Olympia is the capital of the U. S. state of Washington and the county seat of Thurston County. European settlers claimed the area in 1846, with the Treaty of Medicine Creek initiated in 1854, the Treaty of Olympia initiated in January 1856. Olympia was incorporated as a town on January 28, 1859, as a City in 1882; the population was 46,479 as of the 2010 census. The city borders Lacey to the Tumwater to the south. Olympia is a cultural center of the southern Puget Sound region. Olympia is located 60 miles southwest of the largest city in the state of Washington; the site of Olympia has been home to Lushootseed-speaking peoples known as the Steh-Chass for thousands of years. Other Native Americans visited the head of Budd Inlet and the Steh-Chass including the other ancestor tribes of the Squaxin, as well as the Nisqually, Chehalis and Duwamish; the first recorded Europeans came to Olympia in 1792. Peter Puget and a crew from the British Vancouver Expedition are said to have explored the site, but neither recorded any encounters with the resident Indigenous population here.
In 1846, Edmund Sylvester and Levi Smith jointly claimed the land that now comprises downtown Olympia. In 1851, the U. S. Congress established the Customs District of Puget Sound for Washington Territory and Olympia became the home of the customs house, its population expanded from Oregon Trail immigrants. In 1850, the town settled on the name Olympia, at the suggestion of local resident Colonel Isaac N. Ebey, due to its view of the Olympic Mountains to the Northwest; the area began to be served by a small fleet of steamboats known as the Puget Sound Mosquito Fleet. Over the course of two days, December 24–26, 1854, Governor Isaac I. Stevens negotiated the Treaty of Medicine Creek with the representatives of the Nisqually, Squawksin, Steh'Chass, Noo-Seh-Chatl, Squi-Aitl, T'Peeksin, Sah-Heh-Wa-Mish, S'Hotl-Ma-Mish tribes. Stevens' treaty included the preservation of Indigenous fishing, hunting and other rights, it included a section which, at least as interpreted by United States officials, required the Native American signatories to move to one of three reservations.
Doing so would force the Nisqually people to cede their prime farming and living space. One of the leaders of the Nisqually, Chief Leschi. Outraged, refused to give up ownership of this land and instead fought for his peoples' right to their territory, sparking the beginning of the Puget Sound War; the war ended in the controversial execution of Leschi. In 1896, Olympia became the home of the Olympia Brewing Company, which brewed Olympia Beer until 2003; the 1949 Olympia earthquake damaged many historic buildings beyond repair, they were demolished. Parts of the city suffered damage from earthquakes in 1965 and 2001. Olympia is located at 47°2′33″N 122°53′35″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 19.68 square miles, of which 17.82 sq mi are land and 1.86 sq mi are water. The city of Olympia is located at the southern end of Puget Sound on Budd Inlet; the Deschutes River estuary was dammed in 1951 to create Capitol Lake. Much of the lower area of downtown Olympia sits on reclaimed land.
The cities of Lacey and Tumwater border Olympia. The region surrounding Olympia has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, whereas the local microclimate has dry summers and cool July and August overnight lows, it is part of USDA Hardiness zone 8a, with isolated pockets around Puget Sound falling under zone 8b. Most of western Washington's weather is brought in by weather systems that form near the Aleutian Islands in Alaska, it contains cold moist air, which brings western Washington cold rain and fog. November through January are Olympia's rainiest months. City streets and rivers can flood during the months of November through February; the normal monthly mean temperature ranges from 38.4 °F in December to 64.1 °F in August. Seasonal snowfall for 1981–2010 averaged 10.8 inches but has ranged from trace amounts in 1991–92 to 81.5 in in 1968–69. Olympia averages 50 inches of precipitation annually and has a year-round average of 75% cloud cover. Annual precipitation has ranged from 29.92 in in 1952 to 66.71 in in 1950.
With a period of record dating back to 1948, extreme temperatures have ranged from −8 °F on January 1, 1979, up to 104 °F, most on July 29, 2009. On average, there are 6.3 days annually with temperatures reaching 90 °F, 1.8 days where the temperature stays at or below freezing all day, 78 nights where the low reaches the freezing mark. The average window for freezing temperatures is October 8 through May 3, allowing a growing season of 157 days, nearly 100 days shorter than in nearby Seattle. Olympia has a wide array of public parks and nature conservation areas; the Woodard Bay Natural Resources Conservation Area is a 600-acre parcel that preserves more than 5 miles of Puget Sound waterfront along the Woodard and Chapman Bays of the Henderson Inlet. Percival Landing Park includes 0.9 miles of boardwalk along Budd Inlet, as well as a playground, picnic areas, a large open space. Percival Landing closed in 2010 for an extensive remodel after saltwater degradation a
Canada–United States border
The Canada–United States border known as the International Boundary, is the longest international border in the world between two countries. It is shared between Canada and the United States, the second- and fourth/third largest countries by area, respectively; the terrestrial boundary is 8,891 kilometres long, of which 2,475 kilometres is Canada's border with Alaska. Eight Canadian provinces and territories, thirteen U. S. states are located along the border. The Treaty of Paris of 1783 ended the American Revolutionary War between Great Britain and the United States. In the second article of the Treaty the parties agreed on all of the boundaries of the United States, including but not limited to the boundary with British North America to the north; the agreed boundary included the line from the northwest angle of Nova Scotia to the northwesternmost head of Connecticut River, proceeded down along the middle of the river to the 45th parallel of north latitude. That parallel had been established in the 1760s as the boundary between the provinces of Quebec and New York.
It was surveyed and marked by John Collins and Thomas Valentine from 1771 to 1773. The Saint Lawrence River and the Great Lakes became the boundary further west. Northwest of Lake Superior, the boundary followed rivers to the Lake of the Woods. From the Lake of the Woods, the boundary was agreed to go straight west until it met the Mississippi River. In fact that line never meets the river; the Jay Treaty of 1794 created the International Boundary Commission, charged with surveying and mapping the boundary. It provided for removal of British military and administration from Detroit and other frontier outposts on the U. S. side. It was superseded by the Treaty of Ghent concluding the War of 1812, which included pre-war boundaries; the Rush–Bagot Treaty of 1817 provided a plan for demilitarizing the two combatant sides in the War of 1812 and laid out preliminary principles for drawing a border between British North America and the United States. Westward expansion of both British North America and the United States saw the boundary extended west along the 49th parallel from the Northwest Angle at Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains under the Treaty of 1818.
That treaty extinguished British claims south of that latitude to the Red River Valley, part of Rupert's Land. The treaty extinguished U. S. claims to land north of that line in the watershed of the Missouri River, part of the Louisiana Purchase. Along the 49th parallel, the border vista is theoretically straight but in practice follows the 19th-century surveyed border markers and varies by several hundred feet in spots. Disputes over the interpretation of the border treaties and mistakes in surveying required additional negotiations resulting in the Webster–Ashburton Treaty of 1842; the treaty resolved the dispute known as the Aroostook War over the boundary between Maine on the one hand, New Brunswick and the Province of Canada on the other. The treaty redefined the border between New Hampshire and New York on the one hand, the Province of Canada on the other, resolving the Indian Stream dispute and the Fort Blunder dilemma at the outlet to Lake Champlain; the part of the 45th parallel that separates Quebec from the U.
S. states of Vermont and New York had first been surveyed from 1771 to 1773 after it had been declared the boundary between New York and Quebec, it was surveyed again after the War of 1812. The U. S. federal government began to construct fortifications just south of the border at Rouses Point, New York, on Lake Champlain. After a significant portion of the construction was completed, measurements revealed that at that point, the actual 45th parallel was three-quarters of a mile south of the surveyed line; this created a dilemma for the United States, not resolved until a provision of the treaty left the border on the meandering line as surveyed. The border along the Boundary Waters in present-day Ontario and Minnesota between Lake Superior and the Northwest Angle was redefined. An 1844 boundary dispute during U. S. President James K. Polk's administration led to a call for the northern boundary of the U. S. west of the Rockies to be latitude 54° 40' north, but the United Kingdom wanted a border that followed the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean.
The dispute was resolved in the Oregon Treaty of 1846, which established the 49th parallel as the boundary through the Rockies. The Northwest Boundary Survey laid out the land boundary, but the water boundary was not settled for some time. After the Pig War in 1859, arbitration in 1872 established the border between the Gulf Islands and the San Juan Islands; the International Boundary Survey, called the Northern Boundary Survey in the United States, began in 1872. Its mandate was to estab
Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States. The Columbia River delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary with Washington, while the Snake River delineates much of its eastern boundary with Idaho; the parallel 42 ° north delineates the southern boundary with Nevada. Oregon is one of only four states of the continental United States to have a coastline on the Pacific Ocean. Oregon was inhabited by many indigenous tribes before Western traders and settlers arrived. An autonomous government was formed in the Oregon Country in 1843 before the Oregon Territory was created in 1848. Oregon became the 33rd state on February 14, 1859. Today, at 98,000 square miles, Oregon is the ninth largest and, with a population of 4 million, 27th most populous U. S. state. The capital, Salem, is the second most populous city in Oregon, with 169,798 residents. Portland, with 647,805, ranks as the 26th among U. S. cities. The Portland metropolitan area, which includes the city of Vancouver, Washington, to the north, ranks the 25th largest metro area in the nation, with a population of 2,453,168.
Oregon is one of the most geographically diverse states in the U. S. marked by volcanoes, abundant bodies of water, dense evergreen and mixed forests, as well as high deserts and semi-arid shrublands. At 11,249 feet, Mount Hood, a stratovolcano, is the state's highest point. Oregon's only national park, Crater Lake National Park, comprises the caldera surrounding Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States; the state is home to the single largest organism in the world, Armillaria ostoyae, a fungus that runs beneath 2,200 acres of the Malheur National Forest. Because of its diverse landscapes and waterways, Oregon's economy is powered by various forms of agriculture and hydroelectric power. Oregon is the top timber producer of the contiguous United States, the timber industry dominated the state's economy in the 20th century. Technology is another one of Oregon's major economic forces, beginning in the 1970s with the establishment of the Silicon Forest and the expansion of Tektronix and Intel.
Sportswear company Nike, Inc. headquartered in Beaverton, is the state's largest public corporation with an annual revenue of $30.6 billion. The earliest evidence of the name Oregon has Spanish origins; the term "orejón" comes from the historical chronicle Relación de la Alta y Baja California written by the new Spaniard Rodrigo Montezuma and made reference to the Columbia River when the Spanish explorers penetrated into the actual North American territory that became part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. This chronicle is the first topographical and linguistic source with respect to the place name Oregon. There are two other sources with Spanish origins, such as the name Oregano, which grows in the southern part of the region, it is most probable that the American territory was named by the Spaniards, as there are some populations in Spain such as "Arroyo del Oregón" considering that the individualization in Spanish language "El Orejón" with the mutation of the letter "g" instead of "j". Another early use of the name, spelled Ouragon, was in a 1765 petition by Major Robert Rogers to the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The term referred to the then-mythical River of the West. By 1778, the spelling had shifted to Oregon. In his 1765 petition, Rogers wrote: The rout...is from the Great Lakes towards the Head of the Mississippi, from thence to the River called by the Indians Ouragon... One theory is that the name comes from the French word ouragan, applied to the River of the West based on Native American tales of powerful Chinook winds on the lower Columbia River, or from firsthand French experience with the Chinook winds of the Great Plains. At the time, the River of the West was thought to rise in western Minnesota and flow west through the Great Plains. Joaquin Miller explained in Sunset magazine, in 1904, how Oregon's name was derived: The name, Oregon, is rounded down phonetically, from Ouve água—Oragua, Or-a-gon, Oregon—given by the same Portuguese navigator that named the Farallones after his first officer, it in a large way, means cascades:'Hear the waters.' You should steam up the Columbia and hear and feel the waters falling out of the clouds of Mount Hood to understand the full meaning of the name Ouve a água, Oregon.
Another account, endorsed as the "most plausible explanation" in the book Oregon Geographic Names, was advanced by George R. Stewart in a 1944 article in American Speech. According to Stewart, the name came from an engraver's error in a French map published in the early 18th century, on which the Ouisiconsink River was spelled "Ouaricon-sint", broken on two lines with the -sint below, so there appeared to be a river flowing to the west named "Ouaricon". According to the Oregon Tourism Commission, present-day Oregonians pronounce the state's name as "or-uh-gun, never or-ee-gone". After being drafted by the Detroit Lions in 2002, former Oregon Ducks quarterback Joey Harrington distributed "Orygun" stickers to members of the media as a reminder of how to pronounce the name of his home state; the stickers are sold by the University of Oregon Bookstore. Oregon is 295 miles north to south at longest distance, 395 miles east to west. With an area of 98,381 square miles, Oregon is larger than the United Kingdom.
It is the ninth largest state in the United States. Oregon's highest point is the summit of Mount Hood, at 11,249 feet, its lowest point is the sea level of the Pacific Ocean along the Oregon Coas
U.S. Route 70
U. S. Route 70 is an east–west United States highway that runs for 2,385 miles from eastern North Carolina to east-central Arizona; as can be derived from its number, it is a major east–west highway of the Southern and Southwestern United States. It ran from coast to coast, with the current Eastern terminus near the Atlantic Ocean in North Carolina, the former Western terminus near the Pacific Ocean in California. Before the completion of the Interstate system, U. S. Highway 70 was sometimes referred to as the "Broadway of America", due to its status as one of the main east–west thoroughfares in the nation, it was promoted as the "Treasure Trail" by the U. S. Highway 70 Association as of 1951. U. S. 70 begins in Globe at a junction with U. S. Route 60, concurrent with State Route 77. SR 77 splits off east of town. U. S. 70 enters the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation and runs southeast for 17 miles to Peridot, where it crosses Indian Route 9. It has no other highway junctions until Safford, where it begins a ten-mile overlap with U.
S. 191. U. S. 70 runs an additional 37 mi. before crossing into New Mexico east of Franklin. After entering the state of New Mexico, U. S. 70 heads southeast. Five miles after crossing the state line, it serves as the southern terminus for New Mexico State Road 92. U. S. 70 does not have another highway junction for 21 mi, where it meets State Roads 464 and 90 three miles north of Lordsburg. At Lordsburg, U. S. 70 joins with Interstate 10 eastbound, splitting off in Las Cruces, becoming Picacho Avenue in Las Cruces. When Picacho Avenue meets Main Street, US 70 follows. U. S. 70 crosses Interstate 25, has been upgraded at this point to a controlled access highway until entering the foothills of the Organ Mountains. As a divided highway, U. S. 70 crosses the Organ Mountains via San Augustin Pass, descends to the valley floor of the Tularosa Basin, next crosses the White Sands Missile Range. Overhead missile tests can close the highway for a few hours; the road passes the entrance to the White Sands National Monument, shortly after that passes the southern end of Holloman Air Force Base.
It turns northbound, picks up a concurrency with U. S. 54 upon entering Alamogordo. On the north end of Alamogordo, US54/US70 intersects the beginning of U. S. Route 82 near La Luz; the concurrency with US 54 lasts until Tularosa, the highway remains divided until US 70 and US 54 diverge. After splitting off to the northeast, U. S. 70 enters the Lincoln National Forest. The road runs across the Mescalero Apache Indian Reservation and near the resort town of Ruidoso. In Hondo, it begins another concurrency, this time with U. S. 380. U. S. 70 bypasses Roswell to the northwest, together with U. S. 285. U. S. 70 heads off to the northeast, running through Portales and Clovis before entering Texas at Texico. From mile 170.6 to mile 197.25 on US 70 the speed limit is posted at 75 mph across White Sands Missile Range. Just longer than a standard marathon. US 70 is the only non-interstate in New Mexico to receive a speed limit of 75 miles per hour. U. S. 70 enters Texas joins with U. S. 60 and U. S. 84. U. S. 60 splits off to the northeast in Farwell, just over the state line.
U. S. 70/84 angle southeast to Muleshoe, where the two routes split. U. S. 70 heads due east, meeting U. S. 385 at Springlake, having an interchange with Interstate 27 in Plainview. U. S. 70 arcs toward the south to begin a concurrency with US 62 in Floydada. The two routes head east to Paducah, where US 62 splits off to the north to join with U. S. 83. U. S. 70 proceeds to Vernon, where it overlaps U. S. 287 and U. S. 183. Near Oklaunion, U. S. 70/183 split off to the north to cross the Red River into Oklahoma. The route through Texas was cosigned with Texas State Highway 28 before 1939. SH 28 was designated in 1919 as a route from Muleshoe to Olney with a spur, SH 28A, from SH 28 at Crowell east to the Oklahoma border. In 1922, the route split in Benjamin, going east to Olney. In 1926, The portion from Crowell to Sagerton became SH 51, while the portion from Benjamin to Olney became SH 24. SH 28 was instead rerouted over SH 28A to end at the Oklahoma border. By 1939, the route was cancelled due to US 70.
U. S. 183 splits away from U. S. 70 three miles north of the state line, in the town of Davidson. It has an interchange with I-44, serving as the southern terminus of the H. E. Bailey Turnpike, one mile west of the town of Randlett. U. S. 70 passes south of Waurika. U. S. 70 becomes a four-lane divided highway near Wilson and runs through Lone Grove before entering the city of Ardmore, where it heads south on Interstate 35, bypassing the central business district. US-70 serves as the southern terminus of U. S. 177 in Madill. U. S.70 heads to Durant, where it has an interchange with the U. S. 69/75 freeway. East of Soper, U. S.70 joins with U. S.271. The two routes approach Hugo, where they serve as the southern terminus of the Indian Nation Turnpike. U. S. 271 splits off at this interchange, continuing the freeway southbound from the turnpike. U. S. 70 heads through downtown Hugo. It bypasses Idabel to the north, it meets U. S. 259 and State Highway 3 northeast of town and overlaps them into Broken Bow, forming a wrong-way concurrency with SH-3.
U. S. 70 splits off to the east in Broken Bow before leaving the state. U. S. 70 enters Arkansas eight miles west of De Queen, cros
Interstate 5 is the main Interstate Highway on the West Coast of the United States, running parallel to the Pacific coast of the contiguous U. S. from Mexico to Canada. It travels through the states of California and Washington, serving several large cities on the U. S. West Coast, including San Diego, Los Angeles, Sacramento and Seattle, it is the only continuous Interstate highway to touch both the Mexican border and the Canadian border. Upon crossing the Mexican border at its southern terminus, Interstate 5 continues to Tijuana, Baja California as Mexico Federal Highway 1. Upon crossing the Canadian border at its northern terminus, it continues to Vancouver as British Columbia Highway 99. Interstate 5 was created in 1956 as part of the Interstate Highway System, but was predated by several auto trails and highways built in the early 20th century; the Pacific Highway auto trail was built in the 1910s and 1920s by the states of California and Washington, was incorporated into U. S. Route 99 in 1926.
Interstate 5 follows the route of US 99, with the exception of a portion in the Central Valley of California. The freeway was built in segments between 1956 and 1979, including expressway sections of US 99 that were built earlier to bypass various towns along the route; the southernmost point of I-5 is at the Mexican border at the San Ysidro border crossing, one of the busiest in the world. Beginning at the border in San Ysidro, part of the city of San Diego, as the John J. Montgomery Freeway, I-5 goes through the suburbs of Chula Vista and National City before reaching downtown San Diego, it parallels the Pacific coastline, going through the northern suburbs of San Diego, bisecting the University of California, San Diego campus, passing the I-805 merge, before passing through the 28 miles of Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton in northern San Diego County. Here I-5 is known as the San Diego Freeway. At Dana Point, I-5 turns inland and heads due north through Mission Viejo to the El Toro Y interchange in southeastern Irvine.
I-5 becomes the Santa Ana Freeway as it runs southeast to northwest, passing through major cities and suburbs in Orange and Southern Los Angeles counties. Southern Californians refer as the Santa Ana Freeway in the Los Angeles area. From this point, the San Diego Freeway continues northward as I-405; when the freeway reaches the East Los Angeles Interchange one mile east of downtown Los Angeles, I-5 becomes the Golden State Freeway. The route continues through the San Fernando Valley and crosses the Newhall Pass through the Santa Susana Mountains into the Santa Clarita Valley; the interchange with State Route 14 is unusual in that truck traffic is separated into its own lanes for both the mainline of the freeway and the transition ramps to and from SR 14. For about a four-mile stretch between Santa Clarita Valley and the Pyramid Lake, the northbound and southbound lanes separate and cross sides, with the southbound lanes running to the east of the northbound ones. At that point, the Golden State Freeway rises to the north through the Grapevine to reach the second-highest point of its entire length, the Tejon Pass.
Through the Tehachapi Mountains. Path 26 power lines follow the freeway along this stretch; the freeway descends for 12 miles at Tejon Pass to around 1,600 feet at Grapevine near the southernmost point of the San Joaquin Valley 30 miles south of Bakersfield and 4 mi south from where SR 99 splits away from it in Wheeler Ridge. From SR 99 to south of Tracy, I-5 skirts along the far more remote western edge of the great Central Valley, thus here is removed from population centers such as Bakersfield and Fresno; this part of I-5 is known as the West Side Freeway, is a major connector between the San Francisco Bay Area and Southern California. I-580 splits from I-5 at a point south of Tracy as the West Side Freeway Scenic Byway, the last stretch of the West Side Freeway—providing a loop-route connection to the San Francisco Bay Area. East of Tracy, I-5 intersects with I-205, another freeway that links I-5 to the Bay Area and passes through Tracy. After passing Tracy, I-5 heads north through Stockton and Sacramento before turning west to Woodland.
At Woodland, the Interstate heads northwest again towards Dunnigan, where it converges with I-505. From Dunnigan, I-5 skirts north along the western edge of the Sacramento Valley to Red Bluff. I-5 enters the Shasta Cascade region, passing through Redding and Shasta Lake before climbing up to near the foot of Mount Shasta; the interstate travels to Weed and Yreka before reaching the Oregon border. About three miles north of the California border, the highway crosses 4,310 feet Siskiyou Summit, the highest point on I-5, drops down into the Rogue Valley through Oregon's southern mountains and towns such as Ashland and Grants Pass. Turning north across three passes to the Umpqua Valley and through Roseburg, the mountains tend to turn into hills, as it reaches Cottage Grove, the road enters the Willamette River Valley. At Eugene the highway intersects a short spur route into Downtown Eugene; some city highways intersect on I-5 in the Eugene Metro. The Interstate heads due north, skirting Albany and Corvallis, passing through Salem, crossing through Woodburn.
There were plans to build a spur, called I-305, into Salem. I-5 covers 308 miles in Oregon. Just north of Salem, between mile markers 259 and 260 just short of mile marker 26
Davis, known prior to 1907 as Davisville, is a city in the U. S. state of California and the most populous city in Yolo County. It had a population of 65,622 in 2010, not including the on-campus population of the University of California, over 9,400 in 2016; as of 2016, there were 35,186 students enrolled at the university. Davis grew into a Southern Pacific Railroad depot built in 1868, it was known as "Davisville", named after Jerome C. Davis, a prominent local farmer. However, the post office at Davisville shortened the town name to "Davis" in 1907; the name stuck, the city of Davis was incorporated on March 28, 1917. From its inception as a farming community, Davis has been known for its contributions to agricultural policy along with veterinary care and animal husbandry. Following the passage of the University Farm Bill in 1905 by the California State Legislature, Governor George Pardee selected Davis out of 50 other sites as the future home to the University of California's University Farm opening to students in 1908.
The farm renamed the Northern Branch of the College of Agriculture in 1922, was upgraded to become the seventh UC general campus, the University of California, Davis, in 1959. Davis is located in Yolo County, California, 11 mi west of Sacramento, 70 mi northeast of San Francisco, 385 mi north of Los Angeles, at the intersection of Interstate 80 and State Route 113. Neighboring towns include Dixon, Winters and West Sacramento. Davis lies in the Sacramento Valley, the northern portion of the Central Valley, in Northern California, at an elevation of about 52 feet above sea level. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 10.5 square miles. 10.4 square miles of it is land and 0.04 square miles of it is water. The topography is flat; the Davis climate resembles that of nearby Sacramento and is typical of California's Central Valley Mediterranean climate region: warm and dry in the spring and autumn, cool and wet in the winter. It is classified as a Köppen Csa climate.
Summer days are hot, ranging from 85 °F to 105 °F, but the nights turn pleasantly cool always dropping below 70 °F. The Delta Breeze, a flow of cool marine air originating from the Pacific Ocean via San Francisco Bay and the Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta provides relief in the evening. Winter temperatures reach between 45 °F and 65 °F in the afternoon. Average temperatures range from 46 °F in January to 75 °F in July and August. Thick ground fog called tule fog settles into Davis during late winter; this fog can be dense with visibility nearly zero. As in other areas of northern California, the tule fog is a leading cause of road accidents in the winter season. Mean rainfall per annum is about 20 inches; the bulk of rain occurs between about mid-November to mid-March, with no precipitation falling from mid-June to mid-September. Record temperatures range from a high of 116 °F on July 17, 1925, to a low of 12 °F on December 11, 1932. Davis is internally divided by two freeways, a north–south railroad, an east-west mainline and several major streets.
The city is unofficially divided into six main districts made up of smaller neighborhoods: Central Davis, north of Fifth Street and Russell Boulevard, south of Covell Blvd. East of SR 113, west of the railroad tracks running along G Street. Within these boundaries is the denoted neighborhood of Old North Davis, sometimes considered part of Downtown. Downtown Davis the numbered-and-lettered grid north of I-80, south of Fifth Street, east of A Street, west of the railroad tracks, including the Aggie Village and Olive Drive areas. East Davis, north of I-80, south of east of the railroad tracks, it includes the older,'inner' East Davis of lettered streets and neighborhoods such as Davis Manor and Rancho Yolo, as well as more distinctly identified subdivisions such as Mace Ranch, Lake Alhambra Estates, Wildhorse. North Davis, north of Covell Blvd. North Davis includes Covell Park, Senda Nueva and North Davis Farms. South Davis, south of I-80, includes Willowbank. El Macero, although outside the city limits, is sometimes considered part of South Davis.
West Davis, north of I-80 and west of SR 113. West Davis includes Westwood, Aspen and the eco-friendly Village Homes development, known for its solar-powered houses. Davis in 1984 claimed to be America's First Solar City Babcock Ranch 34 years makes the false claim; the University of California, Davis is located south of Russell Boulevard and west of A Street and south of 1st Street. The land occupied by the university is not incorporated within the boundaries of the city of Davis and lies within both Yolo and Solano Counties. Local energy planning began in Davis after the energy crisis of 1973. A new building code promoted energy efficiency. Energy use in buildings decreased and in 1981 Davis citizens won a $100,000 prize from utility PG&E, for cutting e
Sacramento is the capital city of the U. S. state of California and the seat of Sacramento County. Located at the confluence of the Sacramento River and the American River in Northern California's Sacramento Valley, Sacramento's estimated 2018 population of 501,334 makes it the sixth-largest city in California and the ninth largest capital in the United States. Sacramento is the seat of the California Assembly, the Governor of California, Supreme Court of California, making it the state's political center and a hub for lobbying and think tanks. Sacramento is the cultural and economic core of the Sacramento metropolitan area, which had 2010 population of 2,414,783, making it the fifth largest in California. Sacramento is the fastest-growing major city in California, owing to its status as a notable financial center on the West Coast and as a major educational hub, home of Sacramento State University and University of California, Davis. Sacramento is a major center for the California healthcare industry, as the seat of Sutter Health, the world-renowned UC Davis Medical Center, the UC Davis School of Medicine, notable tourist destination in California, as the site of The California Museum, the Crocker Art Museum, California Hall of Fame, the California State Capitol Museum, the Old Sacramento State Historic Park.
Sacramento is known for its evolving contemporary culture, dubbed the most "hipster city" in California. In 2002, the Harvard University Civil Rights Project conducted for Time magazine named Sacramento "America's Most Diverse City". Before the arrival of the Spanish, the area was inhabited by the Nisenan people indigenous peoples of California. Spanish cavalryman Gabriel Moraga surveyed and named the Rio del Santísimo Sacramento in 1808, after the Blessed Sacrament, referring to the Eucharist in the Catholic Church. In 1839, Juan Bautista Alvarado, Mexican governor of Alta California granted the responsibility of colonizing the Sacramento Valley to Swiss-born, Mexican citizen John Augustus Sutter, who subsequently established Sutter's Fort and the settlement at the Rancho Nueva Helvetia. Following the American Conquest of California and the 1848 Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo, the waterfront developed by Sutter began to be developed and incorporated in 1850 as the City of Sacramento; as a result of the California Gold Rush, Sacramento became a major commercial center and distribution point for Northern California, serving as the terminus for the Pony Express and the First Transcontinental Railroad.
Nisenan and Plains Miwok Native Americans had lived in the area for thousands of years. Unlike the settlers who would make Sacramento their home, these Native Americans left little evidence of their existence. Traditionally, their diet was dominated by acorns taken from the plentiful oak trees in the region, by fruits, bulbs and roots gathered throughout the year. In 1808, the Spanish explorer Gabriel Moraga discovered and named the Sacramento Valley and the Sacramento River. A Spanish writer with the Moraga expedition wrote: "Canopies of oaks and cottonwoods, many festooned with grapevines, overhung both sides of the blue current. Birds chattered in the trees and big fish darted through the pellucid depths; the air was like champagne, drank deep of it, drank in the beauty around them. "¡Es como el sagrado sacramento!" The valley and the river were christened after the "Most Holy Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ", referring to the Catholic sacrament of the Eucharist. John Sutter Sr. first arrived in the area on August 13, 1839, at the divergence of the American and Sacramento Rivers with a Mexican land grant of 50,000 acres.
The next year, he and his party established Sutter's Fort, a massive adobe structure with walls eighteen feet high and three feet thick. Representing Mexico, Sutter Sr. called his colony New Helvetia, a Swiss inspired name, was the political authority and dispenser of justice in the new settlement. Soon, the colony began to grow as more pioneers headed west. Within just a few short years, Sutter Sr. had become a grand success, owning a ten-acre orchard and a herd of thirteen thousand cattle. Fort Sutter became a regular stop for the increasing number of immigrants coming through the valley. In 1847 Sutter Sr. received 2,000 fruit trees, which started the agriculture industry in the Sacramento Valley. That same year, Sutter Sr. hired James Marshall to build a sawmill so that he could continue to expand his empire, unbeknownst to many, Sutter Sr.'s "empire" had been built on some thin margins of credit. In 1848, when gold was discovered by James W. Marshall at Sutter's Mill in Coloma, a large number of gold-seekers came to the area, increasing the population.
In August 1848 Sutter Sr.'s son, John Sutter Jr. arrived in the area to assist his father in relieving his indebtedness. Now compounding the problem of his father's indebtedness, was the additional strain placed on the Sutters by the ongoing arrival of thousands of new gold miners and prospectors in the area, many quite content to squat on unwatched portions of the vast Sutter lands, or to abscond with various unattended Sutter properties or belongings if they could. In Sutter's case, rather than being a'boon' for Sutter, his employee's discovery of gold in the area turned out to be more of a personal'bane' for him. By December 1848, John Sutter Jr. in association with Sam Brannan, began laying out the City of Sacramento, 2 miles south of his father's settlement of New Helvetia. This venture was undertaken against the wishes of Sutter Sr. however the father, being in debt, was in no position to stop the venture. For