Rogue River (Oregon)
The Rogue River in southwestern Oregon in the United States flows about 215 miles in a westward direction from the Cascade Range to the Pacific Ocean. Known for its salmon runs, whitewater rafting, rugged scenery, it was one of the original eight rivers named in the Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968. Beginning near Crater Lake, which occupies the caldera left by the explosive volcanic eruption of Mount Mazama, the river flows through the geologically young High Cascades and the older Western Cascades, another volcanic province. Further west, the river passes through multiple exotic terranes of the more ancient Klamath Mountains. In the Kalmiopsis Wilderness section of the Rogue basin are some of the world's best examples of rocks that form the Earth's mantle. Near the mouth of the river, the only dinosaur fragments discovered in Oregon were found in the Otter Point Formation, along the coast of Curry County. People have lived along its tributaries for at least 8,500 years. European explorers made first contact with Native Americans toward the end of the 18th century and began beaver trapping and other activities in the region.
Clashes, sometimes deadly, occurred between the natives and the trappers and between the natives and European-American miners and settlers. These struggles culminated with the Rogue River Wars of 1855–56 and removal of most of the natives to reservations outside the basin. After the war, settlers expanded into remote areas of the watershed and established small farms along the river between Grave Creek and the mouth of the Illinois River, they were isolated from the outside world until 1895, when the Post Office Department added mail-boat service along the lower Rogue. As of 2010, the Rogue has one of the two remaining rural mail-boat routes in the United States. Dam building and removal along the Rogue has generated controversy for more than a century. By 2009, all but one of the main-stem dams downstream of a huge flood-control structure 157 miles from the river mouth had been removed. Aside from dams, threats to salmon include high water temperatures. Although sometimes too warm for salmonids, the main stem Rogue is clean, ranking between 85 and 97 on the Oregon Water Quality Index.
Although the Rogue Valley near Medford is urban, the average population density of the Rogue watershed is only about 32 people per square mile. Several historic bridges cross the river near the more populated areas. Many public parks, hiking trails, campgrounds are near the river, which flows through forests, including national forests. Biodiversity in many parts of the basin is high; the Rogue River begins at Boundary Springs on the border between Klamath and Douglas counties near the northern edge of Crater Lake National Park. Although it changes direction many times, it flows west for 215 miles from the Cascade Range through the Rogue River – Siskiyou National Forest and the Klamath Mountains to the Pacific Ocean at Gold Beach. Communities along its course include Union Creek, Trail, Shady Cove, Gold Hill and Rogue River, all in Jackson County. Significant tributaries include the South Fork Rogue River, Elk Creek, Bear Creek, the Applegate River, the Illinois River. Arising at 5,320 feet above sea level, the river loses more than 1 mile in elevation by the time it reaches the Pacific.
It was one of the original eight rivers named in the National Wild and Scenic Rivers Act of 1968, which included 84 miles of the Rogue, from 7 miles west of Grants Pass to 11 miles east of the mouth at Gold Beach. In 1988, an additional 40 miles of the Rogue between Crater Lake National Park and the unincorporated community of Prospect was named Wild and Scenic. Of the river's total length, 124 miles, about 58 percent is Scenic; the Rogue is one of only three rivers that start in or east of the Cascade Range in Oregon and reach the Pacific Ocean. The others are the Umpqua Klamath River; these three Southern Oregon rivers drain mountains south of the Willamette Valley. The United States Geological Survey operates five stream gauges along the Rogue River, they are located, from uppermost to lowermost, near Prospect, Eagle Point, Central Point, Grants Pass, Agness. Between 1960 and 2007, the average discharge recorded by the Agness gauge at river mile 29.7 or river kilometer 47.8 was 6,622 cubic feet per second.
The maximum discharge during this period was 290,000 cubic feet per second on December 23, 1964, the minimum discharge was 608 cubic feet per second on July 9 and 10, 1968. This was from a drainage basin of 3,939 square miles, or about 76 percent of the entire Rogue watershed; the maximum flow occurred between December 1964 and January 1965 during the Christmas flood of 1964, rated by the National Weather Service as one of Oregon's top 10 weather events of the 20th century. Draining 5,156 square miles, the Rogue River watershed covers parts of Jackson, Curry and Klamath counties in southwestern Oregon and Siskiyou and Del Norte counties in norther
Lincoln County, Oregon
Lincoln County is a county located in the U. S. state of Oregon. As of the 2010 census, its population was 46,034; the county seat is Newport. The county is named for 16th president of the United States. Lincoln County comprises OR Micropolitan Statistical Area. Lincoln County was created by the Oregon Legislative Assembly on February 20, 1893, from the western portion of Benton and Polk counties; the county adjusted its boundaries in 1923, 1925, 1927, 1931, 1949. At the time of the county's creation, Toledo was picked as the temporary county seat. In 1896 it was chosen as the permanent county seat. Three elections were held to determine. Twice these votes failed—in 1928 and 1938. In 1954, the vote went in Newport's favor. While Toledo has remained the industrial hub of Lincoln County, the city has never regained the position it once had. Like Tillamook County to the north, for the first decades of its existence Lincoln County was isolated from the rest of the state; this was solved with the construction of U.
S. Route 101, the Salmon River Highway. In 1936, as some of many federally funded construction projects during the Great Depression, bridges were constructed across the bays at Waldport and Siletz, eliminating the ferries needed to cross these bays; the northern part of Lincoln County includes the Siletz Reservation, created by treaty in 1855. The reservation was open to non-Indian settlement between 1895 and 1925; the Siletz's tribal status was terminated by the federal government in 1954, but in 1977 it became the first Oregon tribe to have its tribal status reinstated. The current reservation totals 3,666 acres. Principal industries of the county are travel, health services and construction. Paper manufacturing and fishing are still important although they contribute proportionally less to the county's employment than they used to. Newport is one of the two major fishing ports of Oregon that ranks in the top twenty of fishing ports in the U. S, its port averaged 105 million pounds of fish landed in 1997-2000.
Newport is home of Oregon State University's Hatfield Marine Science Center, as well as the Oregon Coast Aquarium, their fleet of ocean-going vessels. Many of the other communities in Lincoln county depend on tourism as their principal source of income; the county's average nonfarm employment was 18,820 in 2007. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,194 square miles, of which 980 square miles is land and 214 square miles is water. Tillamook County Polk County Benton County Lane County Oregon Islands National Wildlife Refuge Siletz Bay National Wildlife Refuge Siuslaw National Forest As of the 2000 census, there were 44,479 people, 19,296 households, 12,252 families residing in the county; the population density was 45 people per square mile. There were 26,889 housing units at an average density of 27 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 90.59% White, 0.30% Black or African American, 3.14% Native American, 0.93% Asian, 0.16% Pacific Islander, 1.66% from other races, 3.23% from two or more races.
4.76% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 16.8% were of German, 13.5% English, 10.8% Irish and 8.5% American ancestry. There were 19,296 households out of which 24.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.50% were married couples living together, 10.00% had a female householder with no husband present, 36.50% were non-families. 29.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.75. In the county, the population was spread out with 21.40% under the age of 18, 6.50% from 18 to 24, 23.50% from 25 to 44, 29.00% from 45 to 64, 19.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females there were 94.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $32,769, the median income for a family was $39,403. Males had a median income of $32,407 versus $22,622 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $18,692. About 9.80% of families and 13.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.50% of those under age 18 and 7.20% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 46,034 people, 20,550 households, 12,372 families residing in the county; the population density was 47.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 30,610 housing units at an average density of 31.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 87.7% white, 3.5% American Indian, 1.1% Asian, 0.4% black or African American, 0.1% Pacific islander, 3.4% from other races, 3.7% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 7.9% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 23.5% were German, 22.0% were English, 14.6% were Irish, 4.6% were American. Of the 20,550 households, 21.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.3% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 39.8% were non-families, 31.2% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.20 and the average family size was 2.70. The median age was 49.6 years. The median income for a household in the county was $39,738 and the median income for a family was $52,730. Males had a median income of $42,416 versus $31,690 for females; the per capita income for the county was $24,354. About 11.7% of families an
Clatsop County, Oregon
Clatsop County is a county in the U. S. state of Oregon. As of the 2010 census, the population was 37,039; the county seat is Astoria. The county is named for the Clatsop tribe of Native Americans, who lived along the coast of the Pacific Ocean prior to European settlement. Clatsop County comprises the Astoria, OR Micropolitan Statistical Area, or Sunset Empire, is located in Northwest Oregon; the Lewis and Clark Expedition stayed for the winter of 1805–6 in the area, establishing Fort Clatsop as one of the earliest American structures on the west coast of North America. Astoria, Oregon's oldest settlement, was established as a fur trading post in 1811 and named after John Jacob Astor. Clatsop County was created from the northern and western portions of the original Twality District on June 22, 1844; until the creation of Vancouver District five days Clatsop County extended north across the Columbia into present-day Washington. The Provisional and Territorial Legislatures further altered Clatsop County's boundaries in 1845 and 1853.
Before 1850 most of Clatsop County's government activity occurred in Lexington, a community located where Warrenton is now. However and social activities came to center on Astoria as that city grew, an election in 1854 chose Astoria to be the new county seat. Fort Stevens, located near the peninsula formed by the south shore of the Columbia river and the Pacific Ocean, became the only continental US military installation attacked in World War II, when submarine I-25 of the Imperial Japanese Navy fired 17 rounds at the base June 21, 1942; the submarine escaped. This was ostensibly done in order to avoid disclosing the position of the fort, however this is disputed by various sources and the field report from the event has never been found. While the damage caused was slight, the presence of the enemy ship sowed panic along the Pacific coast of the United States, other minor attacks occurred elsewhere in the region, including Vancouver Island. In 1975, Clatsop County commissioners considered seceding from Oregon and becoming a part of Washington.
The movement was based on disagreements residents of the county had with then-Governor Bob Straub. The movement was created after Alumax Corporation changed their plans of building a plant in the county; some residents, including two county commissioners, blamed the Oregon Governor for the movement of the plant. The State of Washington's Governor, Daniel J. Evans, said. Clatsop County commissioners abandoned the idea. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,084 square miles, of which 829 square miles is land and 255 square miles is water; the highest point is Saddle Mountain at part of the Northern Oregon Coast Range. Columbia County Pacific County, Washington Wahkiakum County, Washington Tillamook County Washington County U. S. Route 26 U. S. Route 30 U. S. Route 101 Julia Butler Hansen National Wildlife Refuge Lewis and Clark National and State Historical Parks Lewis and Clark National Wildlife Refuge Oregon Islands National Wildlife Refuge As of the census of 2000, there were 35,630 people, 14,703 households, 9,454 families residing in the county.
The population density was 43 people per square mile. There were 19,685 housing units at an average density of 24 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 93.14% White, 0.52% Black or African American, 1.03% Native American, 1.21% Asian, 0.17% Pacific Islander, 1.64% from other races, 2.30% from two or more races. 4.48% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 15.3 % were of 10.8 % English, 10.4 % Irish, 9.3 % American and 6.5 % Norwegian ancestry. There were 14,703 households out of which 28.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.60% were married couples living together, 9.70% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.70% were non-families. 29.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.70% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.88. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.70% under the age of 18, 8.90% from 18 to 24, 25.30% from 25 to 44, 26.60% from 45 to 64, 15.60% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 97.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.10 males. The median income for a household in the county was $36,301, the median income for a family was $44,575. Males had a median income of $32,153 versus $22,479 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,515. About 9.10% of families and 13.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.80% of those under age 18 and 8.00% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 37,039 people, 15,742 households, 9,579 families residing in the county; the population density was 44.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 21,546 housing units at an average density of 26.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 90.9% white, 1.2% Asian, 1.0% American Indian, 0.5% black or African American, 0.2% Pacific islander, 3.3% from other races, 2.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 7.7% of the population.
In terms of ancestry, 22.8% were German, 15.4% were English, 14.2% were Irish, 8.9% were American, 7.5% were Norwegian. Of the 15,742 households, 26.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.4% were married couples livi
U.S. Route 101
U. S. Route 101, or U. S. Highway 101 is a north–south United States Numbered Highway that runs through the states of California and Washington, on the West Coast of the United States, it is known as El Camino Real where its route along the southern and central California coast approximates the old trail which linked the Spanish missions and presidios. It merges at some points with California State Route 1. Though US 101 remains a major coastal north–south link along the Pacific coast north of San Francisco, it has been replaced in overall importance for transport through the West Coast states by Interstate 5, more modern in its physical design, goes through more major cities, has more direct routing due to easier geography over much of the route. US 101 is a major parallel route between Los Angeles and San Francisco, is an alternative to the Interstate for most of its length. In 1964, California truncated US 101's southern terminus in Los Angeles; the old road is known as County Route Historic Route 101 in northern San Diego County.
The nearly 1,550-mile-long highway's northern terminus is in Tumwater, Washington: the route remains along the Olympic Peninsula's coastal perimeter west and east. The southern terminus of US 101 is in Los Angeles at the East Los Angeles Interchange, the world's busiest freeway interchange. According to the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials's numbering scheme for United States Numbered Highways, three-digit route numbers are subsidiaries of two-digit routes. However, the principal north–south routes were assigned numbers ending in 1. Rather than number the west coast highway US 91, lose four available north–south numbers which, under the numbering plan, are supposed to be west of US 91, or assign the primary west coast highway a "lesser" number, AASHTO made an exception to its two-digit rule. Thus, US 101 is treated as a primary, two-digit route with a "first digit" of 10, rather than a spur of US 1, located along the east coast, on the opposite side of the U.
S. Thus, US 101, not US 99, is the westernmost north-south route in the U. S. Highway System. US 101 is called the Oregon Coast Highway in Oregon, the Pacific Highway in parts of California, it is called "The 101" by Southern Californians or "101" by residents of Northern California and Washington. From north of San Francisco and continuing to Oregon it is signed as the Redwood Highway though not spoken of as such outside organizations responsible for tourism marketing. Urban portions of the route in Southern California are named the Santa Ana Freeway, Hollywood Freeway, Ventura Freeway at various points between East Los Angeles and Carpinteria, California. In 2008, the portion of US 101 that runs from the Conejo Grade to the Old Town district of Camarillo was dedicated as the Adolfo Camarillo Memorial Highway to honor the city's namesake and extends through the boundaries of the original Camarillo family ranch. In 2003, the portion of US 101 in Ventura County was named Screaming Eagles Highway in honor of the US Army 101st Airborne Division.
Urban portions of the route in the Bay Area are called the James Lick Freeway, Bayshore Freeway, Central Freeway. A portion of the route between Cochrane Road in Morgan Hill and SR 85 in San Jose is named the Sig Sanchez Freeway; the section of highway between SR-85 in Mountain View and Embarcadero Road in Palo Alto is known as the Frederick E. Terman Highway. Street routings in San Francisco are more referred to by their street names rather than the route number. Portions of the route between Southern California and the Bay Area are named El Camino Real or El Camino Real Freeway, but such names are used colloquially. In Northern California the section of US 101 between Sonoma and Marin counties is referred to as the Novato Narrows because of the reduction from six lanes to four. In Southern California, the highway is a traveled commuter route serving the Northwest portion of the Greater Los Angeles area; the route is the Santa Ana Freeway from East Los Angeles to Downtown Los Angeles. It becomes the Hollywood Freeway north of Downtown Los Angeles through the Cahuenga Pass, before turning west and becoming the Ventura Freeway.
Communities along the alignment include Hollywood and the southern edge of the San Fernando Valley, the cities of Hidden Hills, Agoura Hills, Westlake Village, Thousand Oaks, Oxnard, Santa Barbara, Santa Maria, San Luis Obispo and Atascadero. In Northern California, US 101 is the primary coastal route providing motorists access in and out of the San Francisco Bay Area, as well as the primary commuter route between San Francisco and the North Bay, it is one of two major freeway routes connecting San Jose and Silicon Valley with San Francisco and the North Bay. It serves as a more urban alternative to the rural I-280, as US 101 runs through Peninsula cities closer to the Bay, while I-280 runs closer to the Santa Cruz Mountains and Skyline Boulevard. Through northern San Francisco, US 101 remains routed on congested city streets due to freeway revolts, leaving the city on the iconic Golden Gate Bridge, it departs the immediate coast and continues through wine country and Redwood forests until it re-emerges coast-side at Eureka.
The route prov
Oregon State Scenic Byways
This is a list of state scenic byways in Oregon. The byways are divided into two types: touring routes. In addition to the state-designated byways, Oregon has ten National Scenic Byways, of which four are All-American Roads. Blue Mountain Scenic Byway Elkhorn Scenic Byway High Desert Discovery Scenic Byway Journey Through Time Scenic Byway Over The Rivers & Through The Woods Scenic Byway Umpqua Scenic Byway Charleston to Bandon Tour Route Cottage Grove Covered Bridge Tour Route Cow Creek Tour Route Diamond Loop Tour Route East Steens Tour Route Grande Tour Route Myrtle Crrek-Canyonville Tour Route Silver Falls Tour Route Vineyard and Valley Tour Route Oregon portal U. S. Roads portal
Douglas County, Oregon
Douglas County is a county in the U. S. state of Oregon. As of the 2010 census, the population was 107,667; the county seat is Roseburg. It is named after an American politician who supported Oregon statehood. Douglas County comprises OR Micropolitan Statistical Area; the area was inhabited by the Umpqua Indians, who speak a language in the Athabaskan language family. Following the Rogue River Indian War in 1856, most of the remaining natives were moved by the government to the Grand Ronde Indian Reservation. However, seven families of Umpqua hid in eluding capture for many decades, they are now federally recognized as the Cow Creek Band of Umpqua Tribe of Indians. The tribe manages a small reservation in Canyonville and has a Casino/Hotel named Seven Feathers to represent the seven families who refused forced removal to the Grand Ronde Reservation. Douglas County was created on January 7, 1852, from the portion of Umpqua County which lay east of the Coast Range summit. In 1856 the Camas Valley was annexed to Douglas County from Coos County.
In 1862, the rest of Umpqua county was absorbed into Douglas County, some say due to the loss of population following the end of the early gold boom, while others attribute the absorption to politics. Further boundary adjustments were made with Jackson and Lane Counties in 1915. In 2017, after the defeat of a referendum, all public libraries in Douglas County were closed. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 5,134 square miles, of which 5,036 square miles is land and 98 square miles is water, it is the fifth-largest county in Oregon by area. A portion of the Umpqua National Forest is in Douglas County. Douglas County is one of two Oregon counties that extend from the Pacific Ocean to the Cascade Range. Crater Lake National Park Rogue River-Siskiyou National Forest Siuslaw National Forest Umpqua National Forest Willamette National Forest Lane County Klamath County Jackson County Josephine County Curry County Coos County As of the census of 2000, there were 100,399 people, 39,821 households, 28,233 families residing in the county.
The population density was 20 people per square mile. There were 43,284 housing units at an average density of 9 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 93.86% White, 0.18% Black or African American, 1.52% Native American, 0.63% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 1.02% from other races, 2.70% from two or more races. 3.27% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 18.4 % were of 13.2 % American, 12.6 % English and 10.2 % Irish ancestry. 96.5% spoke English and 2.2% Spanish as their first language. There were 39,821 households out of which 29.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.2% were married couples living together, 9.6% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.1% were non-families. 23.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 11% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 2.9. In the county, the population was spread out with 24% under the age of 18, 7.5% from 18 to 24, 24.2% from 25 to 44, 26.4% from 45 to 64, 17.8% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females there were 96.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.2 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,223, the median income for a family was $39,364. Males had a median income of $32,512 versus $22,349 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,581. About 9.6% of families and 13.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.6% of those under age 18 and 9.2% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 107,667 people, 44,581 households, 29,839 families residing in the county; the population density was 21.4 inhabitants per square mile. There were 48,915 housing units at an average density of 9.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 92.4% white, 1.8% American Indian, 1.0% Asian, 0.3% black or African American, 0.1% Pacific islander, 1.2% from other races, 3.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.7% of the population.
In terms of ancestry, 25.6% were German, 16.7% were Irish, 15.8% were English, 5.7% were American. Of the 44,581 households, 26.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.2% were married couples living together, 10.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.1% were non-families, 26.6% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.82. The median age was 46.1 years. The median income for a household in the county was $39,711 and the median income for a family was $48,729. Males had a median income of $39,308 versus $28,176 for females; the per capita income for the county was $21,342. About 10.6% of families and 15.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.1% of those under age 18 and 9.0% of those age 65 or over. In contrast to the Willamette Valley, Douglas County is powerfully conservative and Republican, being akin to Josephine County to the south, or to Eastern Oregon. No Democratic presidential nominee has carried Douglas County since Lyndon Johnson’s landslide win in 1964: indeed the last Democrat to crack forty percent of the county’s vote was Michael Dukakis in 1988 during an election influenced by a major drought.
The county, like all of Western Oregon north of the Rogue Valley leaned strongly