Tyrannosaurus is a genus of coelurosaurian theropod dinosaur. The species Tyrannosaurus rex called T. rex or colloquially T-Rex, is one of the most well-represented of the large theropods. Tyrannosaurus lived throughout what is now western North America, on what was an island continent known as Laramidia. Tyrannosaurus had a much wider range than other tyrannosaurids. Fossils are found in a variety of rock formations dating to the Maastrichtian age of the upper Cretaceous Period, 68 to 66 million years ago, it was the last known member of the tyrannosaurids, among the last non-avian dinosaurs to exist before the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event. Like other tyrannosaurids, Tyrannosaurus was a bipedal carnivore with a massive skull balanced by a long, heavy tail. Relative to its large and powerful hind limbs, Tyrannosaurus forelimbs were short but unusually powerful for their size and had two clawed digits; the most complete specimen measures up to 12.3 m in length though T. rex could grow to lengths of over 12.3 m, up to 3.66 meters tall at the hips, according to most modern estimates 8.4 metric tons to 14 metric tons in weight.
Although other theropods rivaled or exceeded Tyrannosaurus rex in size, it is still among the largest known land predators and is estimated to have exerted the strongest bite force among all terrestrial animals. By far the largest carnivore in its environment, Tyrannosaurus rex was most an apex predator, preying upon hadrosaurs, armored herbivores like ceratopsians and ankylosaurs, sauropods; some experts have suggested the dinosaur was a scavenger. The question of whether Tyrannosaurus was an apex predator or a pure scavenger was among the longest debates in paleontology. Most paleontologists today accept that Tyrannosaurus was both a scavenger. More than fifty major specimens of Tyrannosaurus rex have been identified, some of which are nearly complete skeletons. Soft tissue and proteins have been reported in at least one of these specimens; the abundance of fossil material has allowed significant research into many aspects of its biology, including its life history and biomechanics. The feeding habits and potential speed of Tyrannosaurus rex are a few subjects of debate.
Its taxonomy is controversial, as some scientists consider Tarbosaurus bataar from Asia to be a second Tyrannosaurus species while others maintain Tarbosaurus is a separate genus. Several other genera of North American tyrannosaurids have been synonymized with Tyrannosaurus; as the archetypal theropod, Tyrannosaurus has been one of the best-known dinosaurs since the early 20th century, has been featured in film, postal stamps, many other media. Tyrannosaurus rex was one of the largest land carnivores of all time. One of the largest and the most complete specimens, nicknamed Sue, is located at the Field Museum of Natural History. Sue measured 12.3–12.8 meters long, was 3.66 meters tall at the hips, according to the most recent studies, using a variety of techniques, estimated to have weighed between 8.4 metric tons to 14 metric tons. A specimen nicknamed Scotty, located at the Royal Saskatchewan Museum, is reported to measure 13 m in length. Using a mass estimation technique that extrapolates from the circumference of the femur, Scotty was estimated as the largest known specimen at 8.8 metric tons in weight.
Not every adult Tyrannosaurus specimen recovered. Average adult mass estimates have varied over the years, from as low as 4.5 metric tons, to more than 7.2 metric tons, with most modern estimates ranging between 5.4 metric tons and 8.0 metric tons. The largest known Tyrannosaurus rex skull is 1.52 meters in length. Large fenestrae in the skull reduced weight, as in all carnivorous theropods. In other respects Tyrannosaurus's skull was different from those of large non-tyrannosaurid theropods, it was wide at the rear but had a narrow snout, allowing unusually good binocular vision. The skull bones were massive and the nasals and some other bones were fused, preventing movement between them; these and other skull-strengthening features are part of the tyrannosaurid trend towards an powerful bite, which surpassed that of all non-tyrannosaurids. The tip of the upper jaw was U-shaped, which increased the amount of tissue and bone a tyrannosaur could rip out with one bite, although it increased the stresses on the front teeth.
The teeth of Tyrannosaurus rex displayed marked heterodonty. The premaxillary teeth, four per side at the front of the upper jaw, were packed, D-shaped in cross-section, had reinforcing ridges on the rear surface, were incisiform and curved backwards; the D-shaped cross-section, reinforcing ridges and backwards curve reduced the risk that the teeth would snap when Tyrannosaurus bit and pulled. The remaining teeth were robust, like "lethal bananas" rather than daggers, more spaced and had reinforcing ridges; those in the upper jaw, twelve per side in mature individuals, were larger than their counterparts of the lower jaw, except at the rear. The largest found so far is estimated to have been 30.5 centimeters long including the root when the animal was alive, making it the largest tooth of any carnivorous dinosaur yet found. The lower jaw was robust, its front dentary
Luminosa Bogliolo is an Italian hurdler who won a gold medal at the 2019 Summer Universiade and a silver medal at the 2018 Mediterranean Games. In 2018, establishing her Personal Best on 100 metres hurdles with 12.99, at 23 May 2018 had reached the 13th place in the seasonal European lists, thus obtaining the EAA standard and the selection for the 2018 European Athletics Championships. In September she won in Pescara her first national championship, she is engaged to the hurdler Lorenzo Perini. She has obtained two other results under 13 seconds, but with a wind higher than the norm of +2.0 mps. 100 metres hurdles: 12.78 - La Chaux de Fonds, 30 June 2019 60 metres hurdles: 8.10 - Ancona, 16 February 2019 Italian Athletics Championships 100 m hurdles: 2018, 2019 Italian Athletics Indoor Championships 60 m hurdles: 2019 Italian all-time lists - 100 metres hurdles Italy at the 2018 Mediterranean Games Luminosa Bogliolo at World Athletics Luminosa Bogliolo at FIDAL
The Shepherd's Bush Pavilion is a Grade II listed building a hotel a cinema and bingo hall, in Shepherd's Bush, London. Built in 1923 as a cinema, it was badly damaged by a flying bomb in 1944. In 1955 it was restored and re-opened, but it changed ownership a number of times, in 1983 became a bingo hall; the Pavilion closed its doors for good in 2001, remained empty and disused for much of the next decade. In 2009 planning permission was granted for conversion into a luxury hotel. Demolition work began with only a part of the building's façade retained; the re-built hotel, the Dorsett Shepherd's Bush, opened in 2014. The Pavilion was built as a cinema, designed by Frank Verity for Israel Davis, it opened in August 1923, when it won the RIBA London Street Architecture Award for the best London facade. The panel noted the "imposing structure of brick and stone in which the former material is used with great imagination". From the beginning the project was ambitious – the films were accompanied not by a mere piano but by the Pavilion Symphony Orchestra, a sophisticated lighting system created colour effects during the films – such as blue lights for rain, or red for fire.
The interior was classical in style, using 3 shades of copper, seated 2,000 spectators. It had no less than 2 miles of carpet and solid silver lamps for lighting, was awarded a Bronze Medal by the Royal Institute of British Architects. Much of the sumptuous interior work would be lost when the building was badly damaged by a flying bomb in 1944, towards the end of World War II, the original interior was destroyed. After the war The Pavilion was repaired, reopened in 1955 as the Gaumont Theatre, it was closed again in 1969 for further refurbishment, when a new floor was installed, dividing the large open space into two levels – a cinema upstairs and a Bingo Club below. In 1974 the Pavilion acquired a new status as a Grade II listed building although, given the war damage and subsequent alterations, little remained of the original interior design or layout. In 1983 the cinema closed for the last time. However, in 2001 the bingo hall closed, the building fell into disuse. In both 2004 and 2006 planning permission was given for conversion into a hotel, but investors withdrew from the project owing to the difficulty of converting the building, in particular the small number of rooms, few of which would have enjoyed any natural daylight or views.
The building was left unoccupied and in disrepair for several years, prompting English Heritage to add it to its'Building at Risk' register. In 2009 planning permission was granted to convert the empty building into the 4 star Shepherds Bush Pavilion Hotel, designed by architects Flanagan Lawrence. At the end of February 2012 it was reported that the £25 million conversion of the derelict building would begin in March 2012. In the summer of 2012 the building was demolished, retaining only the original facade; when completed the hotel would have 11 floors, the existing curved roof would be replaced by a glass roof. In September 2012 a planning variation was requested by the developers, to change the proposed development from a 242-room hotel to one with 322 smaller rooms; the proposed variation was opposed by local residents who feared that the fundamental character of the new building would be quite different from what was proposed. The new hotel is to run by the Asia-based hotel group Dorsett Hospitality International, listed on the Hong Kong Stock Exchange.
It opened in June, 2014. History of Shepherd's Bush Shepherd's Bush Palladium Shepherd's Bush Empire Denny, Barbara and Shepherd's Bush Past, Historical Publications Ltd, London, ISBN 0-948667-32-X Shepherd's Bush Blog Retrieved December 2011 Shepherd's Bush Blog Retrieved December 2011 Evening Standard, article by Sri Carmichael, 8 February 2010 Retrieved December 2011 The Pavilion at www.londontown.com Retrieved December 2011 Hamilton Development Retrieved December 2011 Hammersmith & Fulham Chronicle, 5 March 2012 Retrieved February 2013 Cinema Treasures Retrieved February 2013 premier construction news June 2013 Retrieved January 2014