Sevan Nișanyan is a Turkish-Armenian linguist and travel writer. An author of a number of books, Nișanyan was awarded the Ayşe Nur Zarakolu Liberty Award of the Turkish Human Rights Association in 2004 for his contributions to greater freedom of speech, he is known for his work to restore a semi-derelict village, Şirince, near Turkey’s Aegean coast. Sevan Nișanyan was handed a cumulative jail sentence of 16 years and 7 months for alleged building infractions after he criticized the government’s attempts to prohibit criticism of the prophet Muhammad, in a blog entry in September 2012. However, he escaped prison in July 2017 and established in Athens, where he intends to apply for political asylum according to an interview he gave to the Belgian daily La Libre Belgique, he lives in exile in Samos about which he has said "I am grateful to providence that the goatf***ers who run Turkey gave me, this splendid opportunity." Nişanyan was born in Istanbul in the son of architect Vagarş Nișanyan. After graduating from the Private Armenian School of Pangaltı he attended Robert College studied philosophy at Yale University, concentrating on Kant and Thomas Aquinas.
He did graduate studies in political science at Columbia University, where he worked under Giovanni Sartori, Zbigniew Brzezinski, Seweryn Bialer and Douglas Chalmers. His PhD thesis concerned the competitive strategies of political parties in unstable South American regimes. During his university years Nişanyan became fluent in several languages, including Latin and Classical Armenian. In 1985 Nișanyan returned to his native Turkey to complete his compulsory military service, he spent the next two decades as a professional travel writer and guidebook editor in both English and Turkish language media. With journalist Thomas Goltz, he published a series of guidebooks on Turkey's regions, he wrote the American Express Guides to Athens and Vienna & Budapest. In 1998, with his wife Müjde, he brought out the first annual edition of The Little Hotel Book, a guidebook in Turkish and English to Turkey’s small and characterful hotels; the guide was immensely successful, topping national bestseller lists for ten consecutive years, developing into a cultural icon of the ‘00s.
It ceased to publish after the couple's publicised divorce in 2008. Nișanyan was awarded the Ayşe Nur Zarakolu Liberty Award of the Turkish Human Rights Association in 2004 for his contributions to greater freedom of speech. Nișanyan married Müjde Tönbekici in 1992; the couple settled in Şirince, a former Greek village in the Aegean hills of Western Turkey, semi-derelict since the 1923 population exchange between Greece and Turkey. They were instrumental in having the village declared a national heritage site, they undertook to renovate ruined historic houses using the original materials and building techniques of the village. Several of the renovated village houses were converted into a acclaimed "Hotel de Charme". by the name of the Nișanyan Houses. After 2006 Nișanyan collaborated with Ali Nesin, a prominent mathematician and philanthropist, in developing the Nesin Mathematics Village near Şirince. Constructed along the lines of traditional Aegean rural architecture, the village offered summer courses in college-level and postgraduate mathematics.
It attracted prominent lecturers from around the world, accommodating over 300 resident students by summer 2013. Nișanyan built Tiyatro Medresesi, a theater institute and actors’ retreat in the manner of mediaeval Muslim seminaries; the Nișanyan Memorial Library was completed in 2013. A philosophy school became operative on the grounds of Mathematics Village in 2014. Nisanyan's Sözlerin Soyağaci: Çağdaş Türkçenin Etimolojik Sözlüğü, published in 2002 was the first and so far the most significant reference work in its field. Popularly known as "The Nisanyan Dictionary", a revised and expanded fifth edition was published in 2008; the full contents of the dictionary are available online at Nisanyansozluk.com, with new material added on a continuous basis. The current version covers detailed etymological data on over 15.000 words, in most cases including text quotations of earliest attested instances. In addition to being an indispensable source for Turkish, the dictionary is now recognised as a valuable tool for Semitic and Iranian etymology as well, on account of the analysis of more than 5000 Arabic and Persian loanwords embedded in contemporary Turkish vocabulary.
Nişanyan wrote The Wrong Republic, a critique of the founding myths of the Republic of Turkey, established in 1923. Written in 1994, the book circulated in photocopy until it could no longer be published in 2008 without fear of reprisals. In 2010 Nișanyan published an index of over 16,000 place-names across Anatolia, changed under the Turkification policies of the Turkish Republic. There had been no published comprehensive documentation of the thousands of traditional names derived from Greek, Kurdish, Arabic or other more obscure antecedents, replaced by newly invented Turkish or Turkish-sounding names in the 20th century; the Index Anatolicus project went online in 2011, developed into an effort to document all the historic toponyms of Turkey. The current database can be viewed online. Nișanyan published three collections of his linguistic essays in Elifin Öküzü, Kelimebaz and Kelimebaz-2; the essays dealt with a wide variety of topics in Turkish cultural history, exploring the complex multi–ethnic
Parsley or garden parsley is a species of flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native to the central Mediterranean region, but has naturalized elsewhere in Europe, is cultivated as a herb, a spice, a vegetable. Where it grows as a biennial, in the first year, it forms a rosette of tripinnate leaves, 10–25 cm long, with numerous 1–3 cm leaflets and a taproot used as a food store over the winter. In the second year, it grows a flowering stem with sparser leaves and umbels with yellow to yellowish-green flowers. Parsley is used in European, Middle Eastern, American cuisine. Curly leaf parsley is used as a garnish. In central Europe, eastern Europe, southern Europe, as well as in western Asia, many dishes are served with fresh green chopped parsley sprinkled on top. Flat leaf parsley is similar, but it is easier to cultivate, some say it has a stronger flavor. Root parsley is common in central and southern European cuisines, where it is used as a snack or a vegetable in many soups and casseroles.
The word "parsley" is a merger of Old English petersilie and the Old French peresil, both derived from Medieval Latin petrosilium, from Latin petroselinum, the latinization of the Greek πετροσέλινον, "rock-celery", from πέτρα, "rock, stone", + σέλινον, "celery". Mycenaean Greek se-ri-no, in Linear B, is the earliest attested form of the word selinon. Garden parsley is a bright green, biennial plant in temperate climates, or an annual herb in subtropical and tropical areas. Where it grows as a biennial, in the first year, it forms a rosette of tripinnate leaves 10–25 cm long with numerous 1–3 cm leaflets, a taproot used as a food store over the winter. In the second year, it grows a flowering stem to 75 cm tall with sparser leaves and flat-topped 3–10 cm diameter umbels with numerous 2 mm diameter yellow to yellowish-green flowers; the seeds are ovoid, 2–3 mm long, with prominent style remnants at the apex. One of the compounds of the essential oil is apiol; the plant dies after seed maturation.
Parsley is a source of flavonoids and antioxidants luteolin, folic acid, vitamin K, vitamin C, vitamin A. Half a tablespoon of dried parsley contains about 6.0 µg of lycopene and 10.7 µg of alpha carotene as well as 82.9 µg of lutein+zeaxanthin and 80.7 µg of beta carotene. Excessive consumption of parsley should be avoided by pregnant women. Normal food quantities are safe for pregnant women, but consuming excessively large amounts may have uterotonic effects. Parsley grows best in well-drained soil, with full sun, it grows best between 22–30 °C, is grown from seed. Germination is slow, taking four to six weeks, it is difficult because of furanocoumarins in its seed coat. Plants grown for the leaf crop are spaced 10 cm apart, while those grown as a root crop are spaced 20 cm apart to allow for the root development. Parsley attracts several species of wildlife; some swallowtail butterflies use parsley as a host plant for their larvae. Bees and other nectar-feeding insects visit the flowers. Birds such as the goldfinch feed on the seeds.
In cultivation, parsley is subdivided into several cultivar groups, depending on the form of the plant, related to its end use. These are treated as botanical varieties, but they are cultivated selections, not of natural botanical origin; the two main groups of parsley used as herbs are curly leaf. Of these, the neapolitanum group more resembles the natural wild species. Flat-leaved parsley is preferred by some gardeners as it is easier to cultivate, being more tolerant of both rain and sunshine, is said to have a stronger flavor — although this is disputed — while curly leaf parsley is preferred by others because of its more decorative appearance in garnishing. A third type, sometimes grown in southern Italy, has thick leaf. Another type of parsley is grown as the Hamburg root parsley; this type of parsley produces much thicker roots than types cultivated for their leaves. Although used in Britain and the United States, root parsley is common in central and eastern European cuisine, where it is used in soups and stews, or eaten raw, as a snack.
Although root parsley looks similar to the parsnip, among its closest relatives in the family Apiaceae, its taste is quite different. Parsley is used in Middle Eastern, European and American cooking. Curly leaf parsley is used as a garnish. Green parsley is used as a garnish on potato dishes, on rice dishes, on fish, fried chicken, lamb and steaks, as well in meat or vegetable stews. In central Europe, eastern Europe, southern Europe, as well as in western Asia, many dishes are served with fresh green, chopped parsley sprinkled on top. In southern and central Europe, parsley is part of bouquet garni, a bundle of fresh herbs used as an ingredient in stocks and sauces. Freshly chopped green parsley is used as a topping for soups such as chicken soup, green salads, or s
Domestic sheep are quadrupedal, ruminant mammals kept as livestock. Like most ruminants, sheep are members of the even-toed ungulates. Although the name sheep applies to many species in the genus Ovis, in everyday usage it always refers to Ovis aries. Numbering a little over one billion, domestic sheep are the most numerous species of sheep. An adult female sheep is referred to as a ewe, an intact male as a ram or a tup, a castrated male as a wether, a younger sheep as a lamb. Sheep are most descended from the wild mouflon of Europe and Asia. One of the earliest animals to be domesticated for agricultural purposes, sheep are raised for fleeces and milk. A sheep's wool is the most used animal fiber, is harvested by shearing. Ovine meat is called lamb when from younger animals and mutton when from older ones in Commonwealth countries, lamb in the United States. Sheep continue to be important for wool and meat today, are occasionally raised for pelts, as dairy animals, or as model organisms for science.
Sheep husbandry is practised throughout the majority of the inhabited world, has been fundamental to many civilizations. In the modern era, New Zealand, the southern and central South American nations, the British Isles are most associated with sheep production. Sheepraising has a large lexicon of unique terms which vary by region and dialect. Use of the word sheep began in Middle English as a derivation of the Old English word scēap. A group of sheep is called a herd or mob. Many other specific terms for the various life stages of sheep exist related to lambing and age. Being a key animal in the history of farming, sheep have a entrenched place in human culture, find representation in much modern language and symbology; as livestock, sheep are most associated with pastoral, Arcadian imagery. Sheep figure in many mythologies—such as the Golden Fleece—and major religions the Abrahamic traditions. In both ancient and modern religious ritual, sheep are used as sacrificial animals; the exact line of descent between domestic sheep and their wild ancestors is unclear.
The most common hypothesis states. Sheep were among the first animals to be domesticated by humankind. C in Mesopotamia; the rearing of sheep for secondary products, the resulting breed development, began in either southwest Asia or western Europe. Sheep were kept for meat and skins. Archaeological evidence from statuary found at sites in Iran suggests that selection for woolly sheep may have begun around 6000 BC, the earliest woven wool garments have been dated to two to three thousand years later. Sheep husbandry spread in Europe. Excavations show that in about 6000 BC, during the Neolithic period of prehistory, the Castelnovien people, living around Châteauneuf-les-Martigues near present-day Marseille in the south of France, were among the first in Europe to keep domestic sheep. From its inception, ancient Greek civilization relied on sheep as primary livestock, were said to name individual animals. Ancient Romans kept sheep on a wide scale, were an important agent in the spread of sheep raising.
Pliny the Elder, in his Natural History, speaks at length about wool. European colonists spread the practice to the New World from 1493 onwards. Domestic sheep are small ruminants with a crimped hair called wool and with horns forming a lateral spiral. Domestic sheep differ from their wild relatives and ancestors in several respects, having become uniquely neotenic as a result of selective breeding by humans. A few primitive breeds of sheep retain some of the characteristics of their wild cousins, such as short tails. Depending on breed, domestic sheep may have no horns at all, or horns in both sexes, or in males only. Most horned breeds have a single pair. Another trait unique to domestic sheep as compared to wild ovines is their wide variation in color. Wild sheep are variations of brown hues, variation within species is limited. Colors of domestic sheep range from pure white to dark chocolate brown, spotted or piebald. Selection for dyeable white fleeces began early in sheep domestication, as white wool is a dominant trait it spread quickly.
However, colored sheep do appear in many modern breeds, may appear as a recessive trait in white flocks. While white wool is desirable for large commercial markets, there is a niche market for colored fleeces for handspinning; the nature of the fleece varies among the breeds, from dense and crimped, to long and hairlike. There is variation of wool type and quality among members of the same flock, so wool classing is a step in the commercial processing of the fibre. Depending on breed, sheep show a range of weights, their rate of growth and mature weight is a heritable trait, selected for in breeding. Ewes weigh between 45 and 100 kilograms, rams between 45 and 160 kilograms; when all deciduous teeth have erupted, the sheep has 20 teeth. Mature sheep have 32 teeth; as with other ruminants, the front teeth in the lower jaw bite against a hard, toothless pad in the upper jaw. These are used to pick off vegetation the rear
Cucumber is a cultivated plant in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae. It is a creeping vine. There are three main varieties of cucumber: slicing and seedless. Within these varieties, several cultivars have been created. In North America, the term "wild cucumber" refers to plants in the genera Echinocystis and Marah, but these are not related; the cucumber is from South Asia, but now grows on most continents. Many different types of cucumber are traded on the global market; the cucumber is a creeping vine that roots in the ground and grows up trellises or other supporting frames, wrapping around supports with thin, spiraling tendrils. The plant may root in a soilless medium and will sprawl along the ground if it does not have supports; the vine has large leaves. The fruit of typical cultivars of cucumber is cylindrical, but elongated with tapered ends, may be as large as 60 centimeters long and 10 centimeters in diameter. Botanically speaking, the cucumber is classified as a pepo, a type of botanical berry with a hard outer rind and no internal divisions.
Much like tomato and squash, it is perceived and eaten as a vegetable. Cucumber fruits consist of 95% water. A few cultivars of cucumber are parthenocarpic, the blossoms creating seedless fruit without pollination. Pollination for these cultivars degrades the quality. In the United States, these are grown in greenhouses, where bees are excluded. In Europe, they are grown outdoors in some regions, bees are excluded from these areas. Most cucumber cultivars, are seeded and require pollination. Thousands of hives of honey bees are annually carried to cucumber fields just before bloom for this purpose. Cucumbers may be pollinated by bumblebees and several other bee species. Most cucumbers that require pollination are self-incompatible, so pollen from a different plant is required to form seeds and fruit; some self-compatible cultivars exist. Symptoms of inadequate pollination include misshapen fruit. Pollinated flowers may develop fruit that are green and develop near the stem end, but are pale yellow and withered at the blossom end.
Traditional cultivars produce male blossoms first female, in about equivalent numbers. Newer gynoecious hybrid cultivars produce all female blossoms, they may have a pollenizer cultivar interplanted, the number of beehives per unit area is increased, but temperature changes induce male flowers on these plants, which may be sufficient for pollination to occur. In a 100-gram serving, raw cucumber is 95% water, provides 67 kilojoules and supplies low content of essential nutrients, as it is notable only for vitamin K at 16% of the Daily Value. In 2009, an international team of researchers announced. In general cultivation, cucumbers are classified into three main cultivar groups: "slicing", "pickling", "burpless". Cucumbers grown to eat fresh are called slicing cucumbers; the main varieties of slicers mature on vines with large leaves. They are eaten in the unripe green form, since the ripe yellow form becomes bitter and sour. Slicers grown commercially for the North American market are longer, more uniform in color, have a much tougher skin.
Slicers in other countries are smaller and have a thinner, more delicate skin having fewer seeds and being sold in a plastic skin for protection. Sometimes these are known as English cucumbers; this variety may be called a "telegraph cucumber" in Australasia. Smaller slicing cucumbers can be pickled. Pickling with brine, sugar and spices creates various, flavored products from cucumbers and other foods. Although any cucumber can be pickled, commercial pickles are made from cucumbers specially bred for uniformity of length-to-diameter ratio and lack of voids in the flesh; those cucumbers intended for pickling, called picklers, grow to about 7 to 10 cm long and 2.5 cm wide. Compared to slicers, picklers tend to be shorter, less shaped, have bumpy skin with tiny white or black-dotted spines. Color can vary from creamy yellow to dark green. Gherkins called cornichons, baby dills, or baby pickles, are small, unsliced cucumbers those 1 inch to 5 inches in length with bumpy skin, pickled in variable combinations of brine, vinegar and sugar.
In the United Kingdom, gherkins may be prepared predominantly in vinegar, imparting an acidic flavor "punch" as a side-dish for meals. Although gherkins may be grown in greenhouses, they are grown as a field crop, processed locally, packaged in jars in Canada, the United States, India. India, Turkey and Mexico compete as producers for the global gherkin market, with the European Union, United States and Israel as major importers; the word gherkin derived in the mid-17th century from early modern Dutch, gurken or augurken for "small pickled cucumber". The term, West Indian gherkin, has been applied to Cucumis anguria L. a related species of Cucumis sativus, the most common cucumber plant. Burpless cucumbers have a thinner skin than other varieties of cucumber, they are reputed to be easy to have a pleasant taste. They can grow as long as 2 feet, are nearly seedless, have a delicate skin. Most grown in greenhouses, these parthenocarpic cucumbers are found in grocery markets, shrink-wrapped in plastic.
They are sometimes markete
Gaziantep University is a public university in Gaziantep, Turkey. Gaziantep University has 10 faculties, containing a total of 22 academic departments, with a strong emphasis on scientific and technological research. Gaziantep is the largest trade and industrial center in the west of Southeastern Turkey. Gaziantep University was founded as a state university on 27 June 1987, but higher education on campus began in 1973 when the institute was an extension campus of the Middle East Technical University; the main campus is located at Gaziantep, close to the city centre, with its extension campuses situated in the neighbouring cities. The objectives of the university are: Cultural, technical and vocational education and training and applied research, Technical and cultural exchanges with similar institutions at national and international levels,The University of Gaziantep enrolled 24,406 undergraduates, 482 postgraduate students, employed 1,048 faculty members in the 2008/09 school year; the language of instruction at the Gaziantep University is English.
Established in 1973, the Department of Mechanical Engineering and in 1974, the Engineering Faculty of which the medium of instruction is English, are the basis of the university. The Engineering Faculty was founded by the opening of the Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering in 1974. Following this, in 1977, the Department of Food Engineering; the university became an independent state university on 27 June 1987. The Engineering Faculty and Vocational School of Higher Education in the body of Middle East Technical University was connected to the University of Gaziantep by the same law. In addition to them, the Faculty of Medicine, the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, the Faculty of Economic and Administrative Sciences, the Faculty of Education in Adıyaman, Vocational School of Higher Education in Kilis, Graduate Schools of Natural and Applied Sciences, Social Sciences, Health Sciences and the State Conservatory of Turkish Music were established. In the body of the university, in 1990, the Vocational School of Higher Education for Health Services attached to the Rectorship, in 1995, the Departments of Industrial Engineering and Textile Engineering attached to the Faculty of Engineering, in 1997, the Higher School of Physical Education and Sports, Gaziantep Higher School of Health, Yusuf Serefoglu Higher School of Health in Kilis, Vocational School of Higher Education in Besni and Vocational School of Higher Education in Nizip, in 1998, the Muallim Rifat Education Faculty in Kilis, Vocational School of Higher Education in Gölbasi, in 2001, the Vocational School of Higher Education for Tourism and Hotel Management, in 2002, the Education Faculty in Gaziantep and Vocational School of Higher Education in Oguzeli, in 2003, the Faculty of Arts and Sciences in Kilis were founded.
Presently, education is given at eight faculties, three higher schools, a conservatory, eight vocational schools of higher education, three graduate schools and five service departments namely the Department of Physical Education and Sports, the Department of Turkish Language, the Higher School of Foreign Languages, the Department of Informatics and Department of Atatürk's Principles and the History of Turkish Renovation attached to the Rectorship to offer courses in 107 major areas at undergraduate and graduate level. The university has 624 academic staff, 424 teaching and research assistant, 848 administrative staff, 22,300 undergraduate and 442 graduate students. 22,242 students have graduated. Faculty of EngineeringDepartment of Engineering Physics The Department of Engineering Physics provides professional training on engineering physics and directs students to participate in applied and theoretical research. Undergraduate laboratories provide hands-on experience; the student gains an insight into industrial applications of physics during summer practices performed in the second and third years of the undergraduate program.
Candidates are awarded the degree of Bachelor of Science and/or Master of Science and the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Engineering Physics. Graduate students of the department are employed in many areas such as telecommunications, hospitals and development laboratories, power stations, schools. In addition to this, there are only five Engineering Physics Departments in Turkish universities, each department focused on different areas; these universities are Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul Medeniyet University, Hacettepe University, Ankara University and Gaziantep University. Main branches Nuclear physics Solid-state physics Mathematical physics General physics High-energy nuclear physics Particle physics Chemical physics Optical physics Laser physics Plasma physics Computational physics Applied physics Astrophysics Condensed matter physics Atomic and molecular physicsDepartment of Computer Engineering Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering The purpose of the Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering is to provide students with a professional education, enabling them to study and participate in applied and practical research studies.
Laboratories are equipped for practical courses. The degree of “Bachelor of Science” is given to the students who have completed the 4-year undergraduate program; the program, established in 1977, gives the student the opportunity to specialize in the area of telecommunications, solid-state electronics, quantum electronics, power systems and antennas, high voltage and computer science. The department has programs for the degrees of Master of Doctor of Philosophy. Department of Industri
A dip or dipping sauce is a common condiment for many types of food. Dips are used to add flavor or texture to a food, such as pita bread, crackers, cut-up raw vegetables, seafood, cubed pieces of meat and cheese, potato chips, tortilla chips and sometimes whole sandwiches in the case of au jus. Unlike other sauces, instead of applying the sauce to the food, the food is put, dipped, or added into the dipping sauce. Dips are used for finger foods and other food types. Thick dips based on sour cream, crème fraîche, yogurt, soft cheese, or beans are a staple of American hors d'oeuvres and are thinner than spreads which can be thinned to make dips. Alton Brown suggests that a dip is defined based on its ability to "maintain contact with its transport mechanism over three feet of white carpet". Dips in various forms are eaten all over the world and people have been using sauces for dipping for thousands of years; some types of dip include: Aioli, an emulsion of garlic and olive oil Ajika, a spicy, subtly flavoured dip in Caucasian cuisine, based on hot red pepper, garlic and spices Ajvar, made from red bell peppers with garlic, found in Serbian cuisine Artichoke dip Au jus, a meat juice used as a sandwich dip, such as for Italian beef Baba ghanoush, a dip made from eggplant, popular in the Eastern Mediterranean and parts of South Asia Bagna càuda, a regional dish of the Italian Piedmont Banana ketchup, a Filipino condiment made from bananas.
Used similar to tomato ketchup. Barbecue sauce used for grilled and fried meats in the United States Bean dip, dip made from refried beans Blue cheese dressing used as a dip for raw vegetables or buffalo wings Buffalo sauce used as both a coating for buffalo wings as well as a standalone dipping sauce for other foods Chile con queso, used in Tex Mex cuisine with tortilla chips Chili oil, used as a dipping sauce for meat and dim sum Chocolate, a dip for various fruits, doughnuts and marshmallows Chutney, used with snacks like deep fried samosas and pakoras and idli Clam dip, a kind of condiment for dipping crackers and chips Cocktail sauce, a dip for seafood made from ketchup or chili sauce and horseradish Crab dip, a thick dip popular in Maryland made from cream cheese and lump crab meat Curry ketchup called Currygewürz in Germany, is a spicier form of ketchup Fish sauce, or nam pla, used in southeastern Asian cuisines as a dip for snacks and other foods Fish paste or bagoong, fermented fish paste, used in southeastern Asian cuisines as a dip for rice dishes Fondue, a melted cheese sauce French onion dip Fritessaus, a leaner form of mayonnaise from The Netherlands Fry sauce, a dip eaten with french fries and onion rings Garlic butter sauce, used for dipping seafood, chicken and pizza.
It is eaten with tortilla chips. Hazelnut butter or hazelnut spread is used as a dip for crackers and cookies Honey, a common dip for chicken and biscuits Hot sauce or chili sauce, a spicy dip made from peppers Hummus, a Levantine dip of ground chickpeas and sesame tahini with spices and lemon juice Jus, a broth served with a French dip Ketchup used with french fries, onion rings, a wide variety of other foods Marinara sauce, a tomato sauce served with breadsticks, etc. Mayonnaise, the basis for many dips, on its own a dip for cold chicken. Satsivi, a walnut dip in Georgian cuisine Smetana, a common dip for bliny, vareniki Sour cream, on its own or combined with mayonnaise and/or other ingredients, a common dip for potato chips Soy sauce served in small saucers for dipping a variety of East Asian foods. Spinach dip, for tortilla chips and vegetables Sriracha sauce Sweet and sour sauce, aka plum sauce or duck sauce, used for dipping fried noodles and other foods Taramosalata, a Near Eastern dip of carp or codfish roe Tartar sauce used with seafood Tentsuyu, a Japanese dipping sauce Tkemali, a cherry plum sauce in Georgian cuisine Toyomansi, a Filipino meat or fish dip made with soy sauce and calamansi juice.
Chilis may be added to create "silimansi". Tzatziki and similar sauces used for dipping include tarator and Raita Vinegar, used as a dip for grilled meats, steamed crabs.
Couscous is a Maghrebi dish of small steamed balls of crushed durum wheat semolina, traditionally served with a stew spooned on top. Pearl millet and sorghum in the Sahel and other cereals can be cooked in a similar way and the resulting dishes are sometimes called couscous. Couscous is a staple food throughout the North African cuisines of Algeria, Tunisia, Mauritania and Egypt, as well as in Israel, due to the large population of Jews of North African origin. In Western supermarkets, it is sometimes sold in instant form with a flavor packet, may be served as a side or on its own as a main dish; the original name may be derived from the Arabic word Kaskasa, meaning "to pound small" or the Berber Seksu, meaning "well rolled", "well formed", or "rounded". Numerous different names and pronunciations for couscous exist around the world. Couscous in the United Kingdom and only the latter in the United States, it is sometimes pronounced kuskusi in Arabic. The origin of couscous appears to be in the region from eastern to northern Africa where Berbers used it as early as the 7th century.
Recognized as a traditional North African delicacy, it is a common cuisine component among Maghreb countries. Ibn Battuta stated in his Rihlah, indicating what may be the earliest mention of couscous in West Africa from the early 1350s: When the traveler arrives in a village the women of the blacks come with anlî and milk and chickens and flour of nabaq, fûnî fonio, this is like the grain of mustard and from it kuskusu and porridge are made, bean flour, he buys from them what he likes, but not rice, as eating the rice is harmful to white men and the fûnî is better than it. Couscous was traditionally made from the hard part of the durum, the part of the grain that resisted the grinding of the millstone; the semolina is sprinkled with water and rolled with the hands to form small pellets, sprinkled with dry flour to keep them separate, sieved. Any pellets that are too small to be finished granules of couscous fall through the sieve and are again rolled and sprinkled with dry semolina and rolled into pellets.
This labor-intensive process continues until all the semolina has been formed into tiny granules of couscous. In the traditional method of preparing couscous, groups of women came together to make large batches over several days, which were dried in the sun and used for several months. Handmade couscous may need to be rehydrated. In some regions couscous is made from coarsely ground barley or pearl millet. In Brazil, the traditional couscous is made from cornmeal. In modern times, couscous production is mechanized, the product is sold in markets around the world; this couscous can be sauteed before it is cooked in another liquid. Properly cooked couscous is not gummy or gritty. Traditionally, North Africans use a food steamer; the base is a tall metal pot shaped rather like an oil jar in which the meat and vegetables are cooked as a stew. On top of the base, a steamer sits where the couscous is cooked, absorbing the flavours from the stew; the lid to the steamer has holes around its edge. It is possible to use a pot with a steamer insert.
If the holes are too big, the steamer can be lined with damp cheesecloth. There is little archaeological evidence of early diets including couscous because the original couscoussier was made from organic materials that could not survive extended exposure to the elements; the couscous, sold in most Western supermarkets has been pre-steamed and dried. It is prepared by adding 1.5 measures of boiling water or stock to each measure of couscous leaving covered for about five minutes. Pre-steamed couscous takes less time to prepare than regular couscous, most dried pasta, or dried grains. In Tunisia, Algeria and Libya, couscous is served with vegetables cooked in a spicy or mild broth or stew, some meat. In Algeria and Morocco it may be served at the end of a meal or by itself as a delicacy called "sfouff"; the couscous is steamed several times until it is fluffy and pale in color. It is sprinkled with almonds and sugar. Traditionally, this dessert is served with milk perfumed with orange flower water, or it can be served plain with buttermilk in a bowl as a cold light soup for supper.
Algerian couscous includes tomatoes and a variety of legumes and vegetables, Moroccan couscous uses saffron. Saharan couscous is served without broth. In Tunisia, it is made spicy with harissa sauce and served with any dish, including lamb, seafood and sometimes in southern regions, camel. Fish couscous is a Tunisian specialty and can be made with octopus, squid or other seafood in hot, spicy sauce. In Libya, it is served with meat mostly lamb, but camel, beef, in Tripoli and the western parts of Libya, but not during official ceremonies or weddings. Another way to eat couscous is as a dessert.