Oklahoma is a state in the South Central region of the United States, bordered by Kansas on the north, Missouri on the northeast, Arkansas on the east, Texas on the south, New Mexico on the west, Colorado on the northwest. It is the 28th-most populous of the fifty United States; the state's name is derived from the Choctaw words okla and humma, meaning "red people". It is known informally by its nickname, "The Sooner State", in reference to the non-Native settlers who staked their claims on land before the official opening date of lands in the western Oklahoma Territory or before the Indian Appropriations Act of 1889, which increased European-American settlement in the eastern Indian Territory. Oklahoma Territory and Indian Territory were merged into the State of Oklahoma when it became the 46th state to enter the union on November 16, 1907, its residents are known as Oklahomans, its capital and largest city is Oklahoma City. A major producer of natural gas and agricultural products, Oklahoma relies on an economic base of aviation, telecommunications, biotechnology.
Both Oklahoma City and Tulsa serve as Oklahoma's primary economic anchors, with nearly two thirds of Oklahomans living within their metropolitan statistical areas. With ancient mountain ranges, prairie and eastern forests, most of Oklahoma lies in the Great Plains, Cross Timbers, the U. S. Interior Highlands, a region prone to severe weather. More than 25 Native American languages are spoken in Oklahoma, ranking third behind Alaska and California. Oklahoma is on a confluence of three major American cultural regions and served as a route for cattle drives, a destination for Southern settlers, a government-sanctioned territory for Native Americans; the name Oklahoma comes from the Choctaw phrase okla humma meaning red people. Choctaw Nation Chief Allen Wright suggested the name in 1866 during treaty negotiations with the federal government on the use of Indian Territory, in which he envisioned an all-Indian state controlled by the United States Superintendent of Indian Affairs. Equivalent to the English word Indian, okla humma was a phrase in the Choctaw language that described Native American people as a whole.
Oklahoma became the de facto name for Oklahoma Territory, it was approved in 1890, two years after the area was opened to white settlers. The name of the state is Pawnee: Uukuhuúwa, Cayuga: Gahnawiyoˀgeh. In the Chickasaw language, the state is known as Oklahomma', in Arapaho as bo'oobe'. Oklahoma is the 20th-largest state in the United States, covering an area of 69,899 square miles, with 68,595 square miles of land and 1,304 square miles of water, it lies in the Great Plains near the geographical center of the 48 contiguous states. It is bounded on the east by Arkansas and Missouri, on the north by Kansas, on the northwest by Colorado, on the far west by New Mexico, on the south and near-west by Texas. Much of its border with Texas lies along a failed continental rift; the geologic figure defines the placement of the Red River. The Oklahoma panhandle's Western edge is out of alignment with its Texas border; the Oklahoma/New Mexico border is 2.1 miles to 2.2 miles east of the Texas line. The border between Texas and New Mexico was set first as a result of a survey by Spain in 1819.
It was set along the 103rd meridian. In the 1890s, when Oklahoma was formally surveyed using more accurate surveying equipment and techniques, it was discovered the Texas line was not set along the 103rd meridian. Surveying techniques were not as accurate in 1819, the actual 103rd meridian was 2.2 miles to the east. It was much easier to leave the mistake than for Texas to cede land to New Mexico to correct the surveying error; the placement of the Oklahoma/New Mexico border represents the true 103rd meridian. Cimarron County in Oklahoma's panhandle is the only county in the United States that touches four other states: New Mexico, Texas and Kansas. Oklahoma is between the Great Plains and the Ozark Plateau in the Gulf of Mexico watershed sloping from the high plains of its western boundary to the low wetlands of its southeastern boundary, its highest and lowest points follow this trend, with its highest peak, Black Mesa, at 4,973 feet above sea level, situated near its far northwest corner in the Oklahoma Panhandle.
The state's lowest point is on the Little River near its far southeastern boundary near the town of Idabel, which dips to 289 feet above sea level. Among the most geographically diverse states, Oklahoma is one of four to harbor more than 10 distinct ecological regions, with 11 in its borders—more per square mile than in any other state, its western and eastern halves, are marked by extreme differences in geographical diversity: Eastern Oklahoma touches eight ecological regions and its western half contains three. Although having fewer ecological regions Western Oklahoma contains many relic species. Oklahoma has four primary mountain ranges: the Ouachita Mountains, the Arbuckle Mountains, the Wichita Mountains, the Ozark Mountains. Contained within the U. S. Interior Highlands region, the Ozark and Ouachita Mountains are the only major mountainous region between the Rocky Mountains and the Appalachians. A portion of the Flint Hills stretches into north-central Oklahoma, near the state's eastern border, The Oklahoma Tourism & Recreation Department regards Cavanal Hill as the world's tallest hill.
The semi-arid high
Seymour is a city in and the county seat of Baylor County, United States. The population was 2,740 as of the 2010 Census. Seymour is located on the Brazos River, it is 102 miles north-northeast of Abilene. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 2.9 square miles, of which 0.004 square miles, or 0.20%, is water. The climate is humid subtropical with an extreme temperature deviation, however much of the time the variation is always more and the warm weather prevails over the cold as the averages and the records show, its subtropical location and south of the center of a large land mass bring occasional outbreaks to a latitude and not high altitude. The climate in this area is characterized by hot, humid summers and mild to cool winters, sometimes cold. On August 12, 1936, Seymour witnessed the record highest temperature in Texas, a record, tied by the city of Monahans on June 28, 1994. Seymour is within the area underlain by Texas Red Beds, which are a strata of red-colored sedimentary rock from the Early Permian.
The fossils of Permian-era vertebrates in the Texas Red Beds were first discovered by Edward Drinker Cope in 1877. Subsequent research has revealed rare fossils of Permian-era amphibians like Trimerorhachis, as well as rich deposits of other Permian tetrapods such as Dimetrodon and Diadectes; the order Seymouriamorpha and genus Seymouria, which were first discovered in the Seymour area, are named after the city. As of the census of 2010, there were 2,740 people, a decrease of 5.78% since 2000. The racial makeup of the town was 91.28% White, 3.61% Hispanic or Latino of any race, 2.45% African American, 0.22% Native American, 0.11% Asian, 0.11% Pacific Islander, 4.11% from other races, 3.80% from two or more races. There were 1,451 housing units; as of the census of 2000, 2,908 people, 1,273 households, 790 families resided in the city. The population density was 1,067.5 people per square mile. The 1,534 housing units averaged 563.1 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 89.24% White, 10.45% Hispanic or Latino of any race, 4.57% African American, 0.48% Native American, 0.72% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 3.44% from other races, 1.44% from two or more races.
Of the 1,273 households, 26.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.1% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.9% were not families. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.90. In the city, the population was distributed as 24.3% under the age of 18, 6.1% from 18 to 24, 20.9% from 25 to 44, 23.9% from 45 to 64, 24.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females, there were 83.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 79.6 males. The median income for a household in the city was $23,662, for a family was $32,917. Males had a median income of $21,891 versus $19,292 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,062. About 15.6% of families and 19.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 31.8% of those under age 18 and 10.7% of those age 65 or over. The local Seymour Chamber of Commerce, Seymour Council for the Arts & Enrichment, Rodeo Association, Lions Club, Garden Club are amongst the many organizations in Seymour, as well as an active Relay for Life Event.
Seymour is home to the Whiteside Museum of Natural History, a small museum which displays fossils collected from the surrounding area. The museum employs a team of paleontologists to analyze new findings, with the help of volunteers from the community. Seymour is served by the Seymour Independent School District. Seymour was founded by settlers from Oregon. A post office was established in 1879, when the town's name was changed to honor local cowboy Seymour Munday, after whom nearby Munday was named. Commerce, a newspaper, a hotel, the county courthouse all followed soon after, as did violence between cowboys and settlers; the town experienced two distinct economic booms: the first, short-lived, was with the construction of the Wichita Valley rail line in 1880, the second was due to the discovery of oil in 1906. The population grew from 500 in 1884 to 3800 in 1950. Agribusiness, as well as some tourism from nearby Lake Kemp, has overtaken oil as the driving factor of the local economy; the Old Settlers Reunion and Rodeo has been held each July since 1896.
The town calls itself "the crossroads of North Texas" because it is located at the junction of five highways: U. S. highways 82, 277, 183, 283, State Highway 114. On August 12, 1936, the temperature at Seymour reached 120 °F, the highest temperature recorded in the state of Texas; the Seymour Division of La Escalera Ranch is located north of Seymour in Baylor County and consists of 34,000 contiguous acres in Baylor and Archer Counties. Known as Circle Bar Ranch, La Escalera Limited Partnership purchased the ranch from the Claude Cowan, Sr. Trust in January 2005. La Escalera partner Jo Lyda Granberg and husband K. G. Granberg manage
The kilometre, or kilometer is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousand metres. It is now the measurement unit used for expressing distances between geographical places on land in most of the world. K is used in some English-speaking countries as an alternative for the word kilometre in colloquial writing and speech. A slang term for the kilometre in the US and UK military is klick. There are two common pronunciations for the word; the former follows a pattern in English whereby metric units are pronounced with the stress on the first syllable and the pronunciation of the actual base unit does not change irrespective of the prefix. It is preferred by the British Broadcasting Corporation and the Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Many scientists and other users in countries where the metric system is not used, use the pronunciation with stress on the second syllable; the latter pronunciation follows the stress pattern used for the names of measuring instruments. The problem with this reasoning, however, is that the word meter in those usages refers to a measuring device, not a unit of length.
The contrast is more obvious in countries using the British rather than American spelling of the word metre. When Australia introduced the metric system in 1975, the first pronunciation was declared official by the government's Metric Conversion Board. However, the Australian prime minister at the time, Gough Whitlam, insisted that the second pronunciation was the correct one because of the Greek origins of the two parts of the word. By the 8 May 1790 decree, the Constituent assembly ordered the French Academy of Sciences to develop a new measurement system. In August 1793, the French National Convention decreed the metre as the sole length measurement system in the French Republic; the first name of the kilometre was "Millaire". Although the metre was formally defined in 1799, the myriametre was preferred to the "kilometre" for everyday use; the term "myriamètre" appeared a number of times in the text of Develey's book Physique d'Emile: ou, Principes de la science de la nature, while the term kilometre only appeared in an appendix.
French maps published in 1835 had scales showing myriametres and "lieues de Poste". The Dutch gave it the local name of the mijl, it was only in 1867 that the term "kilometer" became the only official unit of measure in the Netherlands to represent 1000 metres. Two German textbooks dated 1842 and 1848 give a snapshot of the use of the kilometre across Europe - the kilometre was in use in the Netherlands and in Italy and the myriametre was in use in France. In 1935, the International Committee for Weights and Measures abolished the prefix "myria-" and with it the "myriametre", leaving the kilometre as the recognised unit of length for measurements of that magnitude. In the United Kingdom, road signs show distances in miles and location marker posts that are used for reference purposes by road engineers and emergency services show distance references in unspecified units which are kilometre-based; the advent of the mobile phone has been instrumental in the British Department for Transport authorising the use of driver location signs to convey the distance reference information of location marker posts to road users should they need to contact the emergency services.
In the US, the National Highway System Designation Act of 1995 prohibits the use of federal-aid highway funds to convert existing signs or purchase new signs with metric units. The Executive Director of the US Federal Highway Administration, Jeffrey Paniati, wrote in a 2008 memo: "Section 205 of the National Highway System Designation Act of 1995 prohibited us from requiring any State DOT to use the metric system during project development activities. Although the State DOT's had the option of using metric measurements or dual units, all of them abandoned metric measurements and reverted to sole use of inch-pound values." The Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices since 2000 is published in both metric and American Customary Units. Some sporting disciplines feature 1000 m races in major events, but in other disciplines though world records are catalogued, the one kilometre event remains a minority event; the world records for various sporting disciplines are: Conversion of units, for comparison with other units of length Cubic metre Metric prefix Mileage Odometer Orders of magnitude Square kilometre Media related to Distance indicators at Wikimedia Commons
Del Rio, Texas
Del Rio is a city in and the county seat of Val Verde County, Texas. It is 152 miles west of San Antonio; as of 2015, the city had a population of 40,549. Del Rio is connected to Ciudad Acuña by the Lake Amistad Dam International Crossing and Del Río – Ciudad Acuña International Bridge, it is home to Laughlin Air Force Base, the busiest United States Air Force pilot-training complex in the world. The Spanish established a small settlement south of the Rio Grande in present-day Mexico, some Spaniards settled on what became the United States side of the Rio Grande as early as the 18th century. Paula Losoya Taylor built the first hacienda in the area in 1862. U. S. development on the north shore of the Rio Grande did not begin until after the American Civil War. The San Felipe Springs, about 8 mi east of the Rio Grande on the U. S. side of the border, produces 90×10^6 US gal of water a day. Developers acquired several thousand acres of land adjacent to the springs, to San Felipe Creek formed by the springs, from the state of Texas in exchange for building a canal system to irrigate the area.
The developers sold tracts of land surrounding the canals to recover their investment and show a profit. The initial investors formed the San Felipe Agricultural and Irrigation Company in 1868; the organization completed construction of a network of irrigation canals in 1871. Residents referred to the developing town as San Felipe Del Rio because local lore said the name came from early Spanish explorers who offered a mass at the site on St. Philip's Day, 1635. In 1883, local residents requested a post office be established; the United States Postal Department shortened "San Felipe del Rio" to "Del Rio" to avoid confusion with San Felipe de Austin. In 1885, Val Verde County was organized and Del Rio became the county seat; the City of Del Rio was incorporated on November 15, 1911. The San Felipe community was started by the Arteaga family. Arteaga Street and Arteaga Park are named after them. Many historical artifacts from Del Rio from the 19th century, are preserved at the Whitehead Memorial Museum downtown.
Del Rio is known as the American address of legendary Mexican radio stations XERA and XERF just over the U. S.-Mexico border in Ciudad Acuña. Legendary deejay Wolfman Jack operated XERF in the 1960s, using a Del Rio address to sell various products advertised on the station. In 1942, the Army Air Corps opened Laughlin Field 9 mi east of Del Rio, as a training base for the Martin B-26, but the base was deactivated in 1945; as the Cold War pressures built, along with new border-control issues, Laughlin Field was rebuilt and renamed Laughlin Air Force Base and was again used as a home for flight training. In the mid-1950s, the Strategic Air Command noted that Laughlin's remoteness allowed for secret operations, opened its strategic reconnaissance program there with the RB-57, a bomber modified for high-altitude reconnaissance. SAC soon transitioned to the high-altitude U-2 Dragonlady and based all of them in Laughlin AFB. In 1962, Laughlin-based U-2s took the first photographs of land-based medium-range ballistic missile sites being constructed in Cuba.
The presence of these missiles precipitated what became known as "the Cuban Missile Crisis". In July 1963, the U-2s were relocated to Davis–Monthan Air Force Base near Tucson and Laughlin's mission transitioned to the Undergraduate Pilot Training mission in the T-37 and T-38 aircraft. Laughlin AFB provides training in the T-1A Jayhawk, the T-6A Texan II, the T-38 aircraft. Laughlin plays a large part in the Del Rio community as the area's largest employer; the United States Border Patrol is the city's second-largest employer. At one time, Del Rio was in the running to become the home of the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center for agents of the U. S. Border Patrol and Federal Air Marshal Service, but lost to the current site in New Mexico; the proposed site was located on property belonging to Laughlin AFB. Since the base has unused land, the Air Force is able to lease it to other federal law enforcement agencies for such projects; this benefits the city of Del Rio both financially and economically.
For example, Del Rio was one of five cities in the United States selected for an FBI regional headquarters' office, that building is adjacent to the six-story Roswell Hotel in downtown Del Rio. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 52.3 km2, of which 52.2 km2 are land and 0.1 km2, or 0.24%, is covered by water. Del Rio lies on the northwestern edges of the Tamaulipan mezquital called the South Texas brush country, it is near the southwestern corner of the Edwards Plateau, the western fringe of the famous, oak savanna-covered Texas Hill Country. The creek supplied fresh water for drinking and irrigation to early settlers of Del Rio, the springs are still the town's water supply; the Del Rio region, west to about the Pecos River, has a mix of desert shrub and steppe vegetation, depending on soil type, with the gray-leafed cenizo, several different acacias and grama grasses dominant members of local flora. The terrain is level, but some areas are dissected with substantial canyons and drainages, though none of the upland areas is high or large enough to be considered a mountain
Chickasha is a city in and the county seat of Grady County, United States. The population was 16,036 at the 2010 census. Chickasha is home to the University of Arts of Oklahoma; the city is named for and connected to Native American heritage, as "Chickasha" is the Choctaw word for Chickasaw. Chickasha was founded by Hobart Johnstone Whitley, a land developer, banker and Rock Island Railroad executive; the founding took place in 1892 when the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific Railway built a track through Indian Territory. A post office was established in June 1892. One of the earliest industrial plants to come to Chickasha was the Chickasha Cotton Oil Company, established in 1899; the town incorporated in 1902. In 1908, the Oklahoma Industrial Institute and College for Girls was established in Chickasha. A local rancher named J. B. Sparks donated land for the school in memory of Nellie; the girl was a Chickasaw descendent, the land had been part of her allotment. The Nellie Sparks Dormitory commemorated her.
The school was renamed as the Oklahoma College for Women in 1916. It became coeducational in 1965, was renamed the Oklahoma College of Liberal Arts, it was renamed again in 1975 as the University of Arts of Oklahoma. The Wilson and Bonfis Flying School opened in October 1941 to train cadets of the U. S. Army Air Force. Over eight thousand cadets completed training there during World War II. After the war, the facility became the Chickasha Municipal Airport. During the war, the army built and used Borden General Hospital; this site now contains Grady Memorial Hospital, Five Oaks Medical Group, Southern Plains Medical Center and Borden Park. A prisoner of war camp established in 1944 is now the site of the Grady County Fairgrounds. Chickasha is located west of the center of Grady County at 35°2′18″N 97°56′46″W; the city is 42 miles southwest of Oklahoma City, accessible via Interstate 44. I-44 passes through the southeast side of the city, with access from Exits 80 and 83, leads southwest 47 miles to Lawton.
U. S. Route 62 runs through the city as Choctaw Avenue, leading east and northeast 18 miles to Blanchard and west 18 miles to Anadarko. U. S. Route 81 passes through the city center, leading south 40 miles to Duncan and north 35 miles to El Reno. U. S. Route 277 enters Chickasha from the south with US 81 and leaves to the east with US 62. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 22.1 square miles, of which 0.04 square miles, or 0.22%, is water. The Washita River flows through the northern end of the city turns south and forms part of the city's eastern border; as of the 2010 Census, there were 16,036 people, 6,374 households, 3,898 families residing in the city. From 2000 to 2010, the Chickasha city population growth percentage was 1.2%. There were 7,380 housing units; the racial makeup of the city was 80.0% White, 7.1% African American, 4.8% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.1% from other races, 5.4% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.5% of the population.
Of the 6,434 households, 27.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 41.5% were married couples living together, 14.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.8% were non-families. 32.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.6% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.95. The population included 22.8% under the age of 18, 12.4% from 18 to 24, 24.9% from 25 to 44, 24.6% from 45 to 64, 15.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.3 males. According to the 2009-2013 American Community Survey, the median income for a household in the city was $38,341, the median income for a family was $44,547. Males had a median income of $38,987 versus $27,357 for females; the per capita income for the city was $20,848. About 12.9% of families and 17.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 26.0% of those under age 18 and 10.8% of those age 65 or over.
Chickasha has an elected city council, with a city manager on its staff. Agriculture wheat production, cattle raising have been important to the city's economy since its earliest days. Manufacturing became important about the middle of the 20th century. ArvinMeritor Replacement Parts and Delta Faucet opened facilities in the 1970s; the city's annual Festival of Light takes place at the 43-acre Shannon Springs Park and opens nightly from around Thanksgiving to the end of December. Concessions, carriage rides, pictures with Santa, shopping are available; the Festival of Light has received many prestigious awards over the years including Regional Event of the Year, A. B. A. Top 100 Event, National Top 25 Holiday Event, Festival of the Year, Best Community Festival Event and Best Place to Take Out of Town Visitors; the festival has been featured statewide on Discover Oklahoma, ranked as a Top Place to Visit by Fine Living Network, designated as an official 2007 Oklahoma Centennial Event. Over 140 businesses and clubs sponsor the event in various ways.
The installation of lights in 290 trees, 8 miles of walk-ways, arbors and buildings begins in September. More than 1,200 volunteers donate time and skill, now Display Sponsors have reached the 100 mark; the park has over 3.5 million lights, the
Texas is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population. Geographically located in the South Central region of the country, Texas shares borders with the U. S. states of Louisiana to the east, Arkansas to the northeast, Oklahoma to the north, New Mexico to the west, the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the southwest, while the Gulf of Mexico is to the southeast. Houston is the most populous city in Texas and the fourth largest in the U. S. while San Antonio is the second-most populous in the state and seventh largest in the U. S. Dallas–Fort Worth and Greater Houston are the fourth and fifth largest metropolitan statistical areas in the country, respectively. Other major cities include Austin, the second-most populous state capital in the U. S. and El Paso. Texas is nicknamed "The Lone Star State" to signify its former status as an independent republic, as a reminder of the state's struggle for independence from Mexico; the "Lone Star" can be found on the Texan state seal.
The origin of Texas's name is from the word taysha. Due to its size and geologic features such as the Balcones Fault, Texas contains diverse landscapes common to both the U. S. Southern and Southwestern regions. Although Texas is popularly associated with the U. S. southwestern deserts, less than 10% of Texas's land area is desert. Most of the population centers are in areas of former prairies, grasslands and the coastline. Traveling from east to west, one can observe terrain that ranges from coastal swamps and piney woods, to rolling plains and rugged hills, the desert and mountains of the Big Bend; the term "six flags over Texas" refers to several nations. Spain was the first European country to claim the area of Texas. France held a short-lived colony. Mexico controlled the territory until 1836 when Texas won its independence, becoming an independent Republic. In 1845, Texas joined the union as the 28th state; the state's annexation set off a chain of events that led to the Mexican–American War in 1846.
A slave state before the American Civil War, Texas declared its secession from the U. S. in early 1861, joined the Confederate States of America on March 2nd of the same year. After the Civil War and the restoration of its representation in the federal government, Texas entered a long period of economic stagnation. Four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton and oil. Before and after the U. S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative, it was though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century. With strong investments in universities, Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century.
As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including agriculture, energy and electronics, biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U. S. in state export revenue since 2002, has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would be the 10th largest economy in the world; the name Texas, based on the Caddo word táyshaʼ "friend", was applied, in the spelling Tejas or Texas, by the Spanish to the Caddo themselves the Hasinai Confederacy, the final -s representing the Spanish plural. The Mission San Francisco de los Tejas was completed near the Hasinai village of Nabedaches in May 1690, in what is now Houston County, East Texas. During Spanish colonial rule, in the 18th century, the area was known as Nuevo Reino de Filipinas "New Kingdom of the Philippines", or as provincia de los Tejas "province of the Tejas" also provincia de Texas, "province of Texas", it was incorporated as provincia de Texas into the Mexican Empire in 1821, declared a republic in 1836.
The Royal Spanish Academy recognizes both spellings and Texas, as Spanish-language forms of the name of the U. S. State of Texas; the English pronunciation with /ks/ is unetymological, based in the value of the letter x in historical Spanish orthography. Alternative etymologies of the name advanced in the late 19th century connected the Spanish teja "rooftile", the plural tejas being used to designate indigenous Pueblo settlements. A 1760s map by Jacques-Nicolas Bellin shows a village named Teijas on Trinity River, close to the site of modern Crockett. Texas is the second-largest U. S. state, with an area of 268,820 square miles. Though 10% larger than France and twice as large as Germany or Japan, it ranks only 27th worldwide amongst country subdivisions by size. If it were an independent country, Texas would be the 40th largest behind Zambia. Texas is in the south central part of the United States of America. Three of its borders are defined by rivers; the Rio Grande forms a natural border with the Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas to the south.
The Red River forms a natural border with Arkansas to the north. The Sabine River forms a natural border with Louisiana to the east; the Texas Panhandle has an eastern border with Oklahoma at 100° W, a northern border with Oklahoma at 36°30' N and a western
U.S. Route 83 in Texas
U. S. Highway 83, dedicated as the Texas Vietnam Veterans Memorial Highway, is a U. S. Highway in the U. S. state of Texas that begins at US 77 in Brownsville and follows the Rio Grande to Laredo heads north through Abilene to the Oklahoma border north of Perryton, the seat of Ochiltree County. It is the longest highway in Texas at a length of about 895 miles, besting the east–west I-10, which has a length of 879 miles. In the Lower Rio Grande Valley, US 83 is a freeway, at or close to interstate standards from Brownsville to Penitas. In May 2013, the Texas Department of Transportation applied to the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials to designate this 48-mile section as I-2. After the Special Committee on Route Numbering disapproved the application, the AASHTO Board of Directors approved the I-2 designation, conditional on the concurrence of the Federal Highway Administration. On May 29, 2013, the segment of US 83 was approved as an I-69 connector using the I-2 designation extending 46 miles from Harlingen to west of Mission.
US 83's southern terminus is at a concurrency with I-69E/US 77 on the south side of Brownsville at the Brownsville – Veterans Port of Entry at the US/Mexico border. It remains co-signed with I-69E/US 77 until Harlingen, where I-69E/US 77 makes a sharp turn northward and US 83 maintains a westerly route to McAllen, concurrent with I-2 until Palmview. From there, the highway parallels the Rio Grande until Laredo where it makes a northwesterly turn toward Carrizo Springs, the seat of Dimmit County; the speed limit on US 83 is 75 mph through Dimmit County. Merging with I-35 just south of downtown, US 83 remains co-signed with the interstate until an exit at Botines, Texas. From there, it continues northward. US 83 is co-signed with I-10 for 8 miles, turning northward and leaving I-10 at the Kimble County Airport. After continuing northward through several rural western Texas towns, US 83 merges with US 84 east of Tuscola, where it makes a sharp turn back to the north. US 83/84 remains a co-signed route until Abilene, where US 84 turns to the northwest and US 83 remains northbound, merging with US 277 on the west side of the city.
US 83/277 remains a co-signed route until 2 miles north of Anson, where US 277 turns northeast, US 83, northwest. After merging with US 380 in Aspermont and sharing a route, US 83 continues northward, merging with US 62 in Paducah. US 83/62 continues as a co-signed route until 15 miles south of Wellington, where US 62 makes a sharp turn eastward, leaving US 83 to continue northward, where it crosses into Oklahoma 6 miles north of Perryton. Texas portal U. S. Roads portal Business routes of U. S. Route 83 in Texas Media related to U. S. Route 83 in Texas at Wikimedia Commons