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Electronic System for Travel Authorization

The Electronic System for Travel Authorization is an automated system that determines the eligibility of visitors to travel to the United States under the Visa Waiver Program. ESTA was mandated by the Implementing Recommendations of the 9/11 Commission Act of 2007 for travelers from VWP countries arriving in the U. S. by air or sea. Authorization via ESTA does not determine. U. S. Customs and Border Protection officers determine admissibility upon travelers’ arrival; the ESTA application collects biographic information and answers to VWP eligibility questions. As of December 2018, it is encouraged that ESTA applications be submitted at least 72 hours prior to travel, travelers can apply as soon as they begin preparing travel plans or prior to purchasing airline tickets. Passengers without an ESTA will be denied check in. In 2010, U. S. Customs and Border Protection began charging a fee of US$14 per ESTA application. ESTA is needed for visits to territories such as Guam, Puerto Rico and U. S. Virgin Islands.

ESTA is not needed when arriving by land from Mexico. Passengers were able to sign up in August 2008, the travel authorization became mandatory from January 12, 2009. Once pre-screened, passengers may reuse the ESTA approval for two years, although they may still need to complete the I-94W paper form for land entry. In April 2019, Greece was the last of the VWP countries where the citizens can get a two-year valid ESTA. ESTA adds a requirement for pre-authorization to the existing Visa Waiver Program. Since January 20, 2010, airlines have been forced to require ESTA at check in. Before September 8, 2010, ESTA was available for free from the official government websites. Since the Travel Promotion Act introduced a charge of $14; this is made up of $10 which goes to the Corporation for Travel Promotion and a $4 fee levied by the CBP for administration costs. The EU Ambassador to the United States John Bruton argued that it is illogical to think tourist numbers will go up if they are charged to enter the country.

The charge has been described by critics in the European Parliament as little more than a way to fund advertisements for United States tourism. As of November 2019, 39 countries participate in the Visa Waiver Program. Visitors may stay for 90 days in the United States which includes the time spent in Canada, Bermuda, or the islands in the Caribbean if the arrival was through the United States; the ESTA is only required if arriving by cruise ship. It is not required if arriving over land or on local ferries such as between British Columbia and Washington State. ESTA holders who are dual citizens of Iran, Iraq and Syria had their ESTAs revoked in January 2016, will be required to apply for a regular tourist visa at a US foreign mission. ESTA holders who have traveled to Iran, Libya, North Korea, Sudan, Syria or Yemen on or after 1 March 2011 will not have their ESTAs revoked, but will be refused entry if their travel is discovered by the CBP on arrival unless they qualify for a waiver; the Secretary of Homeland Security may waive these restrictions if he determines that such a waiver is in the law enforcement or national security interests of the United States.

Such waivers will be granted only on a case-by-case basis. As a general matter, categories of travelers who may be eligible for a waiver include individuals who traveled to these countries on behalf of international organizations, regional organizations, sub-national governments on official duty; the leaders of the 27 EU member states agreed in their Bratislava Declaration and Roadmap on September 16, 2016, to set up an analogous EU Travel Information and Authorisation System. British subject passport holders with permanent abode status are for unexplained reasons not able to apply for entry into the US by using the Electronic System for Travel Authorisation programme to access the Visa Waiver Program, thus are forced to use the much more costly and time-consuming B1-B2 non-immigrant visa application process in order to gain basic tourist access to the U. S; this continues to cause confusion, as the ESTA website maintains contradictory information, allowing those who have "right of permanent abode" to use ESTA to obtain a VWP, yet at the same time denying British subject passport holders this privilege.

In December 2018, CBP announced that instant ESTA approvals would not longer be available and reiterated that it "strongly encouraged" travellers to submit an online authorization request at least three days before travelling to the United States. However, CBP's website still says that "In most cases, a response is received within seconds of submitting an application."If a traveller is not eligible for visa-free travel, they will need to apply for a visa at a U. S. Embassy or Consulate, a lengthier process that may require an interview with a U. S. Consular officer; as a result, opponents claim. Each travel authorization under ESTA can be valid for up to two years. However, a Visa Waiver Program traveler must obtain a new ESTA authorization if they are issued a new passport, or change their name, gender or country of citizenship. In addition, a traveler must obtain a new ESTA authorization if any answer to the ESTA application eligibility questions changes. Entry under the Visa Waiver Program is only valid for a combined maximum stay in th

Du Jiahao

Du Jiahao is a Chinese politician, serving since 2016 as the Communist Party Secretary of Hunan province. He served between 2016 as the Governor of Hunan. Before that, he served as Vice Governor of Heilongjiang province, held many positions in Shanghai, including party chief of the Pudong New Area. Du Jiahao was born in Shanghai, but is considered a native of his ancestral home of Yin County, Zhejiang by Chinese convention, he entered the work force in March 1973, working at the farm tool factory of Yuejin Farm in rural Shanghai. He joined the Communist Party of China in December that year. Du worked in the farm administration system of Shanghai for most of the next two decades. In 1983 he enrolled at the Chinese department of East China Normal University on a part-time basis, earning a bachelor's degree in literature in 1988. In March 1992 Du Jiahao became the Deputy Communist Party Secretary of Songjiang County in suburban Shanghai, rising to Party Secretary the next year. From 1995 to 1998 he studied economics at the graduate school of the Central Party School on a part-time basis.

From 1999 to 2003 Du was the party chief of the urban Yangpu District of Shanghai, from 2004 to 2007 he was the party chief of the sub-provincial level Pudong New Area of eastern Shanghai. About the same time he enrolled at the China Europe International Business School, obtaining an MBA in 2007. In December 2007 Du was transferred out of Shanghai for the first time of his career, to Heilongjiang province in Northeastern China where he was appointed Vice Governor, deputy party chief in April 2011. In March 2013 Du was transferred again, to become the deputy party chief of Hunan province in south-central China, he was appointed Acting Governor of Hunan in April and Governor on 31 May 2013. Sometime in 2013, he was awarded a civil honour by the Austrian state of Burgenland. In August 2016, in anticipation of the 19th Party Congress, Du was elevated to the post of Communist Party Secretary of Hunan. Many observers saw this as preparing him for further elevation. Du is an alternate member of the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China

Sally Phipps

Sally Phipps was an American actress. Sally Phipps was born Nellie Bernice Bogdon in Oakland, California on May 25, 1911, she was only three years old and the veteran winner of several beautiful baby contests when she appeared under the name Bernice Sawyer as the Baby in the film Broncho Billy And The Baby, made at the Niles, Essanay Studio in late 1914. She made two more Broncho Billy westerns there in early 1915, The Western Way and The Outlaw's Awakening. Fox studio gave her the name Sally Phipps in 1926, when she was 15; until 1929, she was a Fox Film star who appeared in well over 20 films, including a cameo in F. W. Murnau's classic Sunrise, she was discovered by director Frank Borzage while still attending Fairfax High School in Los Angeles, California. She began her work at the studio starring in two-reel comedies, her first was Bearded Ladies. Other comedies, both in 1927, were Gentlemen Prefer Scotch, her first role in a feature was in the Sewing Machine Girl. Soon after, she was selected as one of the 13 1927 WAMPAS Baby Stars.

Her first starring role in a feature was Love Makes'Em Wild. A May 4, 1927 review in the Appleton Post-Crescent complimented her skill as a performer in Love Makes'Em Wild: Miss Phipps is one of the most charming actresses we have had the privilege of seeing in many a day, she has a personality, distinctly individual, to say the least, flirts across the silver sheet with a grace which would become an actress of many more years experience. In August 1927, she signed a five-year contract with Sol M. Wurtzel, personal secretary to William Fox. Fox sent Wurtzel to supervise West Coast productions for his studio in 1917. Phipps' Fox Film contract for October 1927 stipulated she was bound to the studio for a period of five years, she would be paid a starting wage of $125, which would rise to $600 a week for the last six months before expiration. Phipps starred in the popular High School Hero, with leading man Nick Stuart, which opened in late 1927, she was the female lead for the 1928 Fox features Why Sailors Go Wrong, News Parade, None but the Brave.

Her co-star for the first two films was Nick Stuart. The other co-starred Charles Morton; the News Parade is about the life of a Fox News cameraman and the daughter of a camera-shy millionaire. The motion picture was filmed in New York City, Lake Placid, New York, Palm Beach and Havana, Cuba, her last screen appearance at Fox was in the 1929 two-reel comedy talkie Detectives Wanted, starring Clark and McCullough. Two years she appeared on Broadway in the Kaufman and Hart comedy spoof of Hollywood, Once In A Lifetime, playing Susan Walker, the movie-struck ingenue. While on Broadway, she appeared as the female lead to Joe Penner in his 1931 Vitaphone two-reel comedy, Where Men Are Men. In it, she played a Western comedy vamp. In 1935, she again played a movie-struck ingenue in another Broadway comedy, Knock On Wood, by Allen Rivkin. In 1931, she married Gimbels department-store heir Benedict Gimbel Jr. grandson of Adam Gimbel, moved to Philadelphia. In 1941, she married New York musician Alfred Marion Harned in Mexico.

Sally Phipps died in Brooklyn, New York on March 17, 1978, at the age of 66. In the summer of 2019, The Sally Phipps Archive was accepted into the Margaret Herrick Library of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts And Sciences in Hollywood, California; the Archive, now known as the “Sally Phipps Papers”, consists of extensive pictorial material, including hundreds of scene stills from her films made at Fox, Essanay Niles, Warner Brothers Vitaphone. Los Angeles Times, "Players Will Aid Exhibit", April 28, 1927, p. A8. Appleton Post-Crescent, "Comedy Galore In Fox Film At Bijou", Wednesday Evening, May 4, 1927, p. 11. Los Angeles Times, "New Comedy Recruits", July 17, 1927, p. J4. Los Angeles Times, "Girls Sign Pledge To Keep Thin", October 12, 1927, p. A1. "A Summary of Sally." Photoplay, April 1928, p. 67. Manners, Dorothy. "Kute and Kalm. Motion Picture Classic, October 1928, p. 42, 77. Wilson, Earl. "Wampas Ex-Baby Lives on WPA $23 – And Likes It." New York Post, June 21, 1938, p. 11. Frank, Gerold. "Ex-Film Starlet, Ex-Rich Wife, Happy in $23 Job."

New York Journal And American, June 26, 1938, p. E-3. "Phipps, Sally." Filmlexicon degli autori e delle opere. Roma: Edizioni di Bianco e Nero, 1962, p. 582. Roberts, John. "Sally Phipps." Classic Images, November 1984, p. 57, 63. "Phipps, Sally." Ragan, David. Who's Who In Hollywood. New York: Facts On File, 1992, 2v. Diliberto, Gioia. "The Flapper Doesn't Change Her Spots." New York Times Style Magazine T, February 24, 2008, p. 192, 194. Harned, Robert L. "Sally Phipps, Silent Film Star." Classic Images, March 2014, p. 6-15, 70. Robuck, Erica. Fallen Beauty. New York: New American Library, 2014. Harned, Robert L. Sally Phipps: Silent Film Star, by her son. Brooklyn, NY: Robert L. Harned, 2015. Harned, Robert L. "Sally Phipps At Essanay: A Silent Star Begins

R33-class airship

The R33 class of British rigid airships were built for the Royal Naval Air Service during the First World War, but were not completed until after the end of hostilities, by which time the RNAS had become part of the Royal Air Force. The lead ship, R33, served for ten years and survived one of the most alarming and heroic incidents in airship history when she was torn from her mooring mast in a gale, she was called a "Pulham Pig" by the locals, as the blimps based there had been, is immortalised in the village sign for Pulham St Mary. The only other airship in the class, R34, became the first aircraft to make an east to west transatlantic flight in July 1919 and, with the return flight made the first two-way crossing, it was decommissioned two years after being damaged during a storm. The crew nicknamed her "Tiny". Larger than the preceding R31 class, the R33 class was in the design stage in 1916 when the German Zeppelin L 33 was brought down on English soil. Despite the efforts of the crew to set it on fire, it was captured nearly intact, with engines in working order.

For five months, the LZ 76 was examined in order to discover the Germans' secrets. The existing design was adapted to produce a new airship based on the German craft and two examples were ordered, one to be constructed by Armstrong-Whitworth at Barlow, North Yorkshire, the other by William Beardmore and Company in Inchinnan, Scotland. Assembly began in 1918; the R33 class was the middle section being straight-sided. The control car was well forward on the ship, with the aft section containing an engine in a separate structure to stop vibrations affecting the sensitive radio direction finding and communication equipment; the small gap was faired over, so the gondola seemed to be a single structure. It was powered by five 275 hp Sunbeam Maori engines, with one in the aft section of the control car, two more in a pair of power cars amidships each driving a pusher propeller via a reversing gearbox for manoeuvering while mooring, the remaining two in a centrally mounted aft car, geared together to drive a single pusher propeller.

R33 first flew on 6 March 1919, was sent to RAF Pulham in Norfolk. Between and 14 October, R33 made 23 flights totalling 337 hours flying time. One of these, a flight promoting "Victory Bonds" included a brass band playing in the top machine gun post. In 1920 she was "demilitarised" and given over to civilian work with the civil registration G-FAAG; this work consisted of trials of new mast mooring techniques using. On one occasion winds of 80 mph were withstood while moored. Another experiment was an ascent carrying a pilotless Sopwith Camel, launched over the Yorkshire Moors. After an overhaul, R33 was based at Croydon Airport, moored to a portable mast. In June 1921 it was used by the Metropolitan Police to observe traffic at The Derby, in July she appeared in the Hendon Air Pageant before flying to Cardington, where she was laid up for three years. On 31 May 1921 the British government cancelled all airship development for financial reasons. Military airships were scrapped. In 1925, after being inactive for nearly four years, the reconditioned R33 emerged from her shed at Cardington.

At 09:50 on 16 April 1925 the R33 was torn from the mast at Pulham during a gale and was carried away with only a partial crew of 20 men on board. Her nose collapsed and the first gas cell deflated leaving her low in the bow; the crew on board started the engines, gaining some height, rigged a cover for the bow section, but the R33 was blown out over the North Sea. A Royal Navy vessel was readied and left the nearby port of Lowestoft in case the R33 came down in the sea; the local lifeboat was driven back by the weather conditions. Some five hours after the initial break from the mast, R33 was under control but still being blown towards the Continent; as she approached the Dutch coast R33 was given the option of landing at De Kooy, where a party of 300 men was standing by. Late in the evening R33 was able to hold her position over the Dutch coast, hovering there until 5 o'clock the next morning, she was able to make her way back home, arriving at the Suffolk coast eight hours and reaching Pulham at 13:50 hrs, where she was put into the shed alongside the R36.

For their actions the airship's first officer, in command, Lieutenant Ralph Booth was awarded the Air Force Cross, the coxswain, Flight-Sergeant "Sky" Hunt, was awarded the Air Force Medal, four other crew members were awarded the British Empire Medal and the other crew members were presented with inscribed watches. In October 1925, following repairs, she was used for experiments to provide data for the construction of the R101 airship. Once these were finished, in mid-October, she was used for trials launching a parasite fighter, using a DH 53 Hummingbird light aircraft. After some near misses, a successful launch and recapture was achieved in December that year; the following year she launched a pair of Gloster Grebes weighing about a ton apiece, the first of, flown by Flying Officer Campbell MacKenzie-Richards. She was sent to the sheds at Pulham where she was broken up in 1928, after severe metal fatigue was found in her frame; the forward portion of R33's control car is on display at the RAF Museum at Hendon.

R34 made her first flight on 14 March 1919 and was delivered to her service base at East Fortune on 29 May after a 21-hour flight from Inchinnan. R34 had set out the previous evening, but thick fog made navigation difficult, after spending the night over the North Sea the airship was unable to

St Albans, Victoria

St Albans is a suburb 17 km north-west of Melbourne, Australia, located within the City of Brimbank local government area. St Albans recorded a population of 37,309 at the 2016 Census. St Albans' main commercial and shopping precinct is located on Main Road West, Main Road East, Alfrieda Street, the railway station and East Esplanade, it has become a multicultural area with 53.5% of residents being born overseas and has a high proportion of non-English speaking background residents. The postcode is 3021. St Albans was first established as a township in 1887 and subdivided by the Cosmopolitan Land and Banking Company Ltd. who had acquired nearly 1,000 acres in the hope of a quick financial gain during that period's land boom. The town was promoted as an attractive location for professionals who had easy rail access to central Melbourne and adjoining suburbs with a constructed railway station platform attracting potential homeowners to industry in nearby locations. St Albans Post Office opened on 22 October 1888.

Development of St Albans slowed with the economic depression of the late 1890s and did not restart in large numbers until after World War II, with the influx of displaced people and continuing through the 1950s and 1960s with the influx of European migrants in response to the Australian Government's gradual relaxation of its White Australia Policy in 1947, 1957 & 1958. During the 1890s depression many local farmers struggled to make a living as the properties were small, i.e. averaging about 60 acres, after the subdivision of Keilor Common under the Closer Settlement Scheme in 1869. Farmers who acquired land in the area after the subdivision of the Overnewton Estate in 1905 did better, because their selections were between 200 and 300 acres. Local farmers had been involved in growing crops as well as grazing of sheep, dairying of cattle, some breeding of horses. Horses were being trained locally for the Melbourne Cup and the Caulfield Guineas, some were successful. St Albans remained geographically isolated from other suburbs, with large areas of open land between it and other suburbs, until the 1980s.

St Albans is now considered to be a middle-city suburb as the Melbourne Metropolitan area boundary now extends to over 35 km from the Melbourne CBD. St Albans' ethnic makeup is predominantly second and third generation immigrants; the ABS 2001 Census reported that 43% were of Southern or Eastern European origin, with 10% of Maltese extraction alone and about 20% from the Balkan region, including Albanians, Croatians and Serbs. Significant communities from Vietnam and the Philippines were reported. Since the 2001 Census, there has been a rapid increase in the number of refugees from the Horn of Africa settling in St Albans. In the 2011 census the population of St Albans was 35,091 50.3% female and 49.7% male. The median/average age of the people in St Albans is 36 years of age. 34.6% of people living in the suburb of St Albans were born in Australia. The other top responses for country of birth were 15.7% Vietnam, 6.3% India, 4.2% Malta, 2.7% Philippines, 2.5% Croatia, 1.7% Macedonia, 1.7% Greece, 1.5% Bosnia and Herzegovina, 1.3% China, 1.2% Italy, 1.1% New Zealand, 1.0% Sudan, 1.0% Germany, 0.9% Serbia.

24.5% of people living in St Albans speak English only. The other top languages spoken are 22.3% Vietnamese, 7.8% Language spoken at home not stated, 6.6% Other, 4.5% Maltese, 4.1% Punjabi, 3.2% Croatian, 3.0% Cantonese, 2.9% Greek, 2.4% Macedonian. The religious makeup of St Albans is 32.8% Catholic, 17.3% Buddhism, 9.5% No religion, 9.5% Religious affiliation not stated, 8.7% Eastern Orthodox, 5.2% Islam, 3.8% Other Religious Groups, 2.7% Anglican, 2.6% Hinduism, 1.4% Christian, nfd. The median individual income is $352 per week and the median household income is $865 per week; the median rent in St Albans is $250 per week and the median mortgage repayment is $1400 per month. St Albans has all in PTV ticketing Zone 2 on the Sunbury line; these are Ginifer, St Albans and Keilor Plains The line was electrified as far as St Albans until 26 January 2002 when it was extended to Sydenham. Sydenham line was electrified to Sunbury and renamed the Sunbury railway line, opening on 18 November 2012. St Albans has numerous bus services that service St Albans itself and neighboring suburbs, most of which start and finish at St Albans railway station.

Cyclists in St Albans are represented by the Brimbank Bicycle User Group. Great parks are located on the West borders of the suburb; these areas used to have large healthy populations of native reptiles, including Tiger snake, Eastern Blue-tongued Lizard and Eastern brown snake. Due to development these species are now seen in the area. Due to development of the Cairnlea estate on the southern border of St Albans, native species of frogs have taken advantage and have taken up residence in the new wetlands and lakes; the Eastern Banjo Frog, Common Eastern Froglet and the now endangered Growling Grass Frog have been seen and heard in the new wetlands and around Kororoit Creek. Brimbank Park Kororoit Creek Trail Kororoit Creek St Albans boasts a large number of schools including the following.