Canada–United States border
The Canada–United States border known as the International Boundary, is the longest international border in the world between two countries. It is shared between Canada and the United States, the second- and fourth/third largest countries by area, respectively; the terrestrial boundary is 8,891 kilometres long, of which 2,475 kilometres is Canada's border with Alaska. Eight Canadian provinces and territories, thirteen U. S. states are located along the border. The Treaty of Paris of 1783 ended the American Revolutionary War between Great Britain and the United States. In the second article of the Treaty the parties agreed on all of the boundaries of the United States, including but not limited to the boundary with British North America to the north; the agreed boundary included the line from the northwest angle of Nova Scotia to the northwesternmost head of Connecticut River, proceeded down along the middle of the river to the 45th parallel of north latitude. That parallel had been established in the 1760s as the boundary between the provinces of Quebec and New York.
It was surveyed and marked by John Collins and Thomas Valentine from 1771 to 1773. The Saint Lawrence River and the Great Lakes became the boundary further west. Northwest of Lake Superior, the boundary followed rivers to the Lake of the Woods. From the Lake of the Woods, the boundary was agreed to go straight west until it met the Mississippi River. In fact that line never meets the river; the Jay Treaty of 1794 created the International Boundary Commission, charged with surveying and mapping the boundary. It provided for removal of British military and administration from Detroit and other frontier outposts on the U. S. side. It was superseded by the Treaty of Ghent concluding the War of 1812, which included pre-war boundaries; the Rush–Bagot Treaty of 1817 provided a plan for demilitarizing the two combatant sides in the War of 1812 and laid out preliminary principles for drawing a border between British North America and the United States. Westward expansion of both British North America and the United States saw the boundary extended west along the 49th parallel from the Northwest Angle at Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains under the Treaty of 1818.
That treaty extinguished British claims south of that latitude to the Red River Valley, part of Rupert's Land. The treaty extinguished U. S. claims to land north of that line in the watershed of the Missouri River, part of the Louisiana Purchase. Along the 49th parallel, the border vista is theoretically straight but in practice follows the 19th-century surveyed border markers and varies by several hundred feet in spots. Disputes over the interpretation of the border treaties and mistakes in surveying required additional negotiations resulting in the Webster–Ashburton Treaty of 1842; the treaty resolved the dispute known as the Aroostook War over the boundary between Maine on the one hand, New Brunswick and the Province of Canada on the other. The treaty redefined the border between New Hampshire and New York on the one hand, the Province of Canada on the other, resolving the Indian Stream dispute and the Fort Blunder dilemma at the outlet to Lake Champlain; the part of the 45th parallel that separates Quebec from the U.
S. states of Vermont and New York had first been surveyed from 1771 to 1773 after it had been declared the boundary between New York and Quebec, it was surveyed again after the War of 1812. The U. S. federal government began to construct fortifications just south of the border at Rouses Point, New York, on Lake Champlain. After a significant portion of the construction was completed, measurements revealed that at that point, the actual 45th parallel was three-quarters of a mile south of the surveyed line; this created a dilemma for the United States, not resolved until a provision of the treaty left the border on the meandering line as surveyed. The border along the Boundary Waters in present-day Ontario and Minnesota between Lake Superior and the Northwest Angle was redefined. An 1844 boundary dispute during U. S. President James K. Polk's administration led to a call for the northern boundary of the U. S. west of the Rockies to be latitude 54° 40' north, but the United Kingdom wanted a border that followed the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean.
The dispute was resolved in the Oregon Treaty of 1846, which established the 49th parallel as the boundary through the Rockies. The Northwest Boundary Survey laid out the land boundary, but the water boundary was not settled for some time. After the Pig War in 1859, arbitration in 1872 established the border between the Gulf Islands and the San Juan Islands; the International Boundary Survey, called the Northern Boundary Survey in the United States, began in 1872. Its mandate was to estab
U.S. Route 202
U. S. Route 202 is a highway stretching from Delaware to Maine passing through the states of Pennsylvania, New Jersey, New York, Connecticut and New Hampshire; the road has borne the number 202 since at least 1936. Before this, sections of the road were designated U. S. Route 122, as it intersected U. S. Route 22, its current designation is based on its intersection with US 2 in Maine. This route is longer than the eastern segment of US 2, making it one of several 3-digit US routes to be longer than their parent routes. US 202 begins at an interchange with US 13/US 40 south of Wilmington, it runs north along the same road as Delaware Route 141 joins with Interstate 95 through Wilmington. North of the city, it exits the freeway onto Concord Pike. US 202 continues north towards the state line as a six-lane arterial road and is lined with numerous strip malls and "big-box stores". US 202 continues north toward West Chester, joining with US 322 after intersecting U. S. Route 1. South of West Chester, US 202/322 exits onto a limited-access bypass of the borough.
North of West Chester, US 322 exits, US 202 continues north as a freeway towards Frazer, where it interchanges with U. S. Route 30 and bends east to head towards Malvern and King of Prussia; the stretch between Mill Lane in Malvern to King of Prussia was widened to three lanes in each direction. In King of Prussia, the highway forms a large, complicated interchange with the Schuylkill Expressway, the Pennsylvania Turnpike, U. S. Route 422; the freeway transitions into a divided highway, passing the King of Prussia mall and heading northeast through commercial areas before splitting into a one-way pair through the streets of Bridgeport and Norristown, crossing the Schuylkill River in the process. North of Norristown, US 202 continues as a two-lane road heading northeast through the Philadelphia suburbs, passing through Blue Bell and Lower Gwynedd, where it becomes a four-lane full-access highway for about two miles. East of Lansdale, in Montgomeryville, it turns into a parkway with a parallel trail, which opened in December 2012.
It continues northeast towards Doylestown, where it joins an older section of bypass at Pennsylvania Route 611 and proceeds north to the old alignment of Route 202. It continues as a two-lane road to New Hope, crossing the Delaware River on the New Hope-Lambertville Toll Bridge. On the toll bridge, US 202 has two lanes in each direction, it continues a northeasterly course for about 5.7 miles as a freeway. This segment of US 202 was earlier called the 202 bypass from its original route; the old section of 202 between New Hope and Ringoes, New Jersey is now NJ 179, Old York Road, the first roadway to connect New York City and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. In 1953, this section of Old York Road was renumbered US 202. A small section of the US 202 bypass was built in 1965 and the old route was renamed NJ 179; when the western section of the "bypass" was built to the Delaware River, the whole former segment was renamed 179. The section of the new US 202 freeway section ends once it begins to run concurrently with NJ 31 in East Amwell Township.
The concurrency runs to Flemington. This stretch, the 13 miles between Flemington and Somerville, is a four-lane divided roadway. At Somerville, the road merges with US 206 at a now-reconfigured Somerville Circle. Parts of the old traffic circle, which carries NJ 28, remain below the US 202 flyover. US 202 again becomes a two-lane road. From here to the state line, US 202 parallels, has been supplanted by, I-287, which during its construction dumped traffic onto US 202. US 202 continues through Morristown to Morris Plains with an intersection with NJ 53. With a few exceptions, US 202 is maintained by counties rather than the New Jersey Department of Transportation north of NJ 53; the following sections are state-maintained: At the I-80 interchange At the US 46 intersection Along the NJ 23 concurrency At the I-287 interchange in OaklandUS 202 continues past Boonton along the Boonton Turnpike to historic Mountain View in Wayne, where it picks up NJ 23 for about two miles and exits on Black Oak Ridge Road.
It follows the Paterson-Hamburg Turnpike, Terhune Drive on the east side of Pompton Lake, Ramapo Valley Road to Mahwah before crossing the New York state line on the Franklin Turnpike. US 202 is designated east–west in New York, owing to its greater coverage in those directions. Franklin Turnpike becomes Orange Avenue in Suffern, US 202 continues to a block-long wrong-way concurrency with NY 59 before tailing off on Wayne Avenue and heading east toward Haverstraw. Most of this stretch is two-lane road. At Haverstraw, US 202 turns north along US 9W to Bear Mountain and crosses the Bear Mountain Bridge, running concurrently with US 6, the Grand Army Of The Republic Highway; the two wind around Anthony's Nose forming New York's only three-way concurrency of U. S. highways with US 9 at Peekskill. Afterwards, the two separate for several miles, with US 202 taking the more southerly route through Somers; the highways reunite at Brewster and become a four-lane road for their last few miles before the state line, taking in NY 121 in the process.
At Danbury, US 6 and 202 climb up onto I-84, which had just been joined by the north–south US 7, making a four-way concurren
Delaware is one of the 50 states of the United States, in the South-Atlantic or Southern region. It is bordered to the south and west by Maryland, north by Pennsylvania, east by New Jersey and the Atlantic Ocean; the state takes its name from Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, an English nobleman and Virginia's first colonial governor. Delaware occupies the northeastern portion of the Delmarva Peninsula. It's the sixth most densely populated. Delaware's largest city is Wilmington; the state is divided into the lowest number of any state. From north to south, they are New Castle County, Kent County, Sussex County. While the southern two counties have been predominantly agricultural, New Castle County is more industrialized. Before its coastline was explored by Europeans in the 16th century, Delaware was inhabited by several groups of Native Americans, including the Lenape in the north and Nanticoke in the south, it was colonized by Dutch traders at Zwaanendael, near the present town of Lewes, in 1631.
Delaware was one of the 13 colonies participating in the American Revolution. On December 7, 1787, Delaware became the first state to ratify the Constitution of the United States, has since been known as "The First State"; the state was named after the Delaware River, which in turn derived its name from Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, the ruling governor of the Colony of Virginia at the time Europeans first explored the river. The Delaware Indians, a name used by Europeans for Lenape people indigenous to the Delaware Valley derive their name from the same source; the surname de La Warr is of Anglo-Norman origin. It came from a Norman lieu-dit La Guerre; this toponymic could derive from the Latin word ager, from the Breton gwern or from the Late Latin varectum. The toponyms Gara, Gaire appear in old texts cited by Lucien Musset, where the word gara means gore, it could be linked with a patronymic from the Old Norse verr. Delaware is 96 miles long and ranges from 9 miles to 35 miles across, totaling 1,954 square miles, making it the second-smallest state in the United States after Rhode Island.
Delaware is bounded to the north by Pennsylvania. Small portions of Delaware are situated on the eastern side of the Delaware River sharing land boundaries with New Jersey; the state of Delaware, together with the Eastern Shore counties of Maryland and two counties of Virginia, form the Delmarva Peninsula, which stretches down the Mid-Atlantic Coast. The definition of the northern boundary of the state is unusual. Most of the boundary between Delaware and Pennsylvania was defined by an arc extending 12 miles from the cupola of the courthouse in the city of New Castle; this boundary is referred to as the Twelve-Mile Circle. Although the Twelve-Mile Circle is claimed to be the only territorial boundary in the United States, a true arc, the Mexican boundary with Texas includes several arcs, many cities in the South have circular boundaries; this border extends all the way east to the low-tide mark on the New Jersey shore continues south along the shoreline until it again reaches the 12-mile arc in the south.
To the west, a portion of the arc extends past the easternmost edge of Maryland. The remaining western border runs east of due south from its intersection with the arc; the Wedge of land between the northwest part of the arc and the Maryland border was claimed by both Delaware and Pennsylvania until 1921, when Delaware's claim was confirmed. Delaware is with the lowest mean elevation of any state in the nation, its highest elevation, located at Ebright Azimuth, near Concord High School, is less than 450 feet above sea level. The northernmost part of the state is part of the Piedmont Plateau with rolling surfaces; the Atlantic Seaboard fall line follows the Robert Kirkwood Highway between Newark and Wilmington. A ridge about 75 to 80 feet in elevation extends along the western boundary of the state and separates the watersheds that feed Delaware River and Bay to the east and the Chesapeake Bay to the west. Since all of Delaware is a part of the Atlantic coastal plain, the effects of the ocean moderate its climate.
The state lies in the humid subtropical climate zone. Despite its small size, there is significant variation in mean temperature and amount of snowfall between Sussex County and New Castle County. Moderated by the Atlantic Ocean and Delaware Bay, the southern portion of the state has a milder climate and a longer growing season than the northern portion of the state. Delaware's all-time record high of 110 °F was recorded at Millsboro on July 21, 1930; the all-time record low of −17 °F was recorded at Millsboro on January 17, 1893. The transitional climate of Delaware supports a wide variety of vegetation. In the northern third of the state are found Northeastern coastal forests and mixed oak forests typical of the northeastern United States. In the southern two-thirds of the state are found Middle Atlantic coastal forests. Trap Pond State Park, along with areas in other parts of Sussex County, for example, support
Delaware Bay is the estuary outlet of the Delaware River on the Northeast seaboard of the United States. 782 square miles in area, the bay's fresh water mixes for many miles with the salt water of the Atlantic Ocean. The bay is bordered inland by the States of New Jersey and Delaware, the Delaware Capes, Cape Henlopen and Cape May, on the Atlantic; the Delaware Bay is bordered by six counties: Sussex and New Castle in Delaware, along with Cape May and Salem in New Jersey. The Cape May–Lewes Ferry crosses the Delaware Bay from Cape May, New Jersey, to Lewes, Delaware. Management of ports along the bay is the responsibility of the Delaware Bay Authority; the shores of the bay are composed of salt marshes and mudflats, with only small communities inhabiting the shore of the lower bay. Besides the Delaware, it is fed by numerous smaller rivers and streams, including the Christina River, Appoquinimink River, Leipsic River, Smyrna River, St. Jones River, Murderkill Rivers on the Delaware side, the Salem River, Cohansey River, Maurice Rivers on the New Jersey side.
Several of the rivers hold protected status for their salt marsh wetlands bordering the bay, which serves as a breeding ground for many aquatic species, including horseshoe crabs. The bay is a prime oystering ground; the Delaware Bay was designated a Ramsar Wetland of International Importance on May 20, 1992. It was the first site classified in the Western Hemisphere Shorebird Reserve Network. At the time of the arrival of the Europeans in the early 17th century, the area around the bay was inhabited by the Native American Lenape people, they called the Delaware River "Lenape Wihittuck", which means "the rapid stream of the Lenape". The Delaware Bay was called "Poutaxat", which means "near the falls". In 1523 Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón had received from Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor a grant for the land explored in 1521 by Francisco Gordillo and slave trader Captain Pedro de Quejo. In 1525 Ayllón sent Quejo northward and received reports of the coastline from as far north as the Delaware Bay. In 1525 De Ayllon and Captain Quejo called Delaware Bay by the name Saint Christopher's Bay.
In the 1600s the bay was known as "Niew Port May" after Captain Cornelius May. Another recorded European visit to the bay was by Henry Hudson, who claimed it for the Dutch East India Company in 1609; the Dutch called the estuary "Godyns Bay", or "Godins Bay" after a director of the company, Samuel Godijn. As part of the New Netherland colony, the Dutch established several settlements on the shores of the bay and explored its coast extensively; the thin nature of the corporate colony's presence in the bay and along what was called the South River made it possible for Peter Minuit, the former director of New Netherland, to establish a competing Swedish sponsored settlement, New Sweden in 1638. The resulting dispute with the Dutch colonial authorities in New Amsterdam was settled when Petrus Stuyvesant led a Dutch military force into the area in 1655. After the English took title to the New Netherland colony in 1667 at the Treaty of Breda the bay came into their possession and was renamed, by Samuel Argall, the river Delaware, after the first Governor of Virginia Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr.
The Native American tribe living along the bay and river were called the Delaware by the Europeans due to their location. The U. S. state takes its name from the bay and the river. Conflicting crown grants were made to the James, Duke of York and William Penn on the west bank of the bay and river. Settlement grew leading Philadelphia, upriver on the Delaware, to become the largest city in North America in the 18th century. Penn viewed access to the Delaware Bay as being so critical to Pennsylvania's survival that he engaged in an eighty-year long legal boundary dispute with the Calvert family to secure it. In 1782 during the American Revolutionary War, Continental Navy Lieutenant Joshua Barney fought with a British squadron within the bay. Barney's force of three sloops defeated a Royal Navy frigate, a sloop-of-war and a Loyalist privateer; the strategic importance of the bay was noticed by the Marquis de Lafayette during the American Revolutionary War, who proposed the use of Pea Patch Island at the head of the bay for a defensive fortification to protect the important ports Philadelphia and New Castle, Delaware.
Fort Delaware was constructed on Pea Patch Island. During the American Civil War it was used as a Union prison camp. In 1855, the United States government systematically undertook the formation of a 26 ft channel 600 ft wide from Philadelphia to deep water in Delaware Bay; the Rivers and Harbors Act of 1899 provided for a 30-foot channel 600 feet wide from Philadelphia to the deep water of the bay. Other names for the bay have been "South Bay" and "Zuyt Baye"; the bay is one of the most important navigational channels in the United States. Its lower course forms part of the Intracoastal Waterway; the need for direct navigation around the two capes into the ocean is circumvented by the Cape May Canal and the Lewes and Rehoboth Canal at the north and south capes respectively. The upper bay is connected directly to the north end of Chesapeake Bay by the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal; the bay offers several challenges to mariners: a significant current of up to three knots, which builds a nasty chop when the wind is in opposition.
Partnership for the Delaware Estuary Lewes and Rehoboth Canal Chesapeake and Delaware Canal B
U.S. Route 6
U. S. Route 6 called the Grand Army of the Republic Highway, honoring the American Civil War veterans association, is a main route of the U. S. Highway system. While it runs east-northeast from Bishop, California to Provincetown, the route has been modified several times; the highway's longest-lasting routing, from 1936 to 1964, had its western terminus at Long Beach, California. During this time, US 6 was the longest highway in the country. In 1964, the state of California renumbered its highways, most of the route within California was transferred to other highways; this dropped the highway's length below that of US 20. US 6 is a diagonal route, whose number is out of sequence with the rest of the U. S. Highway grid in the western US; when it was designated in 1926, US 6 only ran east of Pennsylvania. Subsequent extensions replacing the former U. S. Route 32 and U. S. Route 38, have taken it south of US 30 near Chicago, Illinois, US 40 near Denver, Colorado, US 50 at Ely, US 70 near Los Angeles, due to its north–south alignment in that state.
US 6 does not serve a major transcontinental corridor, unlike other highways. George R. Stewart, author of U. S. 40: Cross Section of the United States of America considered US 6, but realized that "Route 6 runs uncertainly from nowhere to nowhere, scarcely to be followed from one end to the other, except by some devoted eccentric". In the famous "beat" novel On the Road by Jack Kerouac, protagonist Sal Paradise considers hitchhiking on US 6 to Nevada, but is told by a driver that "there's no traffic passes through 6" and that he'd be better off going via Pittsburgh; the modern US 6 in California is a short, two-lane, north–south surface highway from Bishop to the Nevada state line. Prior to a 1964 highway renumbering project, US 6 extended to Long Beach along what is now US 395, California 14, Interstate 5, Interstate 110/California 110, California 1. Despite the renumbering having removed all freeway portions, it is still part of the California Freeway and Expressway System. US 6's former routing included a short segment of the famous Arroyo Seco Parkway.
US 6 begins at US 395 in Bishop and heads north between farms and ranches in the Chalfant Valley at the base of the 14,000-foot western escarpment of the White Mountains. After about 30 miles Benton is reached, which has a gas station. California 120 begins here, heading west past Mono Lake through Lee Vining, over Tioga Pass, through Yosemite National Park to the San Joaquin Valley. US 6 continues north to the Nevada state line. From the California border, US 6 heads northeast through the semidesert Queen Valley with Boundary Peak, Nevada's highest summit, Montgomery Peak in California on the right; these twin peaks are the northmost high summits of the White Mountains, both over 13,000 ft. The highway climbs into the Pinyon-Juniper zone and crosses Montgomery Pass 7,167 ft. From the pass, US 6 descends into barren shadscale desert, passing Columbus Salt Marsh on the left merging with US 95 from Coaldale Junction to Tonopah. Nevada Test and Training Range begins about 15 mi southeast of Tonopah.
Just east of Tonopah, US 6 continues east across a series of desert mountain ranges and valleys, including the Monitor Range. At Warm Springs, State Route 375 known as the "Extraterrestrial Highway", departs to the southeast and US 6 assumes a northeasterly alignment across the Reveille, Pancake and White Pine Ranges. Rainfall increases eastward, so valleys become less barren and peaks over 11,500 ft add scenic interest. Ely is the largest city on Route 6 in Nevada. US 50 joins Route 6 at Ely. East of Ely, Routes 6/50 cross the Schell Creek Range, known for verdant forests and meadows, for a large deer and elk population; the highway descends to Spring Valley crosses the Snake Range at Sacramento Pass, north of Nevada's second-highest mountain, Wheeler Peak, where a branch road accesses Great Basin National Park. Beyond the pass, US 6 passes just north of Baker, a Mormon farming community, reaches the Utah state line. US 6 enters and leaves Utah concurrent with US 50. However, the two routes are different through the state.
US 50 is the shorter route. US 6 is the former route of US 50. US 6 forms an arch-shaped route with Spanish Fork at the apex. US 6 is now concurrent with Interstate 70 for a significant portion of its length from the Utah state line to Denver. Within the city limits, US 6 follows Denver's 6th Avenue; the highway travels north and it follows Interstate 76 for most of its length east of Denver. It is unsigned; the highest altitude along US 6 is 11,990 feet at Loveland Pass, where it crosses the Continental Divide. It continues down Clear Creek Valley until it reaches I-70, where it is overlapped until I-70 leaves Clear Creek Valley. US 6 continues into Denver, where it turns into a freeway with six lanes. East of Denver, it continues east while joined with I-76 until it reaches Sterling, where it diverges from the interstate; the last town in Colorado that it passes is Holyoke. From the Colorado state line, US 6 starts going southeast; the first town it goes into is Imperial. US 6 conjoins with US 34 near Culbertson.
US 6 moves to the northeast, through Hastings. At Hastings, US 34 moves north. US 6 parallels Interstate 80 north of Milford. At Lincoln, US 6 becomes West "O" Street Cornhusker Highway and moves north of I-80 outside of the city, paralleling I-80 to Gretna. There US 6 moves due north an
Peekskill, New York
Peekskill the City of Peekskill, is a city in Westchester County, New York. Peekskill is situated on a bay along the east side of the Hudson River, across from Jones Point; the population was 23,583 during the 2010 census. This community was known to be an early American industrial center for its iron plow and stove products; the Binney & Smith Company, now makers of Crayola products, started as the Peekskill Chemical Company at Annsville in 1864. Peekskill's manufacturing base operated well into the late 20th century, with the Fleischmann Company making yeast by-products under the Standard Brands corporate name; the well-publicized "Peekskill" Riots of 1949 involved attacks and a lynching-in-effigy occasioned by Paul Robeson's benefit concerts for the Civil Rights Congress, although the main assault following the September concert properly occurred in nearby Van Cortlandtville. In September 1609, Henry Hudson, captain of the Halve Maen, anchored along the reach of the Hudson at Peekskill, his firstmate noted in the ship's log that it was a "very pleasant place to build a town".
After the establishment of the province of New Netherland, New Amsterdam resident Jan Peeck made the first recorded contact with the Lenape people of this area identified as "Sachoes". The date is not certain, but agreements and merchant transactions took place, formalized in the Ryck's Patent Deed of 1684; the name Peekskill derives from a combination of Mr. Peek's surname and the Dutch word for stream, kil or kill. Located on the north bank of the Annsville Creek as it empties into the Hudson, Fort Independence combined with Forts Montgomery and Clinton to defend the Hudson River Valley. Fort Independence was built in August 1776, while Forts Clinton were started in June. Fort Hill Park, the site of Camp Peekskill, contained two redoubts. European style settlement took place in the early 18th century. By the time of the American Revolution, the tiny community was an important manufacturing center from its various mills along the several creeks and streams; these industrial activities were attractive to the Continental Army in establishing its headquarters here in 1776.
The mills of Peek's Creek provided gunpowder, leather and flour. Slaughterhouses were important for food supply; the river docks allowed transport of supply items and soldiers to the several other fort garrisons placed to prevent British naval passage between Albany and New York City. Officers at Peekskill supervised placing the first iron link chain between Bear Mountain and Anthony's Nose in the spring of 1777. Though Peekskill's terrain and mills were beneficial to the Patriot cause, they made tempting targets for British raids; the most damaging attack took place in early spring of 1777, when an invasion force of a dozen vessels led by a warship and supported by infantry overwhelmed the American defenders. Another British operation in October 1777 led to further destruction of industrial apparatus. "On leaving New Windsor in June, 1781, Washington established his quarters, for a short time, at Peekskill." Peekskill's first legal incorporation of 1816 was reactivated in 1826 when Village elections took place.
The Village was further incorporated within the Town of Cortlandt in 1849 and remained so until separating as a city in 1940. In 1859 Rev. Henry Ward Beecher bought a thirty-six acre farm at Peekskill. Beecher established a summer home for his family. In 1902 the locally prominent McFadden family bought the property. In 1987 the Beecher-McFadden Estate was added to the National Register of Historic Places. In August 1949, following reports misquoting Paul Robeson's speech to the World Peace Conference in Paris as stating that African Americans would not fight for the United States in any prospective war against the Soviet Union, a planned benefit concert for the Civil Rights Congress in Peekskill had to be cancelled amid White Nationalist and anti-communist violence. An effigy of Robeson was lynched in the town; the artists were able to plan a second concert in nearby Van Cortlandtville on a farm owned by a Holocaust survivor. The publicity drew a crowd of around 20,000, two men with rifles were discovered and removed prior to any violence during the concert itself.
It was one of the earliest performances of Pete Seeger's "If I Had a Hammer". Following the event, area police and state troopers directed exiting traffic down a single road into an ambush where rocks were thrown through car windows; some were overturned and their occupants beaten without police intervention. These Peekskill Riots were subsequently well-publicized in news report and folk songs and formed a major event in E. L. Doctorow's historical fiction novel The Book of Daniel. Peekskill was the landing point of a fragment of the Peekskill Meteorite, just before midnight on October 9, 1992; the meteoric trail was recorded on film by at least sixteen individuals. This was only the fourth meteorite in history; the rock had a mass of 12.4 kg and punched through the trunk of Peekskill resident Michelle Knapp's automobile upon impact. The Peekskill Evening Star and the Peekskill Highland Democrat were two of the city's daily newspapers through much of the City's history; the Evening Star published under various mastheads from the 19th century on, as the Evening Star from 1939 till 1985 when the paper folded into what would become the nexus of the Journal News, a conglomeration of local papers from throughout Westchester County.
The Journal News focused more on state
Georgetown is a town in and the county seat of Sussex County, United States. According to the 2010 census, the population of the town is 6,422, an increase of 38.3% over the previous decade. Georgetown is part of Maryland-Delaware Metropolitan Statistical Area. Lewes, sited on the Delaware Bay, was designated as the first county seat, it was the first colony in Delaware, founded by the Dutch in 1631, it remained the only significant European settlement in the region for some time. When English colonists William Penn organized the three southern counties of Pennsylvania, which are now Delaware, Lewes was the natural choice for the location of the Sussex County's Seat of Justice. Sussex County was not well defined until after 1760, following resolution of a dispute between William Penn's family and Frederick Calvert, 6th Baron Baltimore after intervention from the Crown; this dispute over borders had delayed discussion over the location of a county seat. Earlier Charles Calvert, 5th Baron Baltimore had argued that the county ended with Lewes, while Penn's sons stated it continued into Fenwick Island, which it now does.
The Mason–Dixon line was surveyed as part the agreement between the Penns and Lord Baltimore, it has since defined the western and southern border of the county. Georgetown, located more centrally in the county, was designated as its seat for court. Lewes continued to serve as the county seat throughout much of the 18th century, although it was inconvenient for the growing population to the west. After petitioning by western citizens of the county to the Delaware General Assembly, a law was passed on January 29, 1791, to centralize the location of the county seat. At the time, the land in central Sussex County was for the most part uninhabited; the county government hired ten commissioners to purchase land, build a courthouse and jail, sell lots in an area at "James Pettyjohn's old field or about a mile from where Ebenezer Pettyjohn now lives," as the original order states, to encourage related development. On May 9, 1791, the commissioners, under the leadership of the Delaware State Senator George Mitchell, purchased 76 acres for a townsite.
Commissioner Rhodes Shankland began the survey by laying out "a spacious square of 100 yards each way." Georgetown was laid out in a circle one mile in diameter and centered around the original square surveyed by Shankland. The area within this circle is now listed as a historic district on the National Register of Historic Places; the new location proved better as an administrative center. The County Courthouse and Jail were built in the southeastern section of the town circle. Given this progress, the Seat of Justice was moved on October 26, 1791; the new community was named Georgetown in honor of the lead commissioner George Mitchell. Lots, measuring 60 by 120-foot, were sold to give a return to the State's investment; because of Delaware's status as a border state during the Civil War, men enlisted on both sides of the war, with some fighting for the Union and others for the Confederates. The town and some of its prominent families were divided by these split loyalties. In 2007, a monument commemorating Sussex County Confederates was constructed and installed at the Marvel Museum in Georgetown.
Since the turn of the 21st century, a major employer is Perdue Farms, which has a large chicken processing plant. It has attracted numerous immigrants from Haiti and Guatemala as workers, stimulating growth of the population and changing the town's demographics. Georgetown has a more diverse population. Many residents speak Haitian French or Creole, while others have a primary language of Spanish, in addition to those whose first language is English. In 2000 more than one-third of the population was ethnic Hispanic and one-fifth was African American. Georgetown is the home of the Georgetown Speedway; the latter attracts attendees from miles around during race season. Every two years, Georgetown hosts Return Day, a half-day-long parade and festival two days after Election Day, it stems from colonial days, when the public would congregate in Georgetown two days after the election to hear the results. The winners of that year's elections parade in horse-drawn carriages around The Circle. Together with the losers and the chairs of the county's political parties, they ceremonially "bury the hatchet" in a tub of sand.
The afternoon of Return Day is a holiday for state workers in Sussex County. The day's events are marked by a traditional ox feast, the beginning of the next round of campaigns. Georgetown is unusual among Delaware municipalities as the town was constructed around a circle, instead of the more traditional park square. Located at "The Circle" are the Town Hall and county buildings, the historic Sussex County Courthouse; the original Courthouse was replaced by the current structure, built in 1837 on South Bedford Street. It is managed by the Georgetown Historical Society. Lawyers' offices, stores, a bank, the Brick Hotel, which has completed renovation line the Circle; this layout is similar to that found in Maryland. The center of Georgetown's circle is a small green park with a fountain. Georgetown's oldest church, St. Paul’s Episcopal Church, was constructed in 1844 and remodeled in 1881 in the early Victorian Gothic style.