Didier Joseph Louis Pironi was a French racing driver. During his career he competed in 72 Formula One World Championship Grands Prix, driving for Tyrrell and Ferrari, he won the 24 Hours of Le Mans in 1978 driving a Renault Alpine A442B. Pironi was born in Val-de-Marne, he is the half brother of José Dolhem. He began studying as an engineer and earned a degree in science, but entering the family construction business fell by the wayside following his enrollment at the Paul Ricard driving school, he was awarded Pilot Elf sponsorship in 1972, a program designed to promote young French motorsport talent, that led Alain Prost, René Arnoux and Patrick Tambay into Formula One. After becoming Formula Renault champion in France in 1974, taking the Super Renault championship title in 1976 and winning the prestigious Monaco Grand Prix Formula Three support race in 1977, Pironi made his F1 debut at the Argentine GP on 15 January 1978; this was with Ken Tyrrell's team which, despite being British, had a strong working relationship with Elf, dating back to the late 1960s.
In the same year, Pironi was part of the massive Renault squad tasked with winning the 24 Hours of Le Mans. Partnering Jean-Pierre Jaussaud in the team's second car, the unusual "bubble roof" A442B, he won the race by four laps from the rival Porsche 936s. Two seasons with the underfinanced Tyrrell team demonstrated enough promise for Guy Ligier to sign Pironi to his eponymous French team in 1980, a season in which Pironi recorded his first victory, in the Belgian Grand Prix at Zolder, as well as several podium finishes; the Ligier JS11/15 could not reach its maximum potential. A combination of the team's incompetence and Laffite being in firm political control meant that Pironi was not going to win the championship with Ligier. Pironi's performance piqued Enzo Ferrari's interest in the Frenchman's services, which he secured for 1981. Ferrari recalled, "As soon as Pironi arrived at Maranello, he won everyone's admiration and affection, not only for his gifts as an athlete, but for his way of doing things - he was reserved while at the same time outgoing."Teamed and compared with Gilles Villeneuve, who welcomed the Frenchman and treated him as an equal, Pironi was slower in qualifying but steadier in races during his first season with Ferrari.
Establishing a fine rapport with the senior members of the team, Pironi arguably exploited this good relationship in the aftermath of the controversial 1982 San Marino race, where Pironi is thought to have duped Villeneuve into conceding victory by giving the impression that he would finish behind his teammate, only to unexpectedly power past him into the Tosa hairpin, despite the team having signaled both drivers to slow down. Villeneuve vowed never to say another word to him; the Canadian was killed in qualifying two weeks at the following Belgian Grand Prix at Zolder trying to better Pironi's lap time, Villeneuve's state of mind is considered a contributory cause to his fatal accident. Harvey Postlethwaite believed that the "drama" following San Marino was blown out of proportion by the press, "Villeneuve was upset because he felt he should have been handed the race on a plate... They were competitive and either of them could win."He mentioned a technical reason as to why the two Ferraris were swapping places so during the San Marino race.
"The turbo pressure was very difficult to control. Most of the reason that they were able to pass one another so evenly was that one would go through a sticky patch and sort of only be giving 4-bar of boost or 4.2, the other would be getting a burst of 4.5, so it would have the legs of the other guy. It wasn't quite as spectacular as it appeared at the time."According to Ferrari's chief mechanic Paolo Scaramelli, the team had agreed before the race that if the two Renaults were out, the drivers should have maintained position. Pironi did. We agreed to make a spectacle for the first half of the race so long as our positions on the lap after half-distance were the same as on the grid. We started the real race at half-distance and so had plenty of fuel; the team didn't know that, Marco Piccinini and Gérard Larrousse didn't know, only the mechanics knew, but Prost and Arnoux - they will tell you the same." Pironi went on to add, "When I passed Villeneuve the first time, this was because he had made a mistake and had gone off the circuit.
The first slow sign we got was a few laps after that, by we knew we had a lot of fuel left because of the way we drove the first half of the race." In a 2002 interview with Motor Sport, Marco Piccinini supported Pironi's view, "It was a genuine misunderstanding triggered by Gilles making a mistake. He went off the circuit and Didier passed; the sign was hung out. We didn't favor either. We just wanted to maintain 1-2." In 2007, former Marlboro marketing executive John Hogan disputed the claim that Pironi had gone back on a prior arrangement with Villeneuve. He said: "I think Gilles was stunned somebody had out-driven him and that it just caught him so much by surprise."With a fast, reliable car, Pironi appeared to be on course for being 1982 World Champion, but the Frenchman's own state of mind underwent severe stress due to several factors
British American Tobacco
British American Tobacco plc is a British multinational cigarette and tobacco manufacturing company headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It is the largest publicly traded tobacco company in the world. BAT has operations in around 180 countries, its four largest-selling brands are its native brand Dunhill and US brands Lucky Strike and Pall Mall. Other brands that the company markets include Rothmans. BAT is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index, it has secondary listings on the Johannesburg Stock Exchange, the Nairobi Securities Exchange, the Zimbabwe Stock Exchange as well as the New York Stock Exchange. The company was formed in 1904, when the United Kingdom's Imperial Tobacco Company and the United States' American Tobacco Company agreed to form a joint venture, the British-American Tobacco Company Ltd; the parent companies agreed not to trade in each other's domestic territory and to assign trademarks, export businesses and overseas subsidiaries to the joint venture. James Buchanan Duke became company chairman and business was begun in countries as diverse as Canada, Germany, South Africa, New Zealand and Australia, but not in the United Kingdom or in the United States.
In China, BAT inherited a factory in the Pudong district of Shanghai from W. D. & H. O. Wills, one of the precursor companies of Imperial Tobacco. Under the management of James Augustus Thomas from Lawsonville, Rockingham County, USA, by 1919 the Shanghai factory was producing more than 243 million cigarettes per week. Thomas worked with the local Wing Tai Vo Tobacco Company, which developed into BAT's principal Chinese partner after its success with the "Ruby Queen" cigarette brand. In 1911, the American Tobacco Company sold its share of the company. Imperial Tobacco reduced its shareholding, but it was not until 1980 that it divested its remaining interests in the company. At its peak in 1937, BAT distributed 55 billion cigarettes in China; the company's assets were seized by the Japanese in 1941 following their 1937 invasion. In 1949 the company was ejected from China following the foundation of the People's Republic. In 1976 the group companies were reorganised under a new holding company, B.
A. T. Industries. In 1994 BAT acquired American Tobacco Company; this brought the Lucky Pall Mall brands into BAT's portfolio. In 1999 it merged with Rothmans International; this made it the target of criticism from human rights groups. It sold its share of the factory on 6 November 2003 after an "exceptional request" from the British government. In 2002, BAT lost a lawsuit about the right to sell cigarettes under the Marlboro brand name in the UK, it had acquired Rothmans, which had bought a licence to use the name from Philip Morris. Philip Morris' attorneys invoked a get-out clause for the case of a major change of ownership. In 2003, BAT acquired Ente Tabacchi Italiani S.p. A, Italy's state tobacco company; the important acquisition would elevate BAT to the number two position in Italy, the second largest tobacco market in the European Union. The scale of the enlarged operations would bring significant opportunities to compete and grow ETI's local brands and BAT's international brands. In August 2003, BAT acquired a 67.8% holding in the Serbian tobacco company Duvanska Industrija Vranje, allowing local manufacture of its brands, freeing them from import duties.
In the longer term, export opportunities are planned as neighbouring countries in south east Europe developed free trade agreements. In July 2004 the U. S. business of British American Tobacco was combined with that of R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company, under the R. J. Reynolds name. R. J. Reynolds and Brown & Williamson were the second and third-ranking U. S. tobacco companies prior to the combination. When they combined, R. J. Reynolds became a subsidiary of Reynolds American, with BAT holding a 42% share. In January 2007, BAT closed its remaining UK production plant in Southampton with the loss of over 600 jobs. However, the global Research and Development operation and some financial functions will continue on the site. In 2008 BAT acquired Turkey's state-owned cigarette maker Tekel. In July 2008, BAT snus operations of the Scandinavian Tobacco Group. BAT acquired 60% of Indonesia's Bentoel Group in 2009 before increasing its stake to 100% the following year. In May 2011 BAT acquired the Colombian company Productora Tabacalera de Tabacos S.
A.. In October 2015 BAT acquired the Croatian tobacco company TDR d.o.o. Brands and Factory in Kanfanar. In October 2016, BAT offered to buy the remaining 57.8 percent of U. S. cigarette maker Reynolds American in a $47 billion takeover that would create the world's biggest listed tobacco company with brands including Newport, Lucky Strike and Pall Mall. In January 2017, Reynolds agreed to an increased $49.4 billion deal. The deal was completed in July 2017. In April 2017, the company announced the acquisition of a number of Bulgarian cigarette brands from Bulgartabac for more than €100 million. Recent financial performance has been as follows: The company offers an extensive range of brands: International Brands include Dunhill, North State Lucky Strike, Pall Mall, Rothmans International, State Express 555, KOOL, Viceroy. British American Tobacco does not own the rights to all of these brands in every nation they are marketed. Local brands owned by British American Tobacco include: Benson & Hedges, John Players Gold Leaf, State Express 555, Belmont (Colombia, Chile
March Engineering was a Formula One constructor and manufacturer of customer racing cars from the United Kingdom. Although only moderately successful in Grand Prix competition, March racing cars enjoyed much better achievement in other categories of competition, including Formula Two, Formula Three, IndyCar and IMSA GTP sportscar racing. March Engineering began operations in 1969, its four founders were Alan Rees, Graham Coaker and Robin Herd. They each had a specific area of expertise: Max Mosley looked after the commercial side, Robin Herd was the designer, Alan Rees managed the racing team and Graham Coaker oversaw production at the factory in Bicester, Oxfordshire; the history of March is dominated by the conflict between the need for constant development and testing to remain at the peak of competitiveness in F1 and the need to build simple, reliable cars for customers in order to make a profit. Herd's original F1 plan was to build a single-car team around Jochen Rindt, but Rindt became dismayed at the size of the March programme and elected to continue at Team Lotus.
March's launch was unprecedented in its impact. After building a single Formula Three car in 1969, March announced that they would be introducing customer cars for F1, F2, F3, Formula Ford and Can-Am in 1970, as well as running works F1, F2 and F3 teams; the Formula One effort looked promising, with March supplying its 701 chassis to Tyrrell for Jackie Stewart. These cars were a stopgap for Tyrrell, who no longer had the use of Matra chassis and were in the process of constructing their own car. In addition, the factory ran two team cars for Jo Siffert and Chris Amon sponsored by STP. A third STP car, entered by Andy Granatelli for Mario Andretti, appeared on several occasions. Ronnie Peterson appeared in a semi-works car for Colin Crabbe when his works Formula Two commitments allowed; the team constructed ten Formula One chassis that year, in addition to Formula Two, Formula Three, Formula Ford and Can-Am chassis. Stewart gave the March its first Formula One victory, at the 1970 Spanish Grand Prix, both Amon and Stewart took a non-championship race victory, but the works team did not win a Grand Prix.
The 701 had distinctive aerofoil-profile fuel tanks at the sides of the car designed by Peter Wright of Specialised Mouldings. The 701's tanks skirts to help generate any meaningful ground effect. Herd described the 701 as a good 1969 car and not what he would have done had he been able to run a small team for a star like Rindt - the 701 was designed and built quickly and he claims he would have built something more like the 711. For the 1971 Formula One season March Engineering came up with the remarkable 711 chassis, which had aerodynamics by Frank Costin and an ovoid front wing described as the Spitfire or "tea-tray" wing; the car took no wins, but Peterson finished second on four occasions, ending as runner-up in the World Championship. Alfa Romeo V8 powered cars were entered, to little avail; the 1972 Formula One season failed to capitalise on the promise March showed in 1970-71. Three distinct models of the car were used, beginning with the 721, a development of the 711. Peterson and Niki Lauda drove the disappointing experimental 721X factory cars.
Frank Williams ran regular 721 customer cars for Henri Pescarolo and Carlos Pace. The 721X was deemed to be a disaster and abandoned; the 721G was light and quick, the works team soon built their own chassis. The 721G set the trend for future March F1 cars, which for the rest of the 1970s were scaled-up F2 chassis. Meanwhile, March was going from strength to strength in Formula Three; the German team Eifelland entered under its own name a 721 much-modified with distinctive and eccentric bodywork by designer Luigi Colani for its driver Rolf Stommelen. This car was unsuccessful, reverted to conventional 721 form and was used by John Watson to make his F1 debut for John Goldie's Goldie Hexagon Racing team. March's only notable result was Peterson's third place in Germany. 1973 was the low-point for March in Formula One. The four extant 721Gs were re-bodied and fitted with nose-mounted radiators and the crash-absorbing deformable structures that became mandatory that season. Without significant STP money, the March factory team was struggling, running an unsponsored car for Jean-Pierre Jarier, while Hesketh bought a car for James Hunt to race.
Jarier was replaced by Tom Wheatcroft's driver Roger Williamson, who suffered a fatal accident in Zandvoort (at which race March privateer David Purley attempted to resc
1971 Formula One season
The 1971 Formula One season was the 25th season of the FIA's Formula One motor racing. It featured the 22nd World Championship of Drivers and the 13th International Cup for F1 Manufacturers which were contested conurrently over eleven races between 6 March and 3 October; the season included a number of non-championship races open to Formula One cars. The World Championship of Drivers was won by Jackie Stewart, driving a Tyrrell Ford, the International Cup for F1 Manufacturers was won by Tyrrell Ford. After the death of 1970 World Champion Jochen Rindt the previous year, Lotus had a desultory season, with young and inexperienced drivers such as Emerson Fittipaldi appearing in the cars; the team spent a lot of time experimenting with a gas turbine powered car, with four wheel drive again. Using their own chassis inspired by the Matra MS80 but with conventional tanks and Jackie Stewart took success in 1971. Of the eleven World Championship races, Mario Andretti, Jacky Ickx, Jo Siffert, Peter Gethin and François Cevert won one race each, while Stewart won the other six races.
Jo Siffert and Pedro Rodríguez, who had an intense rivalry driving for John Wyer's Gulf-sponsored works Porsche endurance sportscar team, both lost their lives racing in 1971. Rodriguez died driving a Ferrari 512 sports car at an Interserie race at the Norisring, Germany, in July, while Siffert died in a fiery crash at the World Championship Victory Race non-championship Formula One event at Brands Hatch, in October; the battle of the 12 cylinder cars against the lighter Ford Cosworth DFV V8-powered cars proved to be the main theme throughout this season. Dunlop, one of the manufacturers supplying tyres to F1 teams, withdrew from Formula One and left the American giants Goodyear and Firestone to battle it out for this season; this was the first season where at least 22 cars started every Championship race, except the Monaco Grand Prix, where 18 cars started. The maximum race distance for World Championship Grand Prix races was reduced from 400 km to 325 km; the championship was contested over eleven race.
The following teams and drivers competed in the championship. Austrian Jochen Rindt was accorded the championship posthumously in 1970 for Lotus-Ford, his enormous points lead after 4 consecutive championship Grand Prix victories in 1970 consolidated his championship status that year. Briton Jackie Stewart, world champion in 1969, had a transitional year in 1970, using a customer March car after Matra refused to allow Stewart's boss Ken Tyrrell to put a Ford-Cosworth DFV V8 in their car in place of Matra's own V12. Tyrrell was designing his own car in secret in England, the March was an interim solution; the new Tyrrell 001 car was first raced by the Scottish Stewart at the Mont-Tremblant circuit in Quebec, Canada- and was competitive, but he retired due to mechanical failure. The car's competitiveness enabled designer Derek Gardner to produce an more competitive car for the 1971 season- the Tyrrell 002 and 003. 002 had a longer wheelbase and was for Stewart's tall French teammate Francois Cevert, 003 was for the short Stewart.
These 2 cars were mechanically identical. Over the winter months Ferrari technical director Mauro Forghieri and his engineers at Ferrari developed the car into 312B/2 form. Jacky Ickx and Clay Regazzoni were retained but the team's third driver, Italian Ignazio Giunti was killed in January during the Buenos Aires 1000 kilometer long-distance sportscar race. Jean-Pierre Beltoise was pushing his Matra sportscar back to the pits when he was hit by Giunti's Ferrari 312P; as a result, Mario Andretti was hired on a part-time basis to be the team's third driver. Tyrrell retained Jackie Stewart and Francois Cevert, while Team Lotus developed its 1970 car for Brazilian Emerson Fittipaldi and Swede Reine Wisell. March lost both of its 1970 drivers: Chris Amon, moving to Matra to join Beltoise and Jo Siffert replacing Jack Oliver at BRM as teammate to Pedro Rodriguez and new driver Howden Ganley. McLaren continued with Denny Hulme and Peter Gethin but the Alfa Romeo engines used by Andrea de Adamich moved to March where the Italian became Ronnie Peterson's teammate in the curious March 711 factory cars.
Rob Walker decided that he could no longer afford to continue his private team and transferred his Brooke Bond Oxo sponsorship to Surtees, which recruited second driver Rolf Stommelen from Brabham. Walker's decision to stop racing freed veteran Graham Hill and he moved to Brabham where he was joined by former Williams driver Tim Schenken while Williams entered old Marches for Derek Bell and Matra refugee Henri Pescarolo; the first Argentine Grand Prix since 1960 was held as a non-championship Grand Prix in the sweltering heat of a January summer in the capital city of Buenos Aires. This round, held at the modified Buenos Aires Autodrome; this race, run in 2 heats
1973 Formula One season
The 1973 Formula One season was the 27th season of FIA Formula One motor racing. It featured the 1973 World Championship of Drivers and the 1973 International Cup for F1 Manufacturers, which were contested concurrently over a fifteen-race series that commenced on 28 January and ended on 7 October. There were two new races for the 1973 season – the Brazilian Grand Prix at Interlagos in São Paulo and the Swedish Grand Prix at Anderstorp; the season included two non-championship races which were open to both Formula One and Formula 5000 cars. The World Championship of Drivers was won by Jackie Stewart, driving for Elf Team Tyrrell, the International Cup for F1 Manufacturers by John Player Team Lotus. In the World Championship, Lotus teammates Emerson Fittipaldi and Ronnie Peterson raced each other while Stewart was supported at Tyrrell by François Cevert. Stewart took the Drivers' title at the Italian Grand Prix at Monza, but at the final race of the season, the United States Grand Prix at Watkins Glen, Cevert crashed during Saturday practice in the notorious'Esses' and was killed instantly.
Stewart and Tyrrell withdrew from the race. At the end of the season Stewart made public his decision to retire, a decision, made before the US Grand Prix. By the end of the 1973 season the best car on the track was the new McLaren M23, a wedge-shaped car following the same concept as the Lotus 72 but with more conventional suspension and up-to-date aerodynamics; the 1973 season marked the debut of future world champion James Hunt at the Monaco Grand Prix driving a privateer March 731 entered by Hesketh Racing. The 1973 season saw the intervention of a Safety Car in Formula One for the first time, in the form of a Porsche 914 at the Canadian Grand Prix. However, this safety concept would not be introduced until twenty years in 1993; as well as Cevert, Briton Roger Williamson was killed during the season, in a crash at the Dutch Grand Prix at Zandvoort. Another change to the rules introduced this season was the cars doing a full warm-up lap before the race. Prior to this, tracks included a dummy grid a short distance behind a grid proper, the cars would move from one to the other to begin the race.
It was this season that the numbering system for teams was formalised. In the second race of the season in Brazil, team-mates were paired - Lotus drivers 1 and 2. For 1974, the numbers were assigned based on finishing positions in the 1973 constructor's championship, after which teams did not change numbers unless they won the drivers' championship, or if a team dropped out; the following teams and drivers contested the 1973 World Championship. The following races counted towards both the 1973 World Championship of Drivers and the 1973 International Cup for F1 Manufacturers; the Belgian Grand Prix carried the title of European Grand Prix for 1973. After being absent from the Championship in 1972 due to extensive safety upgrades to the Zandvoort circuit including new asphalt, new barriers and a new race control tower, the Dutch Grand Prix returned to the Championship calendar for 1973. Points were awarded on a 9–6–4–3–2–1 basis to the first six finishers in each race. For classification, only the seven best results from the first eight races and the six best results from the last seven races were retained.
Drivers scoring an equal number of points were awarded equal championship classifications, regardless of the relative number of wins, second places, etc. scored by each driver. The FIA did not award a championship classification to those drivers who did not score points in the championship. Points were awarded on a 9–6–4–3–2–1 basis to the first six finishers in each race. Points were only awarded for the position filled by the best placed car from each manufacturer. For classification, only the seven best results from the first eight races and the six best results from the last seven races were retained. Ensign, which did not score points during the championship, was not given a classification in the official FIA results; the 1973 Formula One season included two non-championship races which were open to both Formula One and Formula 5000 cars
Michael "Mike" Gascoyne is a British Formula One designer and engineer. Gascoyne has worked for numerous Grand Prix teams including McLaren, Tyrrell, Renault, Spyker and in September 2009 with a confirmed entry by the FIA Gascoyne supported, by the shareholders Tony Fernandes, Din Kamarudin and SM Nasarudin set up the called Lotus Racing Team, that would become the Caterham F1 Team. Gascoyne was born in Rackheath, England, he went to Sprowston Junior School and before moving to Old Catton. He went to Wymondham College from 1974 to 1981. Although he gained admission to study for a Ph. D. in fluid dynamics at Cambridge University from 1982 to 1988, he gaining a series of degrees but started working before graduating with a PhD. He was, active in his college Boat Club, as a successful coxswain of Churchill's leading women's crew. After leaving Cambridge in 1988 he worked for Westland System Assessment Limited, part of Westland Helicopters, but maintained a keen desire to work in motor sport. In 1989 he joined McLaren as a wind tunnel aerodynamicist but only remained with the team for a single year before joining Tyrrell, who at the time were enjoying something of a renaissance with Frenchman Jean Alesi at the wheel of the 019 chassis.
While at Tyrrell he worked for designer Harvey Postlethwaite, who came to hold Gascoyne in such regard that when Postlethwaite departed in 1991 to design the Sauber team's first Formula One car, he took the twenty-eight-year-old engineer with him to Switzerland. Postlethwaite's stay with the Sauber team was short, but Gascoyne remained for the first season, his Sauber C13 chassis taking 12 points during 1993. In late 1993 Postlethwaite returned to Tyrrell and invited Gascoyne to become deputy technical director responsible for the design of the team's 1994 car. Gascoyne accepted and remained with the team for four years, although lack of money limited his ability to produce a competitive racing car; when Ken Tyrrell announced his intention to sell to British American Tobacco, Gascoyne was forced to leave in the knowledge that the renamed British American Racing was to employ Malcolm Oastler as technical director. In June 1998 Gascoyne joined Jordan Grand Prix as technical director and set about designing their 1999 car.
The season was the team's most successful in its history, finishing third in the Constructors Championship and taking two race victories. Shortly before the start of the 2001 season he moved to Benetton, whose results had been in serious decline since the mid-1990s. Gascoyne's two-and-a-half seasons with Benetton, Renault, saw a marked improvement in the team's fortunes, culminating in victory at the 2003 Hungarian Grand Prix. By now however, the rated technical director had been placed on gardening leave by his French employers pending a move to Toyota F1 for an undisclosed financial settlement. In December 2003 Gascoyne made his move to the Cologne base of Toyota and began working on the 2004 car. With Formula One design timelines stretching back many months before the start of the season, he was unable to have full influence over many early decisions and the season proved to be a disappointment; the 2005 season was Toyota's most successful Formula One season by far, as they scored points in all but the opening race and the controversial United States Grand Prix, where Trulli qualified in pole position but like all the drivers using Michelin tyres, retired before the start of the race.
Gascoyne's aim for 2006 was high and the team's first victory and the championship were the next two steps. The early stages of the 2006 season proved to be average, with the team struggling with the late switch to Bridgestone tyres and the new V8 engines. Many observers had predicted race wins and even a title challenge. Toyota surprised the Formula One community by dropping Mike Gascoyne from their technical department after the Melbourne race where Ralf Schumacher finished 3rd on the podium as the Englishman had contributed to their rise in competitiveness during 2005. However, the poor performances of the TF106 in the opening two races of the season in Bahrain where the team had finished on the podium 12 months earlier, prompted disagreement over the team's technical direction. Gascoyne disliked the corporate way the team's management operated while team management were unimpressed by the TF106 car Gascoyne had produced and he was duly dismissed. Although he made no immediate comment, the Toyota team issued a statement citing a "fundamental difference of opinion with regard to the technical operations" and that Gascoyne had been suspended until further notice.
On 6 April Gascoyne and Toyota parted company "amicably". Pascal Vasselon became temporary technical director with immediate effect. In September 2006 Gascoyne was signed by Spyker F1 as chief technology officer, he took up his new position in November 2006. An updated version of the F8-VII chassis was introduced at the 2007 Turkish Grand Prix, it was the first Spyker car designed by Gascoyne and he stated the new car could be up to three quarters of a second per lap faster than the original F8-VII. In 2008, Spyker became the Force India team after its sale to Vijay Mallya. Gascoyne continued as chief technology officer. On 7 November 2008 it was announced that Gascoyne would no longer play any formal role at the team, with Force India owner Vijay Mallya taking full responsibility for running the team. In 2009 Gascoyne was part of plans by the Litespeed F3 team to enter Formula One in 2010, under the Team Lotus name, they failed to gain entry, but Gascoyne continued to work on the plans and got backing from the Malaysian government to form Lotus Racing.
The team gained entr
Albert François Cevert Goldenberg was a French racing driver who took part in the Formula One World Championship. He competed in 47 World Championship Grands Prix, achieving one win, 13 podium finishes and 89 career points; the son of Charles Goldenberg, a Parisian jeweler, Huguette Cevert. Charles was a Russian Jewish émigré brought to France as a young boy by his parents, to escape the persecution of the Jews under the Tsarist autocracy. During World War II, under the Nazi occupation of France, Goldenberg joined the French Resistance to avoid forced deportation to Poland, as he was a registered Jew. In order not to draw further attention and Huguette's four children were all registered with her surname rather than his; some years after the liberation of France, Cevert's father wanted to rename his children Goldenberg, but the family objected as by now they had become known as Cevert. Cevert was the brother-in-law of Grand Prix driver Jean-Pierre Beltoise; when he was 16, François Cevert began his motorsport career on two wheels, rather than four racing his mother's Vespa scooter against friends, before graduating to his own Norton at the age of 19.
After completing his National Service, Cevert switched his attention to cars. In 1966 he completed a training course at the Le Mans school, before enrolling at the Magny-Cours racing school. At the same time he registered for the Volant Shell scholarship competition, which offered the top finisher the prize of an Alpine Formula Three car. Cevert duly won, his first season in F3, at the wheel of his prize Alpine, did not go well. He experience to properly set up and maintain his car. After finding sponsorship for the 1968 season, Cevert traded in his Alpine for a more competitive Tecno car. With his new mount Cevert started to win races, by the end of the season he was French Formula 3 Champion, just ahead of Jean-Pierre Jabouille. After winning the French Formula 3 Championship, Cevert joined the works Tecno Formula Two team in 1969, finished third overall, as well as driving in the F2 class of the 1969 German Grand Prix. At the time, Formula Two was an ideal training ground for ambitious drivers, as many top Grand Prix drivers competed in the F2 class, when their Formula One schedules permitted.
When Jackie Stewart had a hard time getting around Cevert in an F2 race at Crystal Palace the same year, Stewart told his team manager Ken Tyrrell to keep an eye on the young Frenchman. This personal recommendation was to pay off in 1970, as when Tyrrell needed a new driver at short notice Stewart's recommendation was still in his mind. Tyrrell commented on the reason for Cevert's appointment to the Formula One team that "everybody said it was Elf, but it was what Jackie said about him." When Johnny Servoz-Gavin retired from the Tyrrell Formula One team three races into the 1970 season, Tyrrell called upon Cevert to be his number two driver, alongside defending World Champion Stewart. Over the next four seasons, Cevert became the veteran Stewart's devoted protégé. After making his debut at the Dutch Grand Prix at Zandvoort in Tyrrell's second customer March-Ford, he increased his pace and closed the gap to Stewart with every race, he earned his first World Championship point by finishing sixth in the Italian Grand Prix at Monza.
In 1971, with the Tyrrell team now building their own cars, Cevert finished second in France and Germany, both times behind team leader Stewart. In the season-ending United States Grand Prix at the newly extended Watkins Glen race course, the Frenchman earned his first and only Grand Prix win: Having started from fifth spot, Cevert took the lead from Stewart on lap 14 as the Scot's tires began to go off in the 100° heat. At about half-distance, Cevert began to struggle with the same understeer that had plagued Stewart much earlier. Jacky Ickx was closing, his Firestones were getting better as the race went on. On lap 43, Ickx set the fastest lap of the race, the gap was down to 2.2 seconds. On lap 49, the alternator on Ickx's Ferrari fell off, punching a hole in the gearbox and spilling oil all over the track! Denny Hulme's McLaren spun into the barrier, bending his front suspension. Hulme was standing beside the track when Cevert came by and slid off and hit the barrier, but he kept going, now 29 seconds in the lead!
Cevert coasted home. Cevert became only the second Frenchman to win a Formula One World Championship Grand Prix, received 50,000 U. S. dollars as award. It was the high point of his career, helping him take third place in the 1971 Drivers' Championship behind Stewart and Ronnie Peterson. Great expectations for Cevert and Tyrrell were not fulfilled in 1972, Cevert finished in the points only three times, with second places in Belgium and the USA, a fourth at his home race in France at the Clermont-Ferrand circuit. One bright spot in a disappointing year for Cevert was his second-place finish at the 24 hours of Le Mans, driving a Matra-Simca 670 with New Zealand's Howden Ganley. In 1973, the Tyrrell team was back on top in Formula One and Cevert showed he was capable of running with Stewart at every race, he finished second six times, three times behind Stewart, who acknowledged that at times the Frenchman had been a "obedient" teammate. As Cevert began to draw with Stewart's driving abilities, the Scot was secretly planning to retire after the last race of the season in the United States.
For the 1974 season, Cevert would be Tyrrell's team leader. At Watkins Glen, with Stewart having clinche