Center B Branch B1 Directorate B2 Directorate B3 B4 B5 Directorate C Branch C1 Directorate C2 Directorate C4 Directorate C5 Directorate C7 Directorate D Branch D1 Directorate D2 Directorate D3 Directorate D6 Directorate The Air Force General Staff commands the following units and services: Air Force General Staff, at Papagou Military Base Air Force Academy, at Dekelia Air Base 360th Squadron "Thales" – 251st General Aviation Hospital, in Athens Fuel Pipeline Management, in Eleftherio Larissa Fuel Base Antikyra Fuel Base Mikrothives Fuel Base Triadi Fuel Unit Aliartos Fuel Unit Modi Fuel Unit Rachon Aviation Medicine Center, in Athens Supreme Air Force Medical Committee, in Athens Air Force Project Service, at Papagou Military Base Air Force Finance & Accounting Center, at Papagou Military Base Air Force General Staff Support Squadron, at Papagou Military Base Air Force General Staff Computer Center, at Papagou Military Base Air Force Military Police, in Vyronas 31st Search and Rescue Operations Squadron, at Elefsina Air Base National Meteorological Service, in Ellinikon Air Traffic Information Service, at the Hellenic Civil Aviation Authority in Glyfada Air Force Insurance Service, in Athens Air Force Materiel Audit Authority, in Ampelokipoi Air Force Audit Authority Athens, in Ampelokipoi Air Force Audit Authority Larissa, in Larissa Air Force Treasury Service, in Athens Joint Rescue Control Center / Air Force Service, at the Hellenic Coast Guard headquarter in Piraeus The Hellenic Tactical Air Force based at Larissa Air Base is structured as follows: Hellenic Tactical Air Force, at Larissa Air BaseA Branch A1 Directorate A3 Directorate A4 Directorate A7 Directorate B Branch B1 Directorate B2 Directorate B5 Directorate C Branch C1 Directorate C2 Directorate C3 Directorate C4 Directorate C7 Directorate The Air Force Tactical Command commands the following units: Air Force Tactical Command, at Larissa Air BaseAir Operations Center, at Larissa Air Base, reports to NATO's Integrated Air Defense System CAOC Torrejón in Spain 1st Area Control Centre, inside Mount Chortiatis 2nd Area Control Centre, inside Mount Parnitha Air Tactics Center, at Andravida Air Base Fighter Weapons School Electronic Warfare School Joint Electronic Warfare School Air to Ground Operations School Tactical Support Squadron 110th Combat Wing, at Larissa Air Base 337th Squadron "Ghost" – Unmanned Aircraft Squadron "Acheron" – 111th Combat Wing, at Nea Anchialos Air Base 330th Squadron "Thunder" – 341st Squadron "Arrow" – 347th Squadron "Perseus" – 114th Combat Wing, at Tanagra Air Base 331st All Weather Squadron "Theseus" – 332nd All Weather Squadron "Hawk" – 115th Combat Wing, at Souda Air Base, Crete 340th Squadron "Fox" – 343rd Squadron "Star" – 116th Combat Wing, at Araxos Air Base 335th Bomber Squadron "Tiger" – 336th Bomber Squadron "Olympus" – 117th Combat Wing, at Andravida Air Base 338th Fighter-Bomber Squadron "Ares" – 350th Guided Missile Wing, at Sedes Air Base 11th Guided Missile Squadron, at Heraklion Air Base – 21st Guided Missile Squadron, in Keratea – 22nd Guided Missile Squadron, at Skyros Air Base – 23rd Guided Missile Squadron, at Sedes Air Base – 24th Guided Missile Squadron, at Tympaki Air Base – 25th Guided Missile Squadron, at Chrysoupoli Air Base – 26th Guided Missile Squadron, at Tanagra Air Base – Guided Missile Maintenance Squadron, at Sedes Air Base Guided Missile Training Squadron, at Sedes Air Base 130th Combat Group, at Lemnos Air Base 133rd Combat Group, a
Richard O'Reilly was an Irish prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as the Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of All Ireland from 1787 to 1818. After his education at the Propaganda College in Rome, he was the Parish Priest of Kilcock and Vicar General of Kildare and Leighlin, he was appointed the Titular Bishop of Oropus and Coadjutor of Kildare and Leighlin on 20 June 1781. The following year, he was appointed the Coadjutor and Administrator of the Metropolitan see of Armagh on 26 February 1782. On the death of Archbishop Anthony Blake of Armagh on 11 November 1787, O'Reilly automatically succeeded as archbishop and primate, he died in office on 31 January 1818, aged 72, was buried in Drogheda
Otto Paul Eberhard Peltzer was a German middle distance runner who set world records in the 1920s. Over the 800 m Peltzer improved Ted Meredith's long-standing record by 0.3 seconds to 1:51.6 min in London in July 1926. Over the 1000 m he set a world record of 2:25.8 in Paris in July 1927, over 1500 m Peltzer broke Paavo Nurmi's world record and set a new one at 3:51.0 in Berlin in September 1926. Peltzer was the only athlete to have held the 800 m and the 1500 m world records until Sebastian Coe matched the feat over fifty years later. Born in Ellernbrook-Drage in Holstein, Peltzer overcame childhood ill-health to become a successful athlete, winning his first German championship at age twenty-two, he started university in Munich in 1918, joining the TSV 1860 club, where he was nicknamed "Otto der Seltsame". He continued in Munich, receiving his doctorate in 1925. In 1926 he was one of a group of German athletes invited to the AAA Championships at Stamford Bridge stadium in London, where he won the 800 m, beating Britain's Douglas Lowe, who had won the event at the 1924 Olympic Games which, along with the 1920 Games, Germany had been barred from entering.
In 1926, a specially arranged 1500 m race between Peltzer, Paavo Nurmi of Finland, Edvin Wide of Sweden and Herbert Bocher of Germany took place in Berlin, won by Peltzer in a new world record time. Shortly before the 1928 Olympic Games in Amsterdam, to which German athletes were again allowed to enter with Peltzer elected as team leader, Peltzer was injured in an accident while playing handball. Although he recovered enough to take part in the 800 m heats, he failed to qualify for the final. In 1932 he was team captain, but poor arrangements left the German team trying to run with spiked shoes on the hard Olympic track. Peltzer did not finish. Peltzer was persecuted for his homosexuality. In 1933 he joined the Nazi Party and the SS. However, in June 1935 he was sentenced to 18 months imprisonment for'homosexual offences with youths', he was released early on condition that he would end his involvement in sport, but was rearrested in 1937. After spending time in Denmark and Sweden, he returned to Germany in 1941 having been assured that the charges against him would be dropped.
However, he was arrested and sent to KZ Mauthausen, where he remained until the camp was liberated on 5 May 1945. With homosexuality remaining a criminal offence in 1950s Germany, Peltzer in conflict with the German Athletic Association and Carl Diem, Peltzer's opportunities to coach athletics were limited in Germany, he obtained a commission from a German newspaper to report on the Melbourne Olympics, after the Games tried unsuccessfully to get work with various national athletics organisations. He came to India, coaching in the national athletics stadium in New Delhi, founded the Olympic Youth Delhi club renamed the Otto Peltzer Memorial Athletic Club in his honour. Following a heart attack in 1967, Peltzer was persuaded to return to Germany, was treated in hospital in Holstein. After attending an athletics meeting in Eutin, Schleswig-Holstein, Peltzer collapsed and was found dead on a path towards the car park. In 2000 the DLV established the Otto Peltzer Medal given to outstanding athletes.
Photos of Dr O. Peltzer running in New Zealand, 1930 Newspaper clippings about Otto Peltzer in the 20th Century Press Archives of the ZBW
Clarence Dillon was an American financier, namesake of Dillon, Read & Co. an investment bank. In 1957, Fortune Magazine listed Dillon as one of the richest men in the United States, with a fortune estimated to be from $150 to $200 million. Clarence Dillon was born Clarence Lapowski, his parents were Bertha Samuel Lapowski, who emigrated to the United States. Dillon's father was a Polish Jewish immigrant born at Łomża, Poland in 1848, his paternal grandparents were Joshua Lapowski and Paulina Dylion, the daughter of Michel Dylion, a Frenchman. In 1878, his father went to San Antonio and married Bertha Stenbock one year later. Stenbock was born 1862 in Denver, the daughter of Gustav Stenbock, a Swedish immigrant, prospecting for lead and silver in the Colorado Western Slope. In 1884, the family moved to Texas, they became naturalized citizens in the Abilene District Court, on September 25, 1891 changing the family name to Dillon on September 17, 1901. Clarence's father died in San Francisco, California, on June 23, 1912 and his mother died in New York City, on January 1, 1951.
Dillon graduated from Worcester Academy, located in Worcester and one of the country's oldest day-boarding schools, Harvard University in 1905. In 1912, Dillon met William A. Read, founder of the Wall Street bond broker firm William A. Read & Company through an introduction by his Harvard classmate, William A. Phillips. Dillon joined Read's Chicago office in that year moving to the firm's New York office in 1914. Following Read's death in 1916, Dillon bought a majority interest in the firm and was chosen to head the company. In 1921, the company's name was changed to Read & Co.. In 1921, Dillon focused on the beleaguered Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, in receivership, he succeeded in crafting a settlement with Goodyear's bankers and stockholders as was raising more than $100 million in funding in an difficult credit market. In 1925, only four years Dillon bought the Dodge Brothers Company for $146 million in cash, the largest such transaction in industrial history at the time. After the acquisition of Dodge, Dillon merged the company with the Chrysler Corporation in 1927 resulting in Chrysler's becoming one of the Big three in the automobile industry.
A number of Dillon, Read & Co. partners served in senior roles in government, including Dillon and his right-hand man, James Forrestal, who served as Secretary of the Navy, Secretary of Defense. During World War I, Bernard Baruch, Chairman of the War Industries Board, asked Dillon to be Assistant Chairman of the War Industries Board. Dillon was a Francophile both for his own personal tastes. In 1929, he purchased an apartment in Paris where he stayed a part of each year until he was well into his 80s. An oenophile as well. Dillon negotiated for months to purchase Château Haut-Brion from Bordeaux businessman André Gibert who had controlled the French wine producer since 1923. Dillon made the acquisition on May 13, 1935 for 2,300,000 francs. Dillon made Seymour Weller, the son of his wife's sister, president of the new company, Société Vinicole de la Gironde. Weller retired as President of the company in 1975. Dillon is said to have purchased Château Haut-Brion; however Haut-Brion is near Bordeaux, good riding and hunting land surrounds the estate.
Clarence purchased show dog Fontclair Festoon from Dody Jenkins. This dog would go on to win best-in-show at the Westminster Kennel Club in 1959; the dog was handled by Anne Rogers Clark. On February 4, 1908, Dillon married Anne McEldin Douglass in Wisconsin. Anne was his wife and second cousin Susan Virginia Dun. Together and Anne were the parents of a son and daughter: Clarence Douglass Dillon, who served as the U. S. Secretary of the Treasury from 1961–65 and the U. S. Ambassador to France who married Phyllis Chess Ellsworth in 1931. After her death in 1982, he married Susan Sage in 1983, they remained married until his death in 2003. Dorothy Anne Dillon, who married Philip Elsworth Allen in 1934. After their divorce, she married Dr. Sydney Shepherd Spivack, a sociologist, in 1965. After his death in 1969, she married Eric Eweson in 1976, who died in 1988. Dillon died on April 14, 1979 at his home in New Jersey. Notes Sources Geisst, Charles R; the Last Partnerships: Inside the Great Wall Street Money Dynasties ISBN 978-0071413176 Perez, Robert C. and Edward F. Willett Clarence Dillon, a Wall Street enigma ISBN 9781461713838 Sobel, Robert The Life and Times of Dillon Read ISBN 978-0525249597 Ancestry of Joan Douglas Dillon Domaine Clarence Dillon website