Andreas Hofer was a Tyrolean innkeeper and drover, who in 1809 became the leader of the Tyrolean Rebellion against the revolutionary Napoleonic invasion during the War of the Fifth Coalition. He was subsequently captured and executed, Hofer is still today venerated as a folk hero, freedom fighter and Austrian patriot. Andreas Hofer was born 1767 in St. Leonhard in Passeier and his father was an innkeeper of the Sandhof inn and Andreas followed in his footsteps when he inherited the establishment. He traded wine and horses in adjacent Northern Italy and learned the Italian language, in 1791 he was elected to the Tyrolean Landtag assembly. In German he was known as a Wirt and thus ever after Sandwirt, in the War of the Third Coalition against the French he became a sharpshooter and a militia captain in the Austrian Imperial and Royal Army. After the Austrian defeat, Tyrol was transferred to the Kingdom of Bavaria according to the 1805 Treaty of Pressburg, during the stern measures of Minister Maximilian von Montgelas and the forced recruitment into the Bavarian Army, Hofer became a leader of the anti-Bavarian movement.
In January 1809, he was part of a delegation to Vienna to ask Emperor Francis I of Austria for support for a possible uprising, the Emperor gave his assurances and the delegation returned home. Hofer begun to secretly organize insurrection, visiting villagers and holding councils of war in local inns, reputedly he was so much on the move that he signed his messages Andreas Hofer, from where I am and letters to him were addressed to wherever he may be. At the same time other leaders organized their own forces elsewhere in the Alps, Hofer became a leader of a militia contingent in the Passeier Valley. The Tyrolean Rebellion began on 9 April 1809 in Innsbruck, the previous night, organizers dumped sacks of sawdust into the River Inn as a sign to start the rebellion, floating through the town and down the Inn Valley, it alerted the rebels. Church bells summoned men to fight with muskets and farmyard implements and they soon overran smaller Bavarian garrisons and surprised a column of French infantry that was passing through the area.
On April 11 Tyrolean militia defeated a Bavarian force in Sterzing which led to the occupation of Innsbruck before noon, the Bavarians re-occupied Innsbruck on May 19. However, when their French allies left, the rebellion flared up again, Hofer became the effective commander-in-chief of the Tyrolean rebels, with the support of other leaders such as Josef Speckbacher and Father Joachim Haspinger. He commanded a force of Tyroleans approximately 20,000 strong, in the second Battle of Bergisel, from May 25 to May 291809, Hofers troops again defeated the Bavarians, driving them out of the country and retaking Innsbruck on May 30. On May 29 Hofer received a letter from Emperor Francis in which he promised not to any peace treaty that would include giving up Tyrol. An Austrian intendant came to rule Tyrol and Hofer returned to his home, Napoleon again defeated Austrian troops in the Battle of Wagram on July 6. The Armistice of Znaim ceded Tyrol to Bavaria again, Napoleon sent 40,000 French and Bavarian troops to take over Tyrol and they re-occupied Innsbruck.
After little hesitation, Hofer joined battle again, the French offered a reward for his head
Around 40,000 soldiers,15,000 horses together with field artillery and two siege trains crossed the North Sea and landed at Walcheren on 30 July. This was the largest British expedition of that year, larger than the serving in the Peninsular War in Portugal. The Walcheren Campaign involved little fighting, but heavy losses from the popularly dubbed Walcheren Fever. Although more than 4,000 British troops died during the expedition, only 106 died in combat, in July 1809, the British decided to seal the mouth of the Scheldt to prevent the port of Antwerp being used as a base against them. The primary aim of the campaign was to destroy the French fleet thought to be in Flushing whilst providing a diversion for the hard-pressed Austrians, the Battle of Wagram had already occurred before the start of the campaign and the Austrians had effectively already lost the war. John Pitt, 2nd Earl of Chatham commanded the army, whilst Sir Richard Strachan commanded the navy, as a first move, the British seized the swampy island of Walcheren at the mouth of river Scheldt, as well as South Beveland island, both in the present-day Netherlands.
The British troops soon began to suffer from malaria, within a month of seizing the island, the medical provisions for the expedition proved inadequate despite reports that an occupying French force had lost 80% of its numbers a few years earlier, due to disease. Once it had decided to garrison Walcheren Island in September 1809. The French forces were commanded by Jean-Baptiste Bernadotte, who had just been stripped of his command after disobeying orders at Wagram, dismissed from Napoleons Grande Armée, Bernadotte returned to Paris and was sent to defend the Netherlands by the council of ministers. With the main objective for the British out of reach, the expedition was called off in early September, around 12,000 troops stayed on Walcheren, but by October only 5,500 remained fit for duty. In all, the British government spent almost £8 million on the campaign, along with the 4,000 men that had died during the campaign, almost 12,000 were still ill by February 1810 and many others remained permanently weakened.
Those sent to the Peninsular War to join Wellingtons army caused a permanent doubling of the sick lists there, a number of smaller vessels including customs-house and excise cutters were involved, as was a packet ship. The City of London, Loyal Greenwich, and Royal Harbour River Fencibles contributed men to the expedition, the 1st battalion of the Irish Legion was stationed in Flushing during the assault and received its baptism of fire there. It fought a rear guard action for days but the battalion was almost completely captured. The Legions brass band followed by the Irish battalion led the surrendered French garrison out of the town, however, a small party of Irishmen escaped and went into hiding with the battalions cherished imperial eagle, and after a few days they crossed the Scheldt River and escaped. Commandant Lawless was presented to Napoleon and he together with Captain OReilly received the Légion dhonneur in gratitude, the British Expeditionary Force to Walcheren,1809
Kingdom of Italy (Napoleonic)
The Kingdom of Italy was a French client state founded in Northern Italy by Napoleon I, fully influenced by revolutionary France, that ended with his defeat and fall. Napoleon I was crowned at the Duomo di Milano, Milan on May 26 and his title was Emperor of the French and King of Italy, showing the importance of this Italian Kingdom for him. Even though the republican Constitution was never abolished, a series of Constitutional Statutes completely altered it. The second one, dating from March 29, and regulated the regency, the Great Officials of the kingdom, the Consulta, Legislative Council, and Speakers, were all merged in a Council of State, whose opinions became only optional and not binding for the king. The Legislative Body, the old parliament, remained in theory, but it never summoned after 1805, the fourth Statute, decided on February 16,1806, indicated Beauharnais as the heir to the throne. The seventh Statute, on September 21, created a new nobility of dukes and barons, the eighth, in 1812, a Court of Accounts was added.
The Duchy of Guastalla was annexed on May 24, with the Convention of Fontainebleau with Austria of October 10,1807, Italy ceded Monfalcone to Austria and gained Gradisca, putting the new border on the Isonzo River. The conquered Republic of Ragusa was annexed in spring 1808 by general Marmont and that was the only time in modern history that Ragusa was united to Italy. On April 2,1808, following the dissolution of the Papal States, at its maximum extent, the Kingdom had 6,700,000 inhabitants and was composed by 2,155 communes. Small changes to the borders between Italy and France in Garfagnana and Friuli came in act on August 5,1811, in practice, the Kingdom was a dependency of the French Empire. The Kingdom served as a theater in Napoleons operations against Austria during the wars of the various coalitions, trading with the United Kingdom was forbidden. The kingdom was given a new currency, replacing the local coins circulating in the country, the Italian lira, of the same size, weight. Mintage being decided by Napoleon with a decree on March 21,1806.
The monetary unit was the silver lira, which was 5 grams heavy, there were multiples of £2 and £5, and precious coins of £20 and £40. The army of the kingdom, inserted into the Grande Armée, in the course of its existence from 1805 to 1814 the Kingdom of Italy provided Napoleon I with roughly around 200,000 soldiers. In 1805 Italian troops served on duty along the English Channel, during 1806-1807 they took part in the sieges of Kolberg and Danzig. From 1808 to 1813 whole Italian divisions served in Spain, especially distinguishing themselves under Suchet at Tarragona and Saguntum. In 1809, Eugènes Army of Italy formed the wing of Napoleon Is invasion of the Austrian Empire, winning a considerable victory at Raab
The Austrian Empire was an empire in Central Europe created out of the realms of the Habsburgs by proclamation in 1804. It was an empire and one of Europes great powers. Geographically it was the second largest country in Europe after the Russian Empire and it was the third most populous after Russia and France, as well as the largest and strongest country in the German Confederation. Proclaimed in response to the First French Empire, it overlapped with the Holy Roman Empire until the dissolution in 1806. The Ausgleich of 1867 elevated Hungarys status and it became a separate entity from the Empire entirely, joining with it in the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary. Changes shaping the nature of the Holy Roman Empire took place during conferences in Rastatt, on 24 March 1803, the Imperial Recess was declared, which reduced the number of ecclesiastical states from 81 to only 3 and the free imperial cities from 51 to 6. This measure was aimed at replacing the old constitution of the Holy Roman Empire, taking this significant change into consideration, the German Emperor Francis II created the title Emperor of Austria, for himself and his successors.
In 1804 the Holy Roman Emperor Francis II, who was ruler of the lands of the Habsburg Monarchy, founded the Empire of Austria. In doing so he created a formal overarching structure for the Habsburg Monarchy, to safeguard his dynastys imperial status he adopted the additional hereditary title of Emperor of Austria. Hungarys affairs remained administered by its own institutions as they had been beforehand, thus under the new arrangements no Imperial institutions were involved in its internal government. The fall and dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire was accelerated by French intervention in the Empire in September 1805, on 20 October 1805, an Austrian army led by general Karl Mack von Leiberich was defeated by French armies near the town of Ulm. The French victory resulted in the capture of 20,000 Austrian soldiers, Napoleons army won another victory at Austerlitz on 2 December 1805. Francis was forced into negotiations with the French from 4 to 6 December 1805, the French victories encouraged rulers of certain imperial territories to assert their formal independence from the Empire.
On 10 December 1805, the prince-elector Duke of Bavaria proclaimed himself King, finally, on 12 December, the Margrave of Baden was given the title of Grand Duke. In addition, each of these new countries signed a treaty with France, the Treaty of Pressburg between France and Austria, signed in Pressburg on 26 December, enlarged the territory of Napoleons German allies at the expense of defeated Austria. Certain Austrian holdings in Germany were passed to French allies—the King of Bavaria, the King of Württemberg, Austrian claims on those German states were renounced without exception. On 12 July 1806, the Confederation of the Rhine was established, comprising 16 sovereigns and this confederation, under French influence, put an end to the Holy Roman Empire. On 6 August 1806, even Francis recognized the new state of things and proclaimed the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire, as he did not want Napoleon to succeed him
Battle of Sankt Michael
In the Battle of Sankt Michael on 25 May 1809, Paul Greniers French corps crushed Franz Jellacics Austrian division at Sankt Michael in Obersteiermark, Austria. The action occurred after the initial French victories during the War of the Fifth Coalition, Sankt Michael is located approximately 140 kilometers southwest of Vienna. Originally part of the Danube army of Archduke Charles, Jellacics division was detached to the south before the Battle of Eckmühl and ordered to join the army of Archduke John at Graz. As it retreated southeast toward Graz, Jellacics division passed across the front of Eugène de Beauharnais Army of Italy, when he learned of Jellacics presence, Eugène sent Grenier with two divisions to intercept the Austrian column. Greniers lead division duly intercepted Jellacics force and attacked, though the Austrians were able to hold off the French at first, they were unable to get away. The second French divisions arrival secured a numerical superiority over Jellacic. Greniers subsequent French assault broke the Austrian lines and captured thousands of prisoners, when Jellacic joined John it was with only a fraction of his original force.
In the opening encounters of the 1809 war between France and Austria, Emperor Napoleon beat Feldmarschall-Leutnant Johann von Hiller at the battles of Abensberg and Landshut on 20 and 21 April. The following day, Napoleon defeated Generalissimo Archduke Charles at the Battle of Eckmühl, when Bavaria was invaded, Archduke Charles detached Jellacic to advance from Salzburg and occupy Munich on the extreme south flank. To better perform this mission, Hoffmeisters brigade was exchanged for General-Major Karl Dollmayer von Provenchères cavalry-infantry brigade from the light division. After the Austrian retreat began, Jellacic was ordered to back on Salzburg. Accordingly, elements of his command began assembling in Salzburg beginning on 29 April, believing cavalry was of little use in the mountains, Jellacic sent Provenchères toward Vienna on 1 May with the OReilly Chevauxlegers #3. Hiller fought the Battle of Ebersberg on 3 May, crossed to the bank of the Danube on 11 May. On 4 and 5 May, Jellacic fought a rearguard action at Lueg Pass,40 km south of Salzburg.
In the clash, a few hundred Hungarian regulars and Grenz infantry repulsed a brigade of pursuing Bavarians under the command of Marshal François Joseph Lefebvre. In Italy, General of Cavalry Archduke John defeated Viceroy Eugène at the Battle of Sacile on 16 April, Eugène fell back to Verona where he gathered reinforcements until he was superior in numbers to his Austrian opponent. After hearing news that Archduke Charles was in retreat, John withdrew from his Adige River defenses on 1 May, on 8 May, Eugène and John fought the Battle of Piave River and the Austrian retreat continued. John split his army, sending Feldmarschall-Leutnant Ignaz Gyulai along a route to Ljubljana
Battle of Caldiero (1809)
The outnumbered Austrians successfully fended off the attacks of their enemies in actions at San Bonifacio and Castelcerino before retreating to the east. The clash occurred during the War of the Fifth Coalition, part of the Napoleonic Wars, in the opening engagements of the war, Archduke John defeated the Franco-Italian army and drove it back to the Adige River at Verona. Forced to detach forces to watch Venice and other enemy-held fortresses. Eugène probed at San Bonifacio on the 27th, on 29 April, he ordered part of his troops to make a holding attack against Soave while he sent an Italian force to seize the high ground on the Austrian right flank. On the 30th, the Austrians recaptured Castelcerino, which was lost the previous day, while this action was being fought, Johns army began its retreat to the Brenta River at Bassano. Caldiero is located 15 kilometres east of Verona, the towns of Soave and San Bonifacio lie along the Autostrada A4 about 25 kilometres east of Verona. Castelcerino is a village in the hills about 4.5 kilometres north of Soave.
See Sacile 1809 Order of Battle for a list of units, the VIII Armeekorps massed at Villach in Carinthia and the IX Armeekorps concentrated to the south at Ljubljana in Carniola, in modern-day Slovenia. General-major Andreas von Stoichevich was detached with 10,000 troops to observe General of Division Auguste Marmonts XI Corps in Dalmatia, a force of 26,000 Landwehr manned garrisons and defended Inner Austria. John wanted the VIII Armeekorps to march southwest from Villach while the IX Armeekorps moved northwest from Laibach, the two forces would join near Cividale del Friuli. At the start of the war, the Tyrolese people rose in revolt, under leaders such as Andreas Hofer they started attacking the Bavarian garrisons. Hoping to aid the rebellion, Austrian commander-in-chief Archduke Charles, Duke of Teschen ordered John to detach Chasteler and 10,000 Austrian troops to assist the Tyrolese, chastelers replacement as the commander of the shrunken VIII Armeekorps was Albert Gyulai, Ignaz Gyulais brother.
Suspecting that Austria planned to initiate a war, Napoleon built up the French part of the Army of Italy to six infantry, actually, a good many of the so-called French soldiers were Italians, because Napoleon had annexed parts of northwest Italy to the First French Empire. In addition, Eugène assembled three Italian infantry divisions so that the Franco-Italian army numbered 70,000 troops, the army was dispersed across northern Italy. Eugène never led large formations into battle, yet Napoleon appointed him commander of the Army of Italy, to prepare his stepson Eugène for the role, the emperor wrote him many detailed letters advising him how to defend Italy. He urged Eugène to fall back from the Isonzo River line to the Piave River if the Austrians invaded in strength, Napoleon made the point that the Adige River was an extremely important strategic position. He did not believe Austria was going to attack in April, Eugènes army remained somewhat dispersed. On 10 April 1809, the Austrian VIII Armeekorps advanced from Tarvisio while the IX Armeekorps crossed the Isonzo River near Cividale, by the 12th they joined near Udine and pushed to the west
Battle of Raab
The Battle of Raab was fought on June 14,1809 during the Napoleonic Wars, between Franco-Italian forces and Habsburg forces. The battle was fought near Győr, Kingdom of Hungary, Napoleon referred to the battle as a granddaughter of Marengo and Friedland, as it fell on the anniversary of those two battles. During the 1809 campaign in Italy, Viceroy Eugène de Beauharnais led the Franco-Italian army while General der Kavallerie Archduke John of Austria commanded the Austrian army, at the outbreak of war, John moved rapidly to defeat his opponent at the Battle of Sacile on 16 April. This victory drove Eugène back to the Adige River, the front remained static for a few weeks despite attacks by Eugène in the Battle of Caldiero. Meanwhile, an Austrian force bottled up the corps of General of Division Auguste Marmont in Dalmatia, after the Austrian defeat at the Battle of Eckmühl, John received orders to retreat in order to cover the strategic left flank of the army in southern Germany. John fought Eugène in a rearguard action at the Battle of Piave River on 8 May.
Up to this moment and his soldiers had fought well, John probably committed a serious blunder by splitting up his command. With the main army he fell back to the northeast, by the second week of May and Feldmarschallleutnant Albert Gyulai stood at Tarvisio with 8,340 troops. Feldmarschallleutnant Johann Maria Philipp Frimonts 13, 060-man Mobile Force lay at nearby Villach, Feldmarschallleutnant Ignaz Gyulai with 14,880 men of the IX Armeekorps defended the Ljubljana area to the southeast of Villach. Far to the west-northwest, Feldmarschallleutnant Johann Gabriel Chasteler de Courcelles and 17,460 soldiers of the VIII Armeekorps held the region around Innsbruck, Feldmarschallleutnant Franjo Jelačić and the 10, 200-strong Northern Division was stationed at Salzburg to the northwest. Finally, General-major Andreas von Stoichewichs 8,100 men continued to pin Marmont in Dalmatia to the south of Ljubljana, by this time a large proportion of Johns forces was made up of hastily raised landwehr infantry.
On 13 May, Marshal François Joseph Lefebvre and a Bavarian army wrecked part of Chastelers corps at the Battle of Wörgl near Innsbruck, on 17 May, John received orders to cut the communications of Emperor Napoleons Grand Army by moving north. However, the archduke delayed too long in carrying out this assignment, though badly isolated, Jelačić remained near Salzburg until 19 May. When he finally got moving it was too late, a French corps under General of Division Paul Grenier cut the Northern Division to pieces at the Battle of Sankt Michael on 25 May. John pulled back to Graz, but when he heard of Jelačićs disaster, during May, small Grenz infantry forces heroically defended the mountain passes during the Battle of Tarvis. At Malborghetto Valbruna,400 soldiers held a blockhouse against 15,000 Frenchmen between 15 and 17 May and only 50 men survived, the French admitted only 80 casualties. At the Predil Pass blockhouse,250 Austrians and 8 cannon held off 8,500 French soldiers for three days, on 18 May, when the position was finally overrun, the Grenzers were killed to a man.
The French admitted suffering 450 casualties, at Tarvisio itself, Eugène inflicted a serious defeat on Albert Gyulais outnumbered division
County of Tyrol
The Princely County of Tyrol, until 1493, County of Tyrol, was a State of the Holy Roman Empire established about 1140. Originally a jurisdiction under the sovereignty of the Counts of Tyrol, it was inherited by the Counts of Gorizia in 1253, today the territory of the historic crown land is divided between the Italian autonomous region of Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol and the Austrian state of Tyrol. Both parts are today associated again in the Tyrol–South Tyrol–Trentino Euroregion, the German monarchs regularly travelled across Brenner or Reschen Pass on their Italian expeditions aiming at papal coronation or the consolidation of Imperial rule. In 1004 King Henry II of Germany separated the estates of Trent from the North Italian March of Verona, especially the Brixen bishops remained loyal supporters of the Salian rulers in the Investiture Controversy and in 1091 received the Puster Valley from the hands of Emperor Henry IV. Documented from about 1140 onwards, the comital dynasty residing in Tyrol Castle near Meran held the office of Vogts in the Trent diocese and they extended their territory over much of the region and came to surpass the power of the bishops, who were nominally their feudal lords.
After the deposition of the Welf duke Henry X of Bavaria in 1138, when Henry the Lion was again enfeoffed with the Bavarian duchy by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa at the 1154 Imperial Diet in Goslar, his possessions no longer comprised the Tyrolean lands. The Counts maintained that independence under the rising Bavarian Wittelsbach dynasty, in 1210, Count Albert IV of Tyrol took over the Vogt office in the Bishopric of Brixen, prevailing against the rivalling Counts of Andechs. In 1253 Count Meinhard of Gorizia inherited the Tyrolean lands by his marriage to Adelheid, when their sons divided their estate in 1271, the elder Meinhard II took Tyrol, for which he was recognized as an immediate lordship. He supported the German king Rudolph of Habsburg against his rival King Ottokar II of Bohemia, in reward, he received the Duchy of Carinthia with the Carniolan march in 1286. In 1307 Meinhards son Henry was elected King of Bohemia, After his death, he had one surviving daughter, Margaret Maultasch, in 1342 she married Louis V of Wittelsbach, Margrave of Brandenburg.
Louis V died in 1361, followed by Margarets son Meinhard III two years later, lacking any descendants to succeed her, she bequeathed the county to Rudolph IV of Habsburg, Duke of Austria in 1363. He was recognized by the House of Wittelsbach in 1369, from that time onward, Tyrol was ruled by various lines of the Austrian Habsburg dynasty, who held the title of Count. After the Habsburg hereditary lands had been divided by the 1379 Treaty of Neuberg, after a second division within the Leopoldinian line in 1406, Duke Frederick IV of the Empty Pockets ruled them. In 1420 he made Innsbruck the Tyrolean residence, in 1490 his son and heir Sigismund renounced Tyrol and Further Austria in favour of his cousin German king Maximilian I of Habsburg. By Maximilian I had re-united all Habsburg lands under his rule, in 1500 he acquired the remaining Gorizia territories around Lienz and the Puster Valley. When Emperor Ferdinand I of Habsburg died in 1564, he bequeathed the rule over Tyrol, both territories thereafter fell to the younger sons of the Habsburg Emperors, Archduke Matthias in 1608 and Maximilian III in 1612.
After the death of Archduke Sigismund Francis in 1665, all Habsburg lands were again under the rule of the Emperor Leopold I. From the time of Maria Theresa of Austria onward, Tyrol was governed by a government of the Habsburg Monarchy at Vienna in all matters of major importance
Battle of Abensberg
As the day wore on, Feldmarschall-Leutnant Johann von Hiller arrived with reinforcements to take command of the three corps that formed the Austrian left wing. The action ended in a complete Franco-German victory, the battlefield was southeast of Abensberg and included clashes at Offenstetten, Biburg-Siegenburg, Rohr in Niederbayern, and Rottenburg an der Laaber. On the same day, the French garrison of Regensburg capitulated, after Marshal Louis-Nicolas Davouts hard-fought victory at Battle of Teugen-Hausen the previous day, Napoleon determined to break through the Austrian defenses behind the Abens River. The emperor assembled a provisional corps consisting of part of Davouts corps plus cavalry, Napoleon directed his German allies from the Kingdom of Bavaria and the Kingdom of Württemberg to attack across the Abens from the west, while Lannes thrust from the north toward Rohr. While the Austrians initially held the line, Lannes strike force crashed through Louis defenses farther east. On the left, the Austrians managed to conduct a capable rear guard action, the day ended with the Austrians barely holding onto a line behind the Große Laber River.
The next day, Hiller withdrew to Landshut, separating the left wing from the army under Generalissimo Archduke Charles. The French surrender of Regensburg on 20 April allowed Charles army a retreat route to the bank of the Danube. The Battle of Landshut was fought on 21 April, Archduke Charles stole a march on Napoleon when his army invaded the Kingdom of Bavaria on 10 April 1809. Even though the Austrian army took six days to march from the Inn River at the frontier to the Isar River. Napoleons deputy commander, Marshal Louis Alexandre Berthier mismanaged the Grande Armées concentration, the central mass of Archduke Charles 209, 600-man host crossed the Isar at Landshut on 16 April, but the next day Emperor Napoleon arrived at the front from Paris. On 19 April, Charles realized he had an opportunity to destroy Davout and he launched 65,000 troops in three powerful columns northwest as Davout attempted a flank march across his front. Luckily for the French, General of Cavalry Johann I Joseph, both sides fed in reinforcements as the infantry battled over a pair of parallel ridges in the Battle of Teugen-Hausen.
Ultimately, Davout brought superior forces to bear in the late afternoon and that night, Charles ordered Hohenzollern to withdraw a little to the east, closer to his main body. On the morning of 19 April, Archduke Charles requested that Hohenzollern provide a link between the III and V Armeekorps, the III Armeekorps commander detached General-Major Ludwig Thierrys 6, 000-man infantry brigade to his left. While the Battle of Teugen-Hausen raged, Thierry clashed with Bavarian troops near Arnhofen, on 20 April, Archduke Charles main body consisted of the III, IV, and I Reserve Armeekorps. These were arrayed near Dünzling and Eckmühl, feldzeugmeister Johann Kollowrats II Armeekorps spent 19 April attacking Regensburg from north of the Danube. While successfully defending the city, Colonel Louis Coutards 2, 000-man 65th Line Infantry Regiment ran dangerously low on small-arms ammunition, General of Cavalry Count Heinrich von Bellegardes I Armeekorps remained north of the Danube
Battle of Aspern-Essling
In the Battle of Aspern-Essling, Napoleon attempted a forced crossing of the Danube near Vienna, but the French and their allies were driven back by the Austrians under Archduke Charles. The battle was the first time Napoleon had been defeated in over a decade. However, Archduke Charles failed to secure a victory as Napoleon was able to successfully withdraw most of his forces. The French wanted to cross the Danube, a first crossing attempt on the Schwarze Lackenau on 13 May was repulsed with some 700 French losses. Lobau, one of the islands that divided the river into minor channels, was selected as the next point of crossing. Careful preparations were made, and on the night of 19–20 May the French bridged all the channels on the bank to Lobau. By the evening of the 20th many men had collected there. Massénas corps at once crossed to the bank and dislodged the Austrian outposts. The Archduke did not resist the passage and it was his intention, as soon as a large enough force had crossed, to attack it before the rest of the French army could come to its assistance.
Napoleon had accepted the risk of such an attack, but he sought at the time to minimize it by summoning every available battalion to the scene. His forces on the Marchfeld were drawn up in front of the bridges facing north, with their left in the village of Aspern and their right in Essling. Both places lay close to the Danube and could not therefore be turned, the French had to fill the gap between the villages, and move forward to give room for the supporting units to form up. Prince Johann of Liechtensteins Austrian reserve cavalry was in the center, during the 21st the bridges became more and more unsafe, owing to the violence of the current, but the French crossed without intermission all day and during the night. Kaiserlich-Königliche Hauptarmee, under the command of Charles of Austria, 3rd Column, Vanguard, notitz 3rd Column, Hohenzollern-Hechingen, Advance Guard Div. Brady Div. Dedovich 5th Column, Rosenberg/Hohenlohe, Rohan Div,3, Arrighi II Corps, Lannes †, Div. Saint-Hilaire † Div.
of reserve, Demont IV Corps, Masséna, lasalle Cavalry Reserve Corps, Bessières, Div. The French infantry fought with the old stubborn bravery which it had failed to show in the battles of the year. The three Austrian columns were unable to more than half the village
Battle of Graz
The Battle of Graz took place on 24–26 June 1809 between an Austrian corps commanded by Ignaz Gyulai and a French division led by Jean-Baptiste Broussier. The French were soon reinforced by a corps under Auguste Marmont, the battle is considered a French victory though Gyulai was successful in getting supplies to the Austrian garrison of Graz before the two French forces drove him away from the city. Graz, Austria is located 145 kilometers south-southwest of Vienna at the intersection of the modern A2, before the Battle of Raab on 14 June, the Franco-Italian army left Broussiers division in its rear to besiege an Austrian garrison in the Graz citadel. When Gyulais force appeared before the town in late June, Broussier retreated, on the night of 25 June, Broussier sent two unsupported battalions of the 84th Line Infantry Regiment against the town. Surrounded by a superior force of Austrians, the French stubbornly defended their position until the next afternoon. The 84th was soon joined by Auguste Marmonts newly arrived French corps, Marmont attacked and forced Gyulai to retreat from Graz.
The castle hill, remained in possession of its Austrian garrison, shortly afterward, Emperor Napoleon I summoned both Marmont and Broussier to march to Vienna, where both participated in the climactic Battle of Wagram on 5 and 6 July. In recognition of its action, the 84th was allowed to inscribe UN CONTRE DIX on its colors. On 8 May 1809, the Viceroy of Italy, Eugène de Beauharnais and his Franco-Italian army defeated General der Kavallerie Archduke John of Austria at the Battle of Piave River, after the battle, John made the decision to split his army into two parts. He took the troops of Feldmarschall-Leutnants Albert Gyulai and Johann Frimont northeast to Villach and sent Ignaz Gyulai and this dispersal of the available Austrian military units made Eugènes subsequent invasion of Inner Austria considerably easier. Johns purpose in sending Ignaz Gyulai to Carniola was to raise the Croatian Feudal Ban, on 15 May, the troops reporting to Archduke John were distributed as follows. On the right flank, General of Division Jacques MacDonald led two divisions and General of Division Charles Randon de Pullys cavalry, altogether 14,000 troops.
General of Division Jean-Baptiste Rusca commanded a guard that marched on Eugènes left. Eugène captured two forts and defeated Albert Gyulai at the Battle of Tarvis from 15 to 18 May. Archduke John retreated from Villach toward Graz, where he arrived on 24 May, the next day, Greniers two divisions crushed Feldmarschall-Leutnant Franz Jellacics division in the Battle of Sankt Michael. Only 2,000 of Jellacics troops managed to join John at Graz, the rest were killed or captured. On 26 May, Eugène reached Bruck an der Mur and established contact with Napoleons main army which had occupied Vienna on 13 May, MacDonald occupied Ljubljana on 23 May, capturing 7,000 muskets,71 artillery pieces, and large supplies of food and munitions. Another French column occupied Trieste, seizing 22,000 British-supplied muskets intended for the use of the Hungarian and Croatian militia, ordered to move closer to Eugène, MacDonald marched northeast to Maribor where he met Grouchy and a cavalry-infantry force