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Tysfjord

Tysfjord or Divtasvuodna is a former municipality in Nordland county, Norway. The municipality existed from 1869 until its dissolution in 2020; the municipality was part of the traditional district of Ofoten. The administrative centre of the municipality was the village of Kjøpsvik. Other villages included Drag, Korsnes, Musken, Rørvika and Storå. Tysfjord had a large population of Lule Sami people; the Árran Lule Sami Center was located in the village of Drag. With the Norwegian language and Lule Sami language both as official languages of the municipality, Tysfjord was the only municipality in Norway where speakers of Lule Sami should theoretically be able to speak that language with officials, although this has not come to fruition. At the time of its dissolution, the 1,464-square-kilometre municipality was the 56th largest by area out of the 422 municipalities in Norway. Tysfjord was the 330th most populous municipality in Norway with a population of 1,953; the municipality's population density was 1.4 inhabitants per square kilometre and its population has decreased by 3.7% over the previous decade.

The municipality of Tysfjord was established on 1 January 1869 when it was separated from the large Lødingen Municipality. The population of Tysfjord was 1,402. During the 1960s, there were many municipal mergers across Norway due to the work of the Schei Committee. On 1 January 1964, the Tysnes and Molvika areas located northwest of Bognes was transferred from the neighboring Hamarøy Municipality to Tysfjord Municipality. On 1 January 2020, the municipality was dissolved and divided between the neighboring municipalities of Narvik and Hamarøy; this occurred because in 2017, the Parliament of Norway decided that Tysfjord would be divided along the fjord with the eastern half being merged with the neighboring municipalities of Narvik and Ballangen to form a new, larger municipality of Narvik and the remaining western half will be merged with the municipality of Hamarøy on the same date. The municipality is named after the Tysfjorden. Tysfjord is a Norwegianized form of the Lule Sami name Divtasvuodna.

The meaning of the first element divtas is unknown. The last element is vuodna; the coat of arms was granted on 31 July 1987. The arms show a black lobster on a silver background; the lobsters in Tysfjord are the most northerly in the world. The Church of Norway had three parishes within the municipality of Tysfjord, it is part of the Ofoten prosti in the Diocese of Sør-Hålogaland. There are prehistoric rock carvings at Leiknes showing scenes of hunting, the world's oldest known depiction of an orca whale. In 1948, an investigation that had lasted for years, was dismissed in regards to "a large group of Sami from Tysfjord"; these individuals had worked as guides -- guiding Norwegians. In November 2017, a Norwegian police report was published exposing sexual abuse in the municipality, following investigations in 2016; the police identified 151 cases of sexual abuse from the 1950s to 2017. Around two-thirds of the victims and alleged abusers were Sami; the community is described as being'in recovery' but prosecution of the older cases has not been possible under Norwegian statute of limitations law.

40 cases dealt with sexual intercourse with underage children. A 2004 article in Avisa Nordland estimated that out of 2,209 inhabitants, between 600 and 1000 are Sami. All municipalities in Norway, including Tysfjord, are responsible for primary education, outpatient health services, senior citizen services and other social services, economic development, municipal roads; the municipality is governed by a municipal council of elected representatives, which in turn elect a mayor. The municipality falls under the Hålogaland Court of Appeal; the municipal council of Tysfjord is made up of 17 representatives that are elected every four years. The party breakdown of the final municipal council was as follows: Due to the limestone in Tysfjord, a cement factory was established with production starting in 1920; the modern Norcem factory still is a vital employer in Kjøpsvik, with about 130 employees. Public services, some tourism, agriculture are the other main sources of income in Tysfjord; the municipality is located along the Tysfjorden.

The Tysfjorden is the second deepest fjord with a maximum depth of 897 metres. The municipality borders Ballangen in the north, Hamarøy in the south, Sweden in the east, the Vestfjorden in the northwest; the island of Hulløya lies in the middle of the Tysfjorden. The municipality is dominated by grey granite mountains. Tysfjord's most dominant mountain, Stetind, is famous in Norway; this 1,392-metre high natural granite obelisk, rising straight out of the fjord, is an awe-inspiring sight. In Norwegian, it is called gudenes ambolt which means the "anvil of the gods" because the summit forms a plateau; this was selected to be the national mountain of Norway in the autumn of 2002. The famous British climber William C. Slingsby described it as the ugliest mountain I saw; the mountains near the border with Sweden ha

Prince Tudor theory

The Prince Tudor theory is a variant of the Oxfordian theory of Shakespeare authorship, which asserts that Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford, was the true author of the works published under the name of William Shakespeare. The Prince Tudor variant holds that Oxford and Queen Elizabeth I were lovers and had a child, raised as Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton; the theory followed earlier arguments. A version of the theory, known as "Prince Tudor II" states that Oxford was himself a son of the queen, thus the father of his own half-brother; this hidden history is supposed to explain why Oxford dedicated the narrative poems Venus and Adonis and The Rape of Lucrece to Southampton and to explain aspects of the poems' contents. The content of Shakespeare's sonnets has been used to support the theory, as, to a lesser extent, have episodes in the plays; the Prince Tudor theory has created a division among Oxfordians. Many orthodox Oxfordians regard the theory as an impediment to Oxford's recognition as Shakespeare, whereas the Prince Tudor theorists maintain that their theory better explains Oxford's life and the reasons for his writing under a pen name.

The theory that the author of Shakespeare's works was connected to a secret romance and child of the queen dates back to the writings of Orville Ward Owen and Elizabeth Wells Gallup, who believed that Francis Bacon was the true author of the plays. In his book Sir Francis Bacon's Cipher Story, Owen claimed to have discovered a secret history of the Elizabethan era hidden in cipher-form in Bacon/Shakespeare's works. According to Owen, Bacon revealed that Elizabeth was secretly married to Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, who fathered both Bacon himself and Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, the latter ruthlessly executed by his own mother in 1601. Bacon had been excluded from his rightful place; this tragic life-story was the secret hidden in the plays. Elizabeth Gallup developed Owen's views, arguing that a bi-literal cipher, which she had identified in the First Folio of Shakespeare's works, revealed concealed messages confirming that Bacon was the queen's son; this argument was taken up by several other writers, notably C.

Y. C. Dawbarn in Uncrowned and Alfred Dodd The Personal Poems of Francis Bacon. In Dodd's account Bacon was a national redeemer, deprived of his ordained public role as monarch, instead performed a spiritual transformation of the nation in private through his work; as he wrote, "He was born for England, to set the land he loved on new lines,'to be a Servant to Posterity'". J. Thomas Looney founded Oxfordian theory in his book Shakespeare Identified. Looney did not include any arguments about hidden children. However, his theory soon gained adherents who adapted the earlier Baconian arguments to the new Oxfordian position. Looney expressed his disapproval of the development in a letter from 1933, which states that his followers Percy Allen and Bernard M. Ward were "advancing certain views respecting Oxford and Queen Eliz. which appear to me extravagant & improbable, in no way strengthen Oxford’s Shakespeare claims, are to bring the whole cause into ridicule." Ward's father had been an early supporter of Looney.

Ward did not develop the argument in other published works. Allen, did, he published his initial views on Oxford and Shakespeare in 1932, but did not develop his full theory until 1934 in his book Anne Cecil, Elizabeth & Oxford. In this he argues that Elizabeth and Oxford had an illegitimate child, given the name William Hughes, who became an actor under the stage-name "William Shakespeare", he adopted the name because his father, was using it as a pen-name for his plays. Oxford had borrowed the name from a third Shakespeare, the man of that name from Stratford-upon-Avon, a law student at the time, but, never an actor or a writer; as an illegitimate child, Hughes/Shakespeare had a "bar sinister" and could never have inherited the crown, but was "a glorious future for England that remained unrealised", as Helen Hackett puts it. Had he been able to claim the crown, the boy would have founded a line of kings that would have excluded the Stuarts, thus protected England from the disasters brought about by that dynasty.

The story of events is contained in the sonnets, which were written by Oxford to his actor son, the Fair Youth. The queen is the Dark Lady. Allen's theory was not well received by many Oxfordians, including Sigmund Freud, a supporter of Looney, who wrote to Allen to express his disapproval. Oxfordian Louis P. Bénézet did pursue a modified version in 1937, but only accepted that the sonnets were written to an actor son of the Earl's, not that the boy was a child of the queen. Allen's theory was altered to the more acceptable view that the Earl of Southampton, Henry Wriothesley, was the hidden child, not Hughes/Shakespeare. Allen claimed to have contacted the spirits of Shakespeare, Oxford and Elizabeth through a medium, Hester Dowden; the spirits confirmed this theory, adding that Oxford was the leader of a collaborative effort among poets and scholars to create the works. It was revealed that Oberon in A Midsummer Night's Dream was a portrait of Oxford's and Elizabeth's brilliant son. Alfred Dodd had consulted the same medium, who had confirmed Dodd's theories about Francis Bacon, but the spirit of Bacon now told Allen that Dowden had been innocently misled by another spirit on that occasion.

These events forced Allen to stand down as president of the Oxfordian organisation the Shakespeare Fellowship. All

Paralititan

Paralititan was a giant titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur genus discovered in coastal deposits in the Upper Cretaceous Bahariya Formation of Egypt. It lived between 93.5 million years ago. Joshua Smith, who informally led the research team that found the dinosaur fossils, told an interviewer, "It was a enormous dinosaur by any reckoning."Little of Paralititan is known, so its exact size is difficult to estimate. However, the limited material the long humeri, suggested that it is one of the most massive dinosaurs discovered, with an estimated weight of 59 t; the complete right humerus measured 1.69 meters long which at the time of discovery was the longest known in a Cretaceous sauropod. Using Saltasaurus as a guide, Carpenter estimated its length at around 26 m. Scott Hartman estimates an animal, massive, but still smaller than the biggest titanosaurs such as Puertasaurus and Argentinosaurus. In 2010, Gregory S. Paul estimated it's length at 20+ meters, it's weight at 20 tonnes. In 2012 Holtz gave a length of an estimated weight of 65.3-72.5 tonnes.

In 2016, using equations that estimate body mass based on the circumference of the humerus and femur of quadrupedal animals, it was given a estimated weight of ~50 t. In 2019 Gregory S. Paul estimated Paralititan between 30-55 tonnes. From the formation another sauropod had been known, Aegyptosaurus. Paralititan differs from Aegyptosaurus in its larger size, the latter genus weighing only fifteen tons in not having pleurocoels in its front tail vertebrae, in possessing a longer deltopectoral crest on its humerus. Joshua Smith in 1999 in the Bahariya Oasis rediscovered the Gebel el Dist site where Richard Markgraf in 1912, 1913 and 1914 had excavated fossils for Ernst Stromer. In 2000, an American expedition was mounted to revisit the site; however Markgraf had removed all more complete skeletons, leaving only limited remains behind. At a new site, the nearby Gebel Fagga, the expedition succeeded in locating a partial sauropod skeleton, it was identified by Lacovara as a species new to science.

It was named and described by Joshua B. Smith, Matthew C. Lamanna, Kenneth J. Lacovara, Peter Dodson, Jennifer R. Smith, Jason Charles Poole, Robert Giegengack and Yousri Attia in 2001 as the type species Paralititan stromeri; the generic name means "Stromer's tidal titan" or "Stromer's tidal giant", in reference to the "paralic" tidal flats the animal lived on. The specific name honors Ernst Stromer von Reichenbach, a German paleontologist and geologist who first established the presence of dinosaur fossils in this area in 1911. Paralititan represents the first tetrapod reported from the Bahariya Formation since Romer's publication of 1935; the holotype specimen of Paralititan, CGM 81119, was found in a layer of the Bahariya Formation, dating from the Cenomanian. It consists of a partial skeleton lacking the skull, it is incomplete, apart from bone fragments containing two fused posterior sacral vertebrae, two anterior caudal vertebrae, both incomplete scapulae, two humeri and a metacarpal. The Paralititan type specimen shows evidence of having been scavenged by a carnivorous dinosaur as it was disarticulated within an oval of eight metres length with the various bones being clustered.

A Carcharodontosaurus tooth was discovered in between the clusters. The holotype is part of the collection of the Cairo Geological Museum; the large anterior dorsal vertebra 1912V11164, in 1932 by Stromer referred to an undetermined "Giant Sauropod", was in 2001 tentatively referred to Paralititan. The autochthonous, scavenged skeleton was preserved in tidal flat deposits containing in the form of fossil leaves and root systems, a mangrove vegetation of seed ferns, Weichselia reticulata; the mangrove ecosystem it inhabited was situated along the southern shore of the Tethys Sea. Paralititan is the first dinosaur demonstrated to have inhabited a mangrove habitat, it lived at the same time and place as giant predators Carcharodontosaurus and the sauropod Aegyptosaurus. Paralititan in the Dino Directory