Tinetto is an Italian island situated in the Gulf of La Spezia, in the eastern part of the Ligurian Sea. It is part of an archipelago of three spaced islands jutting out south from the mainland at Portovenere. In 1997, the archipelago, together with Portovenere and the Cinque Terre, was designated by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. A subspecies of the common wall lizard, is endemic to the island. List of islands of Italy
Capri is an island located in the Tyrrhenian Sea off the Sorrentine Peninsula, on the south side of the Gulf of Naples in the Campania region of Italy. The main town Capri, located on the island shares the name, it has been a resort since the time of the Roman Republic. Some of the main features of the island include the Marina Piccola, the Belvedere of Tragara, the limestone crags called sea stacks that project above the sea, the town of Anacapri, the Blue Grotto,the ruins of the Imperial Roman villas, the various towns surrounding the Island of Capri including Positano, Ravello, Sorrento and Naples. Capri is part of the region of Metropolitan City of Naples; the town of Capri is the island's main population centre. The island has Marina Piccola and Marina Grande; the separate comune of Anacapri is located high on the hills to the west. The etymology of the name Capri is unclear, but it could derive from Latin capreae. Fossils of wild boars have been discovered, lending credence to the "kapros" etymology.
There is the possibility that the name derives from an Etruscan word for "rocky", though any historical Etruscan rule of the island is disputed. Capri is a large and sandstone rock; the sides of the island are perpendicular cliffs and the surface of the island is composed of more cliffs. The voters of the island elect representatives for the two municipalities on the island; the chosen representatives choose two mayors to govern with them. The island has been inhabited since early times. Evidence of human settlement was discovered during the Roman era; the emperor ordered these to be displayed in the garden of the Sea Palace. Modern excavations have shown that human presence on the island can be dated to the Neolithic and the Bronze Age. Augustus developed Capri. In his Aeneid, Virgil states that the island had been populated by the Greek people of Teleboi, coming from the Ionian Islands. Strabo says that "in ancient times in Capri there were two towns reduced to one." Tacitus records. Ruins of one at Tragara could still be seen in the 19th century.
Augustus' successor Tiberius built a series of villas at Capri, the most famous of, the Villa Jovis, one of the best-preserved Roman villas in Italy. In 27 AD, Tiberius permanently moved to Capri, running the Empire from there until his death in 37 AD. In 182 AD, Emperor Commodus banished his sister Lucilla to Capri, she was executed shortly afterwards. After the end of the Western Roman Empire, Capri returned to the status of a dominion of Naples, suffered various attacks and ravages by pirates. In 866 Emperor Louis II gave the island to Amalfi. In 987 Pope John XV consecrated the first bishop of Capri, when Capri, Scala and Lettere were made dioceses to serve as suffragans of Amalfi, which thereby became a metropolitan see. Capri continued to be a residential diocese until 1818, when the island became part of the archdiocese of Sorrento. No longer a residential bishopric, Capreae in Latin, is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see. In 1496, Frederick IV of Naples established legal and administrative parity between the settlements of Capri and Anacapri.
The pirate raids reached their peak during the reign of Charles V: the famous Turkish admirals Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha and Turgut Reis captured the island for the Ottoman Empire, in 1535 and 1553 respectively. The first recorded tourist to visit the island was French antiques dealer Jean-Jacques Bouchard in the 17th century, his diary, found in 1850, is an important information source about Capri. French troops under Napoleon occupied Capri in January 1806; the British ousted the French in the following May, after which Capri was turned into a powerful naval base, but the building program caused heavy damage to the archaeological sites. The French reconquered Capri in 1808, remained there until the end of the Napoleonic era, when Capri was returned to the Bourbon ruling house of Naples; the natural scientist Ignazio Cerio catalogued Capri's fauna during the 19th century. His work was continued by his son and engineer Edwin Cerio, who wrote several books on life in Capri in the 20th century.
Prior to the First World War the island was popular with wealthy gay men. John Ellingham Brooks and Somerset Maugham shared a villa there. Norman Douglas, Friedrich Alfred Krupp, Jacques d'Adelswärd-Fersen, Christian Wilhelm Allers, Emil von Behring, Curzio Malaparte, Axel Munthe, Maxim Gorky are all reported to have owned a villa there, or to have stayed there for more than three months. Swedish Queen Victoria stayed there because Axel Munthe was her doctor. Rose O'Neill, the American illustrator and creator of the Kewpie, owned the Villa Narcissus owned by the famous Beaux-Arts painter Charles Caryl Coleman. Dame Gracie Fields had a villa and restaurant on the island and is buried there. Mariah Carey owns a villa on the island. In 1908, Lenin was hosted by Maxim Gorky, the Russian author, at his house near the Giardini Aug
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant. Although the sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, it is identified as a separate body of water. Geological evidence indicates that around 5.9 million years ago, the Mediterranean was cut off from the Atlantic and was or desiccated over a period of some 600,000 years, the Messinian salinity crisis, before being refilled by the Zanclean flood about 5.3 million years ago. It covers an approximate area of 2.5 million km2, representing 0.7 % of the global ocean surface, but its connection to the Atlantic via the Strait of Gibraltar-the narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Spain in Europe from Morocco in Africa- is only 14 km wide. In oceanography, it is sometimes called the Eurafrican Mediterranean Sea or the European Mediterranean Sea to distinguish it from mediterranean seas elsewhere.
The Mediterranean Sea has an average depth of 1,500 m and the deepest recorded point is 5,267 m in the Calypso Deep in the Ionian Sea. The sea is bordered on the north by Europe, the east by Asia, in the south by Africa, it is located between latitudes 30° and 46° N and longitudes 6° W and 36° E. Its west-east length, from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Gulf of Iskenderun, on the southwestern coast of Turkey, is 4,000 km; the sea's average north-south length, from Croatia's southern shore to Libya, is 800 km. The sea was an important route for merchants and travellers of ancient times that allowed for trade and cultural exchange between emergent peoples of the region; the history of the Mediterranean region is crucial to understanding the origins and development of many modern societies. The countries surrounding the Mediterranean in clockwise order are Spain, Monaco, Slovenia, Croatia and Herzegovina, Albania, Turkey, Lebanon, Egypt, Tunisia and Morocco. In addition, the Gaza Strip and the British Overseas Territories of Gibraltar and Akrotiri and Dhekelia have coastlines on the sea.
The Ancient Greeks called the Mediterranean ἡ θάλασσα or sometimes ἡ μεγάλη θάλασσα, ἡ ἡμέτερα θάλασσα, or ἡ θάλασσα ἡ καθ'ἡμᾶς. The Romans called it Mare Mare Internum and, starting with the Roman Empire, Mare Nostrum; the term Mare Mediterrāneum appears later: Solinus used it in the 3rd century, but the earliest extant witness to it is in the 6th century, in Isidore of Seville. It means'in the middle of land, inland' in Latin, a compound of medius, -āneus; the Latin word is a calque of Greek μεσόγειος, from μέσος and γήινος, from γῆ. The original meaning may have been'the sea in the middle of the earth', rather than'the sea enclosed by land'; the Carthaginians called it the "Syrian Sea". In ancient Syrian texts, Phoenician epics and in the Hebrew Bible, it was known as the "Great Sea" or as "The Sea". Another name was the "Sea of the Philistines", from the people inhabiting a large portion of its shores near the Israelites. In Modern Hebrew, it is called HaYam HaTikhon'the Middle Sea'. In Modern Arabic, it is known as al-Baḥr al-Mutawassiṭ'the Middle Sea'.
In Islamic and older Arabic literature, it was Baḥr al-Rūm'the Sea of the Romans' or'the Roman Sea'. At first, that name referred to only the Eastern Mediterranean, but it was extended to the whole Mediterranean. Other Arabic names were Baḥr al-šām'the Sea of Syria' and Baḥr al-Maghrib'the Sea of the West'. In Turkish, it is the Akdeniz'the White Sea'; the origin of the name is not clear, as it is not known in earlier Greek, Byzantine or Islamic sources. It may be to contrast with the Black Sea. In Persian, the name was translated as Baḥr-i Safīd, used in Ottoman Turkish, it is the origin of the colloquial Greek phrase Άσπρη Θάλασσα. Johann Knobloch claims that in Classical Antiquity, cultures in the Levant used colours to refer to the cardinal points: black referred to the north, yellow or blue to east, red to south, white to west; this would explain both the Turkish Akdeniz and the Arab nomenclature described above. Several ancient civilizations were located around the Mediterranean shores and were influenced by their proximity to the sea.
It provided routes for trade and war, as well as food for numerous communities throughout the ages. Due to the shared climate and access to the sea, c
Body of water
A body of water or waterbody is any significant accumulation of water on a planet's surface. The term most refers to oceans and lakes, but it includes smaller pools of water such as ponds, wetlands, or more puddles. A body of water contained. Most are occurring geographical features, but some are artificial. There are types. For example, most reservoirs are created by engineering dams, but some natural lakes are used as reservoirs. Most harbors are occurring bays, but some harbors have been created through construction. Bodies of water that are navigable are known as waterways; some bodies of water collect and move water, such as rivers and streams, others hold water, such as lakes and oceans. The term body of water can refer to a reservoir of water held by a plant, technically known as a phytotelma. Bodies of water are affected by gravity, what creates the tidal effects on Earth. Note that there are some geographical features involving water that are not bodies of water, for example waterfalls and rapids.
Arm of the sea – sea arm, used to describe a sea loch. Arroyo – a dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, or seasonally. See wadi. Artificial lake or artificial pond – see Reservoir. Barachois – a lagoon separated from the ocean by a sand bar. Bay – an area of water bordered by land on three sides, similar to, but smaller than a gulf. Bayou – a slow-moving stream or a marshy lake. Beck – a small stream. Bight – a large and only receding bay, or a bend in any geographical feature. Billabong – an oxbow lake in Australia. Boil – see Seep Brook – a small stream. Burn – a small stream. Canal – an artificial waterway connected to existing lakes, rivers, or oceans. Channel – the physical confine of a river, slough or ocean strait consisting of a bed and banks. See stream bed and strait. Cove – a coastal landform. Earth scientists use the term to describe a circular or round inlet with a narrow entrance, though colloquially the term is sometimes used to describe any sheltered bay.
Creek – a small stream. Creek – an inlet of the sea, narrower than a cove. Delta – the location where a river flows into an ocean, estuary, lake, or reservoir. Distributary or distributary channel – a stream that branches off and flows away from a main stream channel. Drainage basin – a region of land where water from rain or snowmelt drains downhill into another body of water, such as a river, lake, or reservoir. Draw – a dry creek bed or gulch that temporarily fills with water after a heavy rain, or seasonally. See wadi. Estuary – a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, with a free connection to the open sea Firth – a regional term of Scotland used to denote various coastal waters, such as large sea bays, estuaries and straits. Fjord – a narrow inlet of the sea between cliffs or steep slopes. Glacier – a large collection of ice or a frozen river that moves down a mountain. Glacial pothole – a kettle Gulf – a part of a lake or ocean that extends so that it is surrounded by land on three sides, similar to, but larger than a bay.
Headland – an area of water bordered by land on three sides. Harbor – an artificial or occurring body of water where ships are stored or may shelter from the ocean's weather and currents. Impoundment – an artificially-created body of water, by damming a source. Used for flood control, as a drinking water supply, ornamentation, or other purpose or combination of purposes. Note that the process of creating an "impoundment" of water is itself called "impoundment." Inlet – a body of water seawater, which has characteristics of one or more of the following: bay, estuary, fjord, sea loch, or sound. Kettle – a shallow, sediment-filled body of water formed by retreating glaciers or draining floodwaters. Kill – used in areas of Dutch influence in New York, New Jersey and other areas of the former New Netherland colony of Dutch America to describe a strait, river, or arm of the sea. Lagoon – a body of comparatively shallow salt or brackish water separated from the deeper sea by a shallow or exposed sandbank, coral reef, or similar feature.
Lake – a body of water freshwater, of large size contained on a body of land. Lick — a small watercourse or an ephemeral stream Loch – a body of water such as a lake, sea inlet, fjord, estuary or bay. Mangrove swamp – Saline coastal habitat of mangrove trees and shrubs. Marsh – a wetland featuring grasses, reeds, typhas and other herbaceous plants in a context of shallow water. See Salt marsh. Mediterranean sea – a enclosed sea that has limited exchange of deep water with outer oceans and where the water circulation is dominated by salinity and temperature differences rather than winds Mere – a lake or body of water, broad in relation to its depth. Mill pond – a reservoir built to provide flowing water to a watermill Moat – a deep, broad trench, either dry or filled with water and protecting a structure, installation, or town. Ocean – a major body of salty water that, in totality, covers about 71% of the Earth's surface. Oxbow lake – a U-shaped lake formed when a wide meander from the mainstem of a riv
Positano is a village and comune on the Amalfi Coast, in Campania, Italy in an enclave in the hills leading down to the coast. The climate of Positano thanks to its position is mild, of the Mediterranean type. Thanks to the mild temperature and the beauty of the landscape, Positano has been a holiday resort since the time of the Roman Empire, as evidenced by the discovery of a villa in the bay. Typical are the many staircases that from the top of the village connect the upper districts with the valley area; the main beaches are Spiaggia Grande, Fornillo, La Porta, Arienzo, San Pietro and Remmese, some of which can be reached by sea. Positano was an essential stop for the ancient Greeks and Phoenicians on their expeditions to western areas, it is said that the coastal village was named after God of the Sea. Like many other places along the beautiful campanian coast, it was a favourite site for wealthy ancient Romans to build rich and grand villas, one of which lies below the church of Santa Maria Assunta and has been opened to the public.
Positano became a wealthy market port from the 15th to 17th century and has only continued to grow in popularity over time. Back they traded food such as fish and other resources. Positano was a port of the Amalfi Republic in medieval times, prospered during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. By the mid-nineteenth century, the town had fallen on hard times. More than half the population emigrated to America. Positano was a poor fishing village during the first half of the twentieth century, it began to attract large numbers of tourists in the 1950s after John Steinbeck published his essay about Positano in Harper's Bazaar in May, 1953: "Positano bites deep", Steinbeck wrote. "It is a dream place that isn’t quite real when you are there and becomes beckoningly real after you have gone." The church of Santa Maria Assunta features a dome made of majolica tiles as well as a thirteenth-century Byzantine icon of a black Madonna. According to local legend, the icon had been stolen from Byzantium and was being transported by pirates across the Mediterranean.
A storm had blown up in the waters opposite Positano and the frightened sailors heard a voice on board saying "Posa, posa!". The icon was unloaded and carried to the fishing village and the storm abated; the Marina Grande beach is at the base of the cliff side town of Positano and is the most recognized beach in the town. Other popular beaches include Arienzo beach. Positano has been featured in several films, including Only You, Under the Tuscan Sun, as well as more in Kath & Kimderella and being mentioned in the 2009 musical film Nine in the song "Cinema Italiano", it hosts the annual Cartoons on the Bay Festival, at which Pulcinella Awards for excellence in animation are presented. From July 1967 and through most of the 1970s, Positano was home to singer-songwriter Shawn Phillips and where most of his best-known work was composed. Mick Jagger and Keith Richards from The Rolling Stones wrote the song "Midnight Rambler" in the cafes of Positano while on vacation. Renowned director and producer Franco Zeffirelli owned the Villa Treville in Positano, where he took residence over a 35-year period and hosted a coterie of literati and stars of the stage and screen.
He hired his friend, Renzo Mongiardino, who collaborated on many of his theater and opera projects, to design the exquisite interiors which reflect the local design sensibilities and craftsmanship. The Villa Treville has since been converted into a five-star boutique hotel. German pianist Wilhelm Kempff made Positano his summer retreat and there he taught a summer course on the Beethoven piano sonatas and concerti. Since his death in 1991, the Beethoven Kurse has continued under the organization of the Wilhelm Kempff Kulturstiftungng, having had as teachers Gerhard Oppitz and John O'Conor. Today tourism is by far the major industry. Positano is very popular for Limoncello and "L'Albertissimo", an alcoholic tipple that can only be found at a small stall at the main harbour; the town’s rapid growth from a small fishing village to an international destination is credited to the rise of the tourism industry. In addition to the beaches and historic sites, clothing stores and restaurants are scattered throughout Positano, attracting tourists from around the world.
To complete the picture, natural lemon and olive groves grow prominantly across the cliffside town. The produce is sold in fresh markets around the city. Positano can be reached by the SP425 provincial road; the nearest airports are the Napoli-Capodichino and the Salerno-Pontecagnano Airport and they have shuttle buses to destinations across the Amalfi Coast, including Positano. Ferries link Positano to other towns including Capri, Naples and Sorrento for transportation. Li Galli Amalfi Coast Sorrentine Peninsula Official website Positano online newspaper about Positano, the Amalfi Coast and Campania in general Positano Premia La Danza
Corsica is an island in the Mediterranean Sea and one of the 18 regions of France. It is located southeast of the French mainland and west of the Italian Peninsula, with the nearest land mass being the Italian island of Sardinia to the immediate south. A single chain of mountains makes up two-thirds of the island. While being part of Metropolitan France, Corsica is designated as a territorial collectivity by law; as a territorial collectivity, Corsica enjoys a greater degree of autonomy than other French regions. The island formed a single department until it was split in 1975 into two historical departments: Haute-Corse and Corse-du-Sud, with its regional capital in Ajaccio, the prefecture city of Corse-du-Sud. Bastia, the prefecture city of Haute-Corse, is the second largest settlement in Corsica; the two departments, the region of Corsica, merged again into a single territorial collectivity in 2018. After being ruled by the Republic of Genoa since 1284, Corsica was an Italian-speaking independent republic from 1755, until it was ceded by the Republic of Genoa to Louis XV as part of a pledge for debts and conquered in 1769.
Napoleon Bonaparte was born the same year in Ajaccio, his ancestral home, Maison Bonaparte, is today a significant visitor attraction and museum. Due to Corsica's historical ties with the Italian peninsula, the island retains to this day many Italian cultural elements: the native tongue is recognized as a regional language by the French government; the origin of the name Corsica remains a mystery. To the Ancient Greeks it was known as Kalliste, Cyrnos, Cernealis, or Cirné. Of these Cyrnos, Cernealis, or Cirné derive from the most ancient Greek name of the island, "Σειρηνούσσαι", the same Sirens mentioned in Homer's Odyssey. Corsica has been occupied continuously since the Mesolithic era, it acquired an indigenous population, influential in the Mediterranean during its long prehistory. After a brief occupation by the Carthaginians, colonization by the ancient Greeks, an only longer occupation by the Etruscans, it was incorporated by the Roman Republic at the end of the First Punic War and, with Sardinia, in 238 BC became a province of the Roman Republic.
The Romans, who built a colony in Aléria, considered Corsica as one of the most backward regions of the Roman world. The island produced sheep, honey and wax, exported many slaves, not well considered because of their fierce and rebellious character. Moreover, it was known for its cheap wines, exported to Rome, was used as a place of relegation, one of the most famous exiles being the Roman philosopher Seneca. Administratively, the island was divided in pagi, which in the Middle Ages became the pievi, the basic administrative units of the island until 1768. During the diffusion of Christianity, which arrived quite early from Rome and the Tuscan harbors, Corsica was home to many martyrs and saints: among them, the most important are Saint Devota and Saint Julia, both patrons of the island. Corsica was integrated into Roman Italy by Emperor Diocletian. In the 5th century, the western half of the Roman Empire collapsed, the island was invaded by the Vandals and the Ostrogoths. Recovered by the Byzantines, it soon became part of the Kingdom of the Lombards.
This made it a dependency of the March of Tuscany. Pepin the Short, king of the Franks and Charlemagne's father, expelled the Lombards and nominally granted Corsica to Pope Stephen II. In the first quarter of the 11th century and Genoa together freed the island from the threat of Arab invasion. After that, the island came under the influence of the republic of Pisa. To this period belong the many polychrome churches which adorn the island, Corsica experienced a massive immigration from Tuscany, which gave to the island its present toponymy and rendered the language spoken in the northern two-thirds of the island close to the Tuscan dialect. Due to that began the traditional division of Corsica in two parts, along the main chain of mountains going from Calvi to Porto-Vecchio: the eastern Banda di dentro, or Cismonte, more populated and open to the commerce with Italy, the western Banda di fuori, or Pomonte deserted and remote; the crushing defeat experienced by Pisa in 1284 in the Battle of Meloria against Genoa had among its consequences the end of the Pisan rule and the beginning of the Genoese influence in Corsica: this was contested by the King of Aragon, who in 1296 had received from the Pope the investiture over Sardinia and Corsica.
A popular revolution against this and the feudal lords, led by Sambucuccio d'Alando, got the aid of Genoa. After that, the Cismonte was ruled after the Italian experience; the following 150 years were a period of conflict, when the Genoese rule was contested by Aragon, the local lords, the comuni and the Pope: in 1450 Genoa ceded the administration of the island to its main bank, the Bank of Saint George, which brought peace. In the 16th century, the island entered into the fight between Spain and France for the supremacy in Italy. In 1553, a Franco-Ottoman fleet occupied Corsica, but the reaction of Spain and Genoa, led by Andrea Doria, reestablished the Genoese supremacy on the island, confirmed by the Peace of Cateau-Cambresis; the unlucky protagonist of this episode was Sampiero di Bastelica, who would come to be considered a hero of t
The Tyrrhenian Sea is part of the Mediterranean Sea off the western coast of Italy. It is named for the Tyrrhenian people, identified since the 6th century BCE with the Etruscans of Italy; the sea is bounded by the islands of Corsica and Sardinia, the Italian peninsula to the east, the island of Sicily. The Tyrrhenian sea includes a number of small islands like Capri and Ustica; the maximum depth of the sea is 3,785 metres. The Tyrrhenian Sea is situated near where the Eurasian Plates meet; the eight Aeolian Islands and Ustica are located in the southern part of the sea, north of Sicily. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Tyrrhenian Sea as follows: In the Strait of Messina: A line joining the North extreme of Cape Paci with the East extreme of the Island of Sicily, Cape Peloro. On the Southwest: A line running from Cape Lilibeo to the South extreme of Cape Teulada in Sardinia. In the Strait of Bonifacio: A line joining the West extreme of Cape Testa in Sardinia with the Southwest extreme of Cape Feno in Corsica.
On the North: A line joining Cape Corse in Corsica, with Tinetto Island and thence through Tino and Palmaria islands to San Pietro Point on the coast of Italy. There are four exits from the Tyrrhenian Sea: The Tyrrhenian Basin is divided into two basins, the Vavilov plain and the Marsili plain, they are separated by the undersea ridge known after Arturo Issel. The Tyrrhenian Sea is a back-arc basin that formed due to the rollback of the Calabrian slab towards South-East during the Neogene. Episodes of fast and slow trench retreat formed first the Vavilov basin and the Marsili basin. Submarine volcanoes formed because trench retreat produces extension in the overriding plate allowing the mantle to rise below the surface and melts; the magmatism here is affected by the fluids released from the slab. Its name derives from the Greek name for the Etruscans, who were said to be emigrants from Lydia and led by the prince Tyrrhenus; the Etruscans settled along the coast of modern Tuscany and referred to the water as the "Sea of the Etruscans".
Islands of the Tyrrhenian Sea include: Corsica Sardinia Sicily Elba Ischia Capri Ustica The main ports of the Tyrrhenian Sea in Italy are: Naples, Civitavecchia, Salerno and Gioia Tauro. In France the most important port is Bastia. Note that though the phrase "port of Rome" is used, there is in fact no port in Rome. Instead, the "port of Rome" refers to the maritime facilities at Civitavecchia, some 68 km to the northwest of Rome, not too far from its airport. Giglio Porto is a small island port in this area, it rose to prominence, when the Costa Concordia ran aground a few metres off the coast of Giglio and sank. The ship was refloated and towed to Genoa for scrapping. In Greek mythology, it is believed that the cliffs above the Tyrrhenian Sea housed the four winds kept by Aeolus; the winds are the Mistral from the Rhône valley, the Libeccio from the southwest, the Sirocco and Ostro from the south