Charleston, South Carolina
Charleston is the oldest and largest city in the U. S. state of South Carolina, the county seat of Charleston County, the principal city in the Charleston–North Charleston–Summerville Metropolitan Statistical Area. The city lies just south of the geographical midpoint of South Carolina's coastline and is located on Charleston Harbor, an inlet of the Atlantic Ocean formed by the confluence of the Ashley and Wando rivers. Charleston had an estimated population of 134,875 in 2017; the estimated population of the Charleston metropolitan area, comprising Berkeley and Dorchester counties, was 761,155 residents in 2016, the third-largest in the state and the 78th-largest metropolitan statistical area in the United States. Charleston was founded in 1670 as Charles Town, its initial location at Albemarle Point on the west bank of the Ashley River was abandoned in 1680 for its present site, which became the fifth-largest city in North America within ten years. Despite its size, it remained unincorporated throughout the colonial period.
Election districts were organized according to Anglican parishes, some social services were managed by Anglican wardens and vestries. Charleston adopted its present spelling with its incorporation as a city in 1783 at the close of the Revolutionary War. Population growth in the interior of South Carolina influenced the removal of the state government to Columbia in 1788, but the port city remained among the ten largest cities in the United States through the 1840 census. Historians estimate that "nearly half of all Africans brought to America arrived in Charleston", most at Gadsden's Wharf; the only major antebellum American city to have a majority-enslaved population, Charleston was controlled by an oligarchy of white planters and merchants who forced the federal government to revise its 1828 and 1832 tariffs during the Nullification Crisis and launched the Civil War in 1861 by seizing the Arsenal, Castle Pinckney, Fort Sumter from their federal garrisons. Known for its rich history, well-preserved architecture, distinguished restaurants, hospitable people, Charleston is a popular tourist destination.
It has received numerous accolades, including "America's Most Friendly " by Travel + Leisure in 2011 and in 2013 and 2014 by Condé Nast Traveler, "the most polite and hospitable city in America" by Southern Living magazine. In 2016, Charleston was ranked the "World's Best City" by Travel + Leisure; the city proper consists of six distinct districts. Downtown, or sometimes referred to as The Peninsula, is Charleston's center city separated by the Ashley River to the west and the Cooper River to the east. West Ashley, residential area to the west of Downtown bordered by the Ashley River to the east and the Stono River to the west. Johns Island, far western limits of Charleston home to the Angel Oak, bordered by the Stono River to the east, Kiawah River to the south and Wadmalaw Island to the west. James Island, popular residential area between Downtown and the town of Folly Beach where the McLeod Plantation is located. Cainhoy Peninsula, far eastern limits of Charleston bordered by the Wando River to the west and Nowell Creek to the east.
Daniel Island, fast-growing residential area to the north of downtown, east of the Cooper River and west of the Wando River. The incorporated city fit into 4–5 square miles as late as the First World War, but has since expanded, crossing the Ashley River and encompassing James Island and some of Johns Island; the city limits have expanded across the Cooper River, encompassing Daniel Island and the Cainhoy area. The present city has a total area of 127.5 square miles, of which 109.0 square miles is land and 18.5 square miles is covered by water. North Charleston blocks any expansion up the peninsula, Mount Pleasant occupies the land directly east of the Cooper River. Charleston Harbor runs about 7 miles southeast to the Atlantic with an average width of about 2 miles, surrounded on all sides except its entrance. Sullivan's Island lies to the north of Morris Island to the south; the entrance itself is about 1 mile wide. The tidal rivers are evidence of drowned coastline. There is a submerged river delta off the mouth of the harbor and the Cooper River is deep.
Charleston has a humid subtropical climate, with mild winters, hot humid summers, significant rainfall all year long. Summer is the wettest season. Fall remains warm through the middle of November. Winter is short and mild, is characterized by occasional rain. Measurable snow only occurs several times per decade at the most however freezing rain is more common. However, 6.0 in fell at the airport on December 23, 1989, the largest single-day fall on record, contributing to a single-storm and seasonal record of 8.0 in snowfall. The highest temperature recorded within city limits was 104 °F on June 2, 1985, June 24, 1944, the lowest was 7 °F on February 14, 1899. At the airport, where official records are kept, the historical range is 105 °F on August 1, 1999, down to 6 °F on January 21, 1985. Hurricanes are a major threat to the area during the summer and early fall, with several severe hurrican
North Carolina is a state in the southeastern region of the United States. It borders South Carolina and Georgia to the south, Tennessee to the west, Virginia to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the east. North Carolina is the 28th-most extensive and the 9th-most populous of the U. S. states. The state is divided into 100 counties; the capital is Raleigh, which along with Durham and Chapel Hill is home to the largest research park in the United States. The most populous municipality is Charlotte, the second-largest banking center in the United States after New York City; the state has a wide range of elevations, from sea level on the coast to 6,684 feet at Mount Mitchell, the highest point in North America east of the Mississippi River. The climate of the coastal plains is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean. Most of the state falls in the humid subtropical climate zone. More than 300 miles from the coast, the western, mountainous part of the state has a subtropical highland climate. Woodland-culture Native Americans were in the area around 1000 BCE.
During this time, important buildings were constructed as flat-topped buildings. By 1550, many groups of American Indians lived in present-day North Carolina, including Chowanoke, Pamlico, Coree, Cape Fear Indians, Waxhaw and Catawba. Juan Pardo explored the area in 1566–1567, establishing Fort San Juan in 1567 at the site of the Native American community of Joara, a Mississippian culture regional chiefdom in the western interior, near the present-day city of Morganton; the fort lasted only 18 months. A expedition by Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe followed in 1584, at the direction of Sir Walter Raleigh. In June 1718, the pirate Blackbeard ran his flagship, the Queen Anne's Revenge, aground at Beaufort Inlet, North Carolina, in present-day Carteret County. After the grounding her crew and supplies were transferred to smaller ships. In November, after appealing to the governor of North Carolina, who promised safe-haven and a pardon, Blackbeard was killed in an ambush by troops from Virginia.
In 1996 Intersal, Inc. a private firm, discovered the remains of a vessel to be the Queen Anne's Revenge, added to the US National Register of Historic Places. North Carolina became one of the English Thirteen Colonies and with the territory of South Carolina was known as the Province of North-Carolina; the northern and southern parts of the original province separated in 1729. Settled by small farmers, sometimes having a few slaves, who were oriented toward subsistence agriculture, the colony lacked cities or towns. Pirates menaced the coastal settlements. Growth was strong in the middle of the 18th century, as the economy attracted Scots-Irish, Quaker and German immigrants. A majority of the colonists supported the American Revolution, a smaller number of Loyalists than in some other colonies such as Georgia, South Carolina, New York. During colonial times, Edenton served as the state capital beginning in 1722, New Bern was selected as the capital in 1766. Construction of Tryon Palace, which served as the residence and offices of the provincial governor William Tryon, began in 1767 and was completed in 1771.
In 1788 Raleigh was chosen as the site of the new capital, as its central location protected it from coastal attacks. Established in 1792 as both county seat and state capital, the city was named after Sir Walter Raleigh, sponsor of Roanoke, the "lost colony" on Roanoke Island; the population of the colony more than quadrupled from 52,000 in 1740 to 270,000 in 1780 from high immigration from Virginia and Pennsylvania plus immigrants from abroad. North Carolina made the smallest per-capita contribution to the war of any state, as only 7,800 men joined the Continental Army under General George Washington. There was some military action in 1780–81. Many Carolinian frontiersmen had moved west over the mountains, into the Washington District, but in 1789, following the Revolution, the state was persuaded to relinquish its claim to the western lands, it ceded them to the national government so that the Northwest Territory could be organized and managed nationally. After 1800, cotton and tobacco became important export crops.
The eastern half of the state the Tidewater region, developed a slave society based on a plantation system and slave labor. Many free people of color migrated to the frontier along with their European-American neighbors, where the social system was looser. By 1810, nearly 3 percent of the free population consisted of free people of color, who numbered more than 10,000; the western areas were dominated by white families Scots-Irish, who operated small subsistence farms. In the early national period, the state became a center of Jeffersonian and Jacksonian democracy, with a strong Whig presence in the West. After Nat Turner's slave uprising in 1831, North Carolina and other southern states reduced the rights of free blacks. In 1835 the legislature withdrew their right to vote. On May 20, 1861, North Carolina was the last of the Confederate states to declare secession from the Union, 13 days after the Tennessee legislature voted for secession; some 125,000 North Carolinians served in the military.
Interstate 64 is an Interstate Highway in the Eastern United States. Its western terminus is at I-70, U. S. Route 40, US 61 in Wentzville, Missouri, its eastern terminus is at an interchange with I-264 and I-664 at Bowers Hill in Chesapeake, Virginia. I-64 connects the major metropolitan areas of St. Louis and Lexington in Kentucky, West Virginia, Richmond and Hampton Roads in Virginia. At 953.74 miles, I-64 is the second longest interstate highway not ending with a 5 or 0, after I-94. I-64 overlaps with I-55, I-57, I-75, I-77, I-81, I-95. I-64 does not maintain exit number continuity for any of the overlaps, as each of the six north-south routes maintain their exit numbering on their respective overlaps with I-64. In Missouri, the stretch was labeled as the Daniel Boone Expressway only as US-40, as such, is still known to some locals in the St. Louis area as Highway 40 though the road has been designated as both I-64 and US-40 since 1988; this road is the southernmost portion of the Avenue of the Saints.
An interchange at Highway N O'Fallon, Missouri opened on December 13, 2004. This interchange accommodates the tie-in of the Missouri Route 364 freeway to I-64. In April 2007, construction started to rebuild 10.5 miles of I-64 in St. Louis, from Spoede Road to Kingshighway; this project included repaving the entire road, rebuilding the overpasses and interchanges, adding a fourth lane between Spoede Road and I-170, connecting I-64 to I-170 in all directions. Construction resulted in the complete closure of portions of the expressway in 2008 and 2009. In 2008, I-64 was closed from I-270 to I-170, re-opening December 15, 2008. Beginning December 15, 2008, I-64 from I-170 to Kingshighway was closed. On December 6, 2009, with a grand opening ceremony and dedication, Interstate 64 was completed in its entire length in Missouri from the Poplar Street Bridge to I-70 in Wentzville; as of December 7, 2009, I-64 signed all the way to Interstate 70 in Wentzville. All stoplights have been removed; the portion of Interstate 64 in St. Louis has been named the Jack Buck Memorial Highway, in honor of the late sportscaster.
I-64 enters Illinois from St. Louis, via the Poplar Street Bridge, where it overlaps I-55 as it crosses the Mississippi River. After crossing the city of East St. Louis and the rest of suburban St. Clair County, the freeway heads southeast through rural Southern Illinois. Shortly after passing Mid-America Airport at Exit 23, I-64 enters Clinton County Washington County. After providing access to towns such as Carlyle, Breese and Centralia, the freeway overlaps I-57 through the Mt. Vernon area for five miles. East of Mt. Vernon in Illinois, services along I-64 are few; the freeway crosses Jefferson and White counties as it progresses east toward Indiana and the Evansville area. East of the St Louis area, there are numerous oil wells dotting the landscape; the section from IL 127 to I-57 opened on October 4, 1974. The section from IL 161 to IL 127 opened in December 1973; the section in the Metro East, except for a short section near I-55/70, opened on December 23, 1975. The section from US 460 to US 45 opened on August 7, 1975.
I-64 enters the state of Indiana. It passes Griffin and Poseyville, passes under nearby State Road 68 passes three marked exits for Evansville proceeds through part of the scenic Hoosier National Forest, with exits leading to Dale and Huntingburg, Santa Claus and Ferdinand, French Lick and Tell City, Indiana's first state capital, Corydon. Near milepost 61, there is a time change from Central Time Zone to Eastern Time Zone; as with all time zone changes on highways maintained by the Indiana Department of Transportation, this change in time zone is not marked with any roadside signage. Between Evansville and New Albany, I-64 intersects a few major north-south arterial highways, such as U. S. 231, Indiana 37, Indiana 135 and offers access to Interstate 65 to Indianapolis via Interstate 265 before crossing into Kentucky on the Sherman Minton Bridge. The 123-mile route in Indiana can be described as being somewhat winding the farther east one travels within the state; the longest straight line distance along the route is the around 9 mile stretch from the Indiana 65 exit to the 26 mile marker, 1 mile east of U.
S. 41. There are many points along the route where the two halves of the highway are nearly 500 feet apart around the Hoosier National Forest and points to the east. In addition, there are several points in the sharp valleys along its route in Dubois, Perry and Harrison Counties, where the highway towers more than 100 feet above the surrounding terrain. Interstate 64 enters Kentucky at Louisville, paralleling the Ohio River along the Riverfront Expressway, it intersects with several downtown interchanges before coming to the Kennedy Interchange, where it intersects Interstate 65 and Interstate 71 in a tangle of ramps referred to as the "Spaghetti Junction". Moving eastward, I-64 passes through Shelbyville, Midway, Winchester, Mount Sterling and Morehead, before leaving the state near Ashland at Catlettsburg, it overlaps Interstate 75 as it makes an arc around the northeast of Lexington's urban core, with the exit numbers for I-75 used for the concurrent portion. The two interstate
U.S. Route 1
U. S. Route 1 is a major north–south U. S. Highway that serves the East Coast of the United States, it runs 2,369 miles, from Key West, Florida north to Fort Kent, Maine, at the Canada–US border, making it the longest north–south road in the United States. US 1 is paralleled by I-95, though the former is farther west between Jacksonville and Petersburg, Virginia; the highway connects most of the major cities of the East Coast—including Miami, Richmond, Washington, D. C. Baltimore, New York City and Portland, passing from the Southeastern United States to New England. While US 1 is the easternmost of the main north–south U. S. Highways, parts of several others occupy corridors closer to the ocean; when the road system was laid out in the 1920s, US 1 was assigned to the existing Atlantic Highway, which followed the Fall Line between the Piedmont and the Atlantic Coastal Plain north of Augusta, Georgia. At the time, the highways farther east were of lower quality and did not serve the major population centers.
Construction of the Interstate Highway system changed the use and character of US 1, I-95 became the major north–south East Coast highway by the late 1960s. US 1 travels along the east coast of Florida, beginning at 490 Whitehead St. in Key West and passing through Miami, Fort Lauderdale, Boca Raton, West Palm Beach, Fort Pierce, Cocoa, Daytona Beach, Palm Coast, St. Augustine, Jacksonville; the southernmost piece through the chain islands of the Florida Keys, about 100 miles long, is the two-lane Overseas Highway built in the late 1930s after railroad tycoon Henry Flagler's Florida East Coast Railway's Overseas Railroad, built 1905-1912 on stone pillars was ruined by the Labor Day Hurricane of 1935. The rest of US 1 in Florida is a four-lane divided highway, despite the existence of the newer I-95 not far away. Famous vacation scenic route Florida State Road A1A is a continuous oceanfront alternate to US 1 that runs along the beaches of the Atlantic Ocean, cut only by assorted unbridged inlets and the Kennedy Space Center at Cape Canaveral.
North of Jacksonville, US 1 turns northwest towards Georgia. In Florida until the 1990s, US 1 used high-contrast markers; the part of US 1 in Georgia, as it shifts from the coastal alignment in Florida to the Fall Line alignment in South Carolina, is very rural, passing through marshes and former plantations between the towns and cities of Folkston, Alma, Lyons and Augusta. The Georgia Department of Transportation has an ongoing plan to widen all of US 1 to four lanes with bypasses, more than 50 percent complete. In South Carolina, US 1 serves rural areas as it falls west of I-95 while the coastal areas are served by routes east of it. Starting in South Carolina, US 1 is paralleled by Interstate 20 along the Fall Line through Aiken and Columbia to Camden and Lugoff. US 1 functions as a local two-lane road with occasional boulevard stretches. After Camden, US 1 continues northeast away from any Interstate towards Bethune, Patrick, McBee and Cheraw with no bypasses or four-lane sections except around Cheraw through the US 52 and SC 9 multiplexes.
After SC 9, it continues northward into North Carolina as a two-lane highway. SCDOT has no plans to widen or bypass any US 1 alignments northeast of Camden to the North Carolina line. Between the South Carolina line and the US 74 bypass, US 1 is a two-lane road but sees a considerable amount of truck and tourist traffic of people cutting through from the US 74/US 220 and I-73/I-74 corridor attempting to reach points south and east. US 1 goes with a bypass in the future plans. North of the NC 177 junction, it becomes four lanes or greater, becoming a super-street with limited access and becoming a limited access freeway. US 1 becomes a major artery for the state. After Richmond County, it goes into Moore County with two expressway bypasses in Southern Pines and Cameron. US 1 continues with the Jefferson Davis Highway label through Lee County and Sanford, on to Cary and Raleigh. US 1 runs concurrently with US 64 through most of Cary, where the freeway underwent a major renovation and improvements that added lanes in both directions.
North of Raleigh, US 1 crosses Interstate 540 and again becomes a four-lane divided arterial to Interstate 85 near Henderson. The North Carolina Department of Transportation has begun a corridor study for this section of US 1. Moreover, NCDOT is planning to finish four-laning US 1 in Richmond County past NC 177 with a Rockingham bypass to the east. There are no plans from SCDOT to widen US 1 from the state line. From Henderson into Virginia, US 1 runs parallel with I-85 as a two-lane local road until the state line, where Virginia hosts a continuous third center lane for alternate passing towards US Highway 58 before South Hill. Main articles: U. S. Route 1 in Virginia, District of Columbia, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New YorkIn the Mid-Atlantic region, US 1 serves some of the most populated areas of the east coast. Through Virginia, US 1 is paralleled by Interstates: the remainder of Interstate 85 to Petersburg, Interstate 95 through Richmond and Fredericksburg to Alexandria, Interstate 395 into Arlington.
In most of Virginia, US 1 is called Jefferson Davis Highway by state law, although most of the Fairfax County portion is better known as Richmond Highway.
Interstate 16 known as Jim Gillis Historic Savannah Parkway, is an east–west Interstate Highway located within the U. S. state of Georgia. It carries the hidden designation of State Route 404 for its entire length. I-16 travels from downtown Macon, at an interchange with I-75 and SR 540 to downtown Savannah at Montgomery Street, it connects Macon and Savannah, via Dublin and Pooler. I-16's unsigned designation of SR 404 has a spur, signed in Savannah; the western-most segment in Macon, from I-75 and US 80/SR 87, is part of the Fall Line Freeway, a highway that connects Columbus and Augusta. This segment may be incorporated into the proposed eastern extension of I-14, entirely within Central Texas and may be extended to Augusta. I-16 begins at an interchange with I-75/SR 540, just northwest of downtown Macon, in Bibb County. Here, it begins a concurrency with SR 540; the Interstate and SR 540 proceed southeast. They cross over the Ocmulgee River and have an interchange with US 23/US 129/SR 49, they have a partial interchange with SR 22, only accessible from the westbound lanes.
Is an interchange with US 80/SR 87. At this intersection, SR 540 departs the concurrency to the north-northeast. Within the eastern part of this interchange, the highway travels under a railroad bridge that carries railroad tracks of Norfolk Southern Railway. In the east-central part of Macon, I-16 travels through Ocmulgee National Monument but without direct access. Visitors need to first exit at the US 80/SR 87 exit. On the southern edge of the national monument, it crosses over Walnut Creek, it travels on a bridge over some railroad tracks of CSX and Boggy Branch. After leaving Macon, I-16 curves to the south-southeast and has an interchange with US 23/US 129 Alt./SR 87. In the interchange, the highway crosses over Swift Creek, it crosses over Stone Creek before entering Twiggs County. I-16 has an interchange with Sgoda Road, it crosses over Flat Creek and has an interchange with Jeffersonville and Bullard roads. It crosses over Savage and Turvin creeks, it curves back to the southeast. The highway has an interchange with SR 96.
It crosses over Richland Creek. It has an interchange with SR 358. I-16 curves to the east-southeast and enters Bleckley County just before it has an interchange with SR 112 just south of Allentown, it crosses over Rocky Creek just before entering Laurens County. The interstate curves back to the southeast and crosses under SR 278 before it travels south of Montrose, it crosses over Bay Branch just before an interchange with SR 26. It enters the southwestern part of Dudley. There, it has an interchange with SR 338. I-16 crosses over Little Rocky Creek just before a rest area. Just to the west-northwest of a crossing of Turkey Creek, the westbound lanes have a rest area. On the southwestern edge of Dublin, the highway has an interchange with SR 257. On the southern edge of the city are interchanges with US 319/US 441/SR 31. and SR 19. It crosses over the Oconee River, it has an interchange with SR 199 just before a crossing of Pughes Creek. Southeast of, a crossing of Red Hill Creek. Just south of Rockledge, the highway crosses over Mercer Creek.
On the eastern edge of the Creek, it enters Treutlen County. I-16 curves to the east-northeast and crosses over some railroad tracks of CSX before an interchange with SR 29, it curves back to the east-southeast. It crosses over Red Bluff Creek. Is an interchange with SR 15/SR 78; the highway travels south of Sand Hill Lake before curving to the east-northeast. It crosses over Pendleton Creek and travels under a bridge that carries SR 86, it begins to curve to the southeast. It has an interchange with US 221/SR 56, it crosses over curves to the east-southeast. It has an interchange with SR 297. At the overpass for SR 297, the highway enters Emanuel County. After the SR 297 interchange, I-16 heads more to the southeast, it crosses over the Ohoopee River. Just after crossing over some railroad tracks of Norfolk Southern Railway, it enters the city limits of Oak Park, it curves to the southeast and has an interchange with US 1/SR 4/SR 46. After this interchange, the highway begins to parallel SR 46, it crosses over Jacks Creek.
It enters Candler County. I-16 has an interchange with SR 57, it crosses over Wolfe Creek and heads to the east-northeast. It curves to a nearly due east direction, it crosses over Sams Creek before entering Metter. As soon as it enters Metter, it passes the Metter Municipal Airport. Right after the airport is an interchange with SR 23/SR 121. On the southeastern edge of Metter, I-16 travels under a bridge that carries SR 129, it crosses over 15 Mile Creek and curves to the southeast. It crosses over Tenmile Creek and has an interchange with Pulaski–Excelsior Road just before entering Bulloch County; the Interstate curves to the east-southeast and has an interchange with US 25/US 301/SR 73. It crosses over Lotts and Little Lotts creeks, it travels northeast of Nevils. It curves to the east-southeast, where it has an interchange with SR 67, curves back to the southeast, it crosses over DeLoach Branch and curves to the east-southeast. It crosses over Luke Branch and Boggy Branch before curving to a nearly due east direction.
Punta Gorda, Florida
Punta Gorda is a city in Charlotte County, United States. As of the 2010 census the city had a population of 16,641, it is the only incorporated municipality in the county. Punta Gorda is the principal city of the Punta Gorda, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area and is in the Sarasota-Bradenton-Punta Gorda Combined Statistical Area. Punta Gorda was the scene of massive destruction after Charley, a Category 4 hurricane, came through the city on August 13, 2004. Charley was the strongest tropical system to hit Florida since Hurricane Andrew in 1992, the first hurricane since Hurricane Donna in 1960 to make a direct hit on Florida's southwest coast. In the immediate years following the storm, buildings were restored or built to hurricane-resistant building codes; the new buildings and amenities concurrently preserved the city's past while showcasing newer facilities. During this time, Laishley Park Municipal Marina was built and the Harborwalk, Linear Park and various trails were created throughout the city for bicycle and pedestrian traffic.
The name Punta Gorda has been on maps at least since 1851, referring to a point of land that juts into Charlotte Harbor, an estuary off the Gulf of Mexico. It was in the late 1800s that early settlers began to arrive in what is the present-day Punta Gorda area. Frederick and Jarvis Howard, Union Army veterans, homesteaded an area south of the Peace River near present-day Punta Gorda about a decade after the close of the Civil War. In 1876, James and Josephine Lockhart bought land and built a house on property, now at the center of the city. Two years Lockhart sold his claim to James Madison Lanier, a hunter and trapper. In 1879, a charter for a railroad with termini at Charlotte Harbor and Lake City, Florida was established under the name Gainesville and Charlotte Harbor Railroad, it was taken over by the Florida Southern Railroad, which reaffirmed Charlotte Harbor as a terminus in its own charter. Lanier with his wife lived there until 1883, when 30.8 acres were sold to Isaac Trabue, who purchased additional land along the harbor and directed the platting of a town named "Trabue".
Harvey recorded the plat on February 24, 1885. At the time, Isaac was in Kentucky, his cousin, John Trabue, was in charge of selling lots. Kelly, a native of the Peace River area, started referring to the new town as Punta Gorda, he explained that the Spaniards called the area Punta Gorda, local businesses included Punta gorda within their companies' names. Less than ten years after the first settlements in the area, railroads rolled into the town of Trabue in June 1886, with them came the first land developers and Southwest Florida's first batch of tourists. Punta Gorda became the southernmost stop on the Florida Southern Railroad, until an extension was built to Fort Myers in 1904, attracting the industries that propelled its initial growth. In 1887, twelve years after the first settlers trekked to Charlotte Harbor, 34 met at Hector's Billiard Parlor to discuss incorporation. Once Punta Gorda was incorporated, mayoral elections took place and a council was formed; the first mayor, W. H. Simmons, was elected.
The new city was renamed Punta Gorda. Phosphate was discovered on the banks of the Peace River just above Punta Gorda in 1888. Phosphate mined in the Peace River Valley was barged down the Peace River to Punta Gorda and Port Boca Grande, where it was loaded onto vessels for worldwide shipment. In 1896, the Florida Times-Union reported that phosphate mining was Punta Gorda's chief industry and that Punta Gorda was the greatest phosphate shipping point in the world. By 1907, a railroad was built direct to Port Boca Grande, ending the brief phosphate shipping boom from Punta Gorda. In 1890, the first postmaster, Robert Meacham, an African American, was appointed by Isaac Trabue as a deliberate affront to Kelly B. Harvey and those who had voted to change the name of the town from Trabue to Punta Gorda; the Punta Gorda Herald was founded by Robert Kirby Seward in 1893 and published weekly during its early years. The newspaper covered such events as rum running, other smuggling activities, lawlessness in general.
It underwent many changes in both ownership and name over time, today is known as The Charlotte Sun Herald. Early Punta Gorda resembled the modern social climate of various classes living together and working together. While the regal Punta Gorda Hotel, at one point owned by Cornelius Vanderbilt, reflected the upper class, Punta Gorda was a pretty rough town, as most frontier towns were. Punta Gorda's location at the end of the railway line spiked the crime rate, resulting in 40 murders between 1890 and 1904; this included City Marshal John H. Bowman, shot and killed in his front parlor on January 29, 1903, in view of his family. In 1925, a bungalow was built by an African American sea captain and fisherman; the Blanchard House Museum still stands as a museum, providing education for the history of middle-class African American life in the area. Punta Gorda in the 20th century still maintained steady growth. Charlotte County was formed in 1921. In 1921, the first bridge was constructed connecting Punta Gorda and Charlotte Harbor along the brand-new Tamiami Trail.
This small bridge was replaced by the original Barron Collier Bridge in 1931, by the current Barron Collier Bridge and Gilchrist Bridge crossing the Peace River. During World War II, a U. S. Army airfield was built in Punta Gorda to train combat air pilots. After the war, the airfield was turned over to Charlotte County. Today the old airfield is the Punta Gorda Airport, providing both commercial and general av
Interstate 40 is a major east-west Interstate Highway running through the south-central portion of the United States north of I-10, I-20 and I-30 but south of I-70. The western end is at I-15 in California. S. Route 117 and North Carolina Highway 132 in Wilmington, North Carolina, it is the third-longest Interstate Highway in the United States, behind I-80 and I-90. Much of the western part of I-40, from Oklahoma City to Barstow parallels or overlays the historic US 66, east of Oklahoma City the route parallels US 64 and US 70. I-40 runs through many major cities including New Mexico. Though I-40 is a cross-country east-west interstate, it does not nearly touch both oceans or coasts like I-10, I-80 and I-90 does; the eastern terminus touches near the Atlantic Ocean, but the western terminus doesn't touch the Pacific Ocean. Interstate 40 is a major east–west route of the Interstate Highway System, its western end is in California. Known as the Needles Freeway, it heads east from Barstow across the Mojave Desert in San Bernardino County to Needles, before it crosses into Arizona southwest of Kingman.
I-40 covers 155 miles in California. A sign in California showing the distance to Wilmington, North Carolina has been stolen several times. Interstate 40 is a main route to the South Rim of the Grand Canyon, with the exits leading into Grand Canyon National Park in Williams and Flagstaff. I-40 covers 359 mi in Arizona. Just west of exit 190, west of Flagstaff, is its highest elevation along I-40 in the U. S. as the road crosses just over 7,320 ft. I-40 passes through the Navajo Nation, the largest Indian reservation in the U. S. I-40 covers 374 miles in New Mexico. Notable cities along I-40 include Gallup, Albuquerque, Santa Rosa, Tucumcari. I-40 travels through several different Indian reservations in the western half of the state, it reaches its highest point of 7,275 feet at the Continental Divide in western New Mexico between Gallup and Grants. Arizona, New Mexico, Texas are the only three states where I-40 has a speed limit of 75 mph instead of 70 mph which happens in California, Arkansas and North Carolina.
In the west Texas panhandle area, there are several ranch roads connected directly to the interstate. One of the marked at-grade crossings is shown to the right; the only major city in Texas, directly served by I-40 is Amarillo, which connects with Interstate 27 that runs south toward Lubbock. I-40 has only one welcome center in the state, located in Amarillo at the exit for Rick Husband Amarillo International Airport, serving both sides of the interstate. Interstate 40 goes through the heart of the state, passing through many Oklahoma cities and towns, including Erick, Elk City, Weatherford, El Reno, Oklahoma City, Del City, Midwest City, Okemah, Checotah and Roland. I-40 covers 331 miles in Oklahoma. In Downtown Oklahoma City, Interstate 40 was rerouted a mile south of its former alignment and a 10–lane facility replaced the former I-40 Crosstown Bridge. Interstate 40 runs for 284 miles in Arkansas; the route passes through Van Buren, where it intersects the southbound Interstate 540/US 71 to Fort Smith.
The route continues east to Alma to intersect Interstate 49 north to Arkansas. Running through the Ozark Mountains, I-40 serves Ozark, Russellville and Conway; the route turns south after Conway and enters North Little Rock, which brings high volume interchanges with Interstate 430, I-30/US 65/US 67/US 167, I-440/AR 440. The interstate continues east through Lonoke and West Memphis on the eastern side. Interstate 40 overlaps Interstate 55 in West Memphis before it crosses the Mississippi River on the Hernando de Soto Bridge and enters Memphis, Tennessee. More of Interstate 40 passes through 455 miles, than any other state; the interstate goes through all of the three Grand Divisions of Tennessee and its three largest cities, Memphis and Knoxville. Jackson, Cookeville and Newport are other notable cities and/or towns through which I-40 passes. Before leaving the state, I-40 enters the Great Smoky Mountains towards North Carolina; the section of Interstate 40 which runs between Memphis and Nashville is referred to as the Music Highway.
During reconstruction, a long section of I-40 through downtown Knoxville near the central Malfunction Junction was closed to traffic from May 1, 2008 and not reopened until June 12, 2009 with all traffic redirected via Interstate 640, the northern bypass route. The redesigned section now has additional lanes in each direction, is less congested, has fewer accidents. In North Carolina, I-40 travels 421 miles, it enters the state as a winding mountain freeway through the Great Smoky Mountains which closes due to landslides and weather conditions. It enters the state on a north-south alignment, turning to a more east-west alignment upon merging with U. S. Route 74 at the eastern terminus of the Great Smoky Mountains Expressway. From there the highway passes through Asheville and Statesville before reaching the Piedmont Triad. Just east of the Triad city of Greensboro, North Carolina it merges with I-85 and the two roads split again