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U.S. Steel

United States Steel Corporation, more known as U. S. Steel, is an American integrated steel producer headquartered in Pittsburgh, with production operations in the United States and Central Europe; as of 2016, the company was the world's 24th-largest steel producer and second-largest domestic producer, trailing only Nucor Corporation. Though renamed USX Corporation in 1986, the company returned to its present name in 2001 after spinning off its energy business, including Marathon Oil, other assets from its core steel concern; the company experienced significant downsizing during the 1980s. J. P. Morgan formed U. S. Steel on March 2, 1901 by financing the merger of Andrew Carnegie's Carnegie Steel Company with Elbert H. Gary's Federal Steel Company and William Henry "Judge" Moore's National Steel Company for $492 million. At one time, U. S. Steel was largest corporation in the world, it was capitalized at $1.4 billion. The company established its headquarters in the Empire Building at 71 Broadway in New York City.

Charles M. Schwab, the Carnegie Steel executive who suggested the merger to Morgan emerged as the new corporation's first President. In 1907 US Steel bought its largest competitor, the Tennessee Coal and Railroad Company, headquartered in Birmingham, Alabama. Tennessee Coal was replaced in the Dow Jones Industrial Average by the General Electric Company; the federal government attempted to use federal antitrust laws to break up U. S. Steel in 1911, but that effort failed. In 1902, its first full year of operation, U. S. Steel made 67 percent of all the steel produced in the United States. About 100 years as of 2001 it produced only 8 percent more than it did in 1902 and its shipments accounted for only about 8 percent of domestic consumption. According to author Douglas Blackmon in Slavery by Another Name, the growth of U. S. Steel and its subsidiaries in the South was dependent on the labor of cheaply paid black workers and exploited convicts; the company could obtain black labor at a fraction of the cost of white labor by taking advantage of the Black Codes and discriminatory laws passed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by Southern states after the Reconstruction Era.

In addition, U. S. Steel had agreements with more than 20 counties in Alabama to obtain the labor of its prisoners paying locals nine dollars a month for workers who would be forced into their mines through a system of convict leasing; this practice continued until at least the late 1920s. While some individuals were guilty of a crime they did not receive payment or recognition for their work; this practice of convict leasing was ubiquitous as eight Southern states had similar practices and many companies, as well as farmers, took advantage of this. The Corporation, as it was known on Wall Street, was distinguished by its size, rather than for its efficiency or creativeness during its heyday. In 1901, it controlled two-thirds of steel production and, through its Pittsburgh Steamship Company, developed the largest commercial fleet on the Great Lakes; because of heavy debts taken on at the company's formation—Carnegie insisted on being paid in gold bonds for his stake—and fears of antitrust litigation, U.

S. Steel moved cautiously. Competitors innovated faster Bethlehem Steel, run by Charles Schwab, U. S. Steel's former president. U. S. Steel's share of the expanding market slipped to 50 percent by 1911. James A. Farrell was named president in 1911 and served until 1932. U. S. Steel ranked 16th among United States corporations in the value of World War II production contracts. Production peaked at more than 35 million tons in 1953, its employment was greatest in 1943. The federal government intervened to try to control U. S. Steel. President Harry S. Truman attempted to take over its steel mills in 1952 to resolve a crisis with its union, the United Steelworkers of America; the Supreme Court blocked the takeover by ruling that the president did not have the Constitutional authority to seize the mills. President John F. Kennedy was more successful in 1962 when he pressured the steel industry into reversing price increases that Kennedy considered dangerously inflationary. In the postwar years, the steel industry and heavy manufacturing went through restructuring that caused a decline in US Steel's need for labor and portfolio.

Many jobs moved offshore. By 2000, the company employed 52,500 people. In the early days of the Reagan Administration, steel firms won substantial tax breaks in order to compete with imported goods, but instead of modernizing their mills, steel companies shifted capital out of steel and into more profitable areas. In March 1982, U. S. Steel took its concessions and paid $1.4 billion in cash and $4.7 billion in loans for Marathon Oil, saving $500 million in taxes through the merger. The architect of tax concessions to steel firms, Senator Arlen Specter, complained that "we go out on a limb in Congress and we feel they should be putting it in steel." The events are the subject of a song by folk singer Anne Feeney. In 1984 the federal government prevented U. S. Steel from acquiring National Steel, political pressure from the United States Congress, as well as the United Steelworkers, forced the company to abandon plans to import British Steel Corporation slabs. U. S. Steel

William Wells (1908–1990)

William Thomas Wells QC was an English barrister and Labour Party politician. Wells was from an upper-class background and went to the Public School Lancing College near Brighton, to Balliol College, Oxford, he was called to the Bar by the Middle Temple in 1932. During World War II, Wells served in the army on the General Staff to the War Office, being promoted to the rank of Major, he was elected as the Member of Parliament for Walsall in the 1945 general election. Although never taking Ministerial office, Wells's experience of the law was used on departmental committees, he was a member of the Lord Chancellor's Committee on the Practice and Procedure of the Supreme Court which sat from 1947 to 1953, of the Magistrates' Courts Rule Committee from 1954, of the Wolfenden Committee on Prostitution and Homosexual Offences from 1954 to 1957. Wells remained an active Barrister throughout his Parliamentary career and was made a Queen's Counsel in 1955, he was Deputy Chairman of Hertfordshire Quarter Sessions from 1961 to 1971, in 1963 he became a Bencher of the Middle Temple.

From 1965 to 1971 he was Recorder of King's Lynn, giving up the job when he became a Recorder of the Crown Court from 1972. Moderate in politics, Wells supported British membership of the European Economic Community in 1971 against a three line whip, he retired at the end of the Parliament in 1974. From 1976 he was made a Chairman of Industrial Tribunals, he joined the SDP in 1981. M. Stenton and S. Lees, "Who's Who of British MPs", Vol. IV Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by William Wells

Émile Basly

Émile Basly is one of the great figures of trade unionism in mining in the mineral field of Nord-Pas-de-Calais, along with Arthur Lamendin. He is known for his participation in the strike of 1884, when he became known as "the untameable miner" and "the tsar of Lens", he was the inspiration for the character Etienne Lantier in Émile Zola's novel Germinal. Émile Joseph Basly was born on 29 March 1854 in Nord. Basly entered mining as a galibot at the age of twelve, he was one of the leaders of the 1880 strike at the Compagnie des mines d'Anzin, which led to the creation in 1883 of the Union of Miners, of which Basly became general secretary. After the creation of the Trade union of the minors of Anzin in 1882, Basly became its secretary, subsequently its president in 1891, he was delegate for the miners of Nord to the 1883 miners' congress in Saint-Étienne, where he vigorously supported their demands. Another strike began at Anzin in February 1884 after 140 workers union members, were dismissed; the company called in troops to defend the mines, refused to make any concessions.

The strike lasted 56 days, was headline news in France, but failed completely. During this strike Basly emerged as a leader of the miners, he became secretary general of president of the Pas-de-Calais miners' union. During the 1884 Anzin strike he came to Paris to defend the miners' grievances and demands before the Parliamentary Committee established to examine the strike, he spoke in several public meetings, became well known in the press for his strong socialist views. Basly was elected deputy for Pas-de-Calais on 4 October 1885. Soon after the 1885 session opened Antide Boyer, Émile Basly, Zéphyrin Camélinat and others formed the "workers' group", a small socialist group independent of the extreme left; the members of the workers' group summarized their demands in a manifesto on 12 March 1886: Our intervention will deal with questions clarified by conscientious studies for which the solution is unanimously recognized by the interested parties as urgent. We will demand: international labor legislation.

Basly was reelected as Deputy for Pas-de-Calais on 22 February 1891, 20 August 1893, 8 May 1898, 27 April 1902, 6 May 1906, 24 April 1910, 26 April 1914, 16 November 1919 and 11 May 1924, holding office until his death on 11 February 1928. Basly became mayor of Lens in 1900, devoted the last ten years of his life to rebuilding the city, destroyed during First World War, he continued to serve as mayor until his death there in 1928. Émile Basly died on 11 February 1928 in Nord. Rue Émile Basly is a street in Avion, named in his honor