United States dollar
The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States and its territories per the United States Constitution since 1792. In practice, the dollar is divided into 100 smaller cent units, but is divided into 1000 mills for accounting; the circulating paper money consists of Federal Reserve Notes that are denominated in United States dollars. Since the suspension in 1971 of convertibility of paper U. S. currency into any precious metal, the U. S. dollar is, de facto, fiat money. As it is the most used in international transactions, the U. S. dollar is the world's primary reserve currency. Several countries use it as their official currency, in many others it is the de facto currency. Besides the United States, it is used as the sole currency in two British Overseas Territories in the Caribbean: the British Virgin Islands and Turks and Caicos Islands. A few countries use the Federal Reserve Notes for paper money, while still minting their own coins, or accept U. S. dollar coins. As of June 27, 2018, there are $1.67 trillion in circulation, of which $1.62 trillion is in Federal Reserve notes.
Article I, Section 8 of the U. S. Constitution provides that the Congress has the power "To coin money". Laws implementing this power are codified at 31 U. S. C. § 5112. Section 5112 prescribes the forms; these coins are both designated in Section 5112 as "legal tender" in payment of debts. The Sacagawea dollar is one example of the copper alloy dollar; the pure silver dollar is known as the American Silver Eagle. Section 5112 provides for the minting and issuance of other coins, which have values ranging from one cent to 100 dollars; these other coins are more described in Coins of the United States dollar. The Constitution provides that "a regular Statement and Account of the Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time"; that provision of the Constitution is made specific by Section 331 of Title 31 of the United States Code. The sums of money reported in the "Statements" are being expressed in U. S. dollars. The U. S. dollar may therefore be described as the unit of account of the United States.
The word "dollar" is one of the words in the first paragraph of Section 9 of Article I of the Constitution. There, "dollars" is a reference to the Spanish milled dollar, a coin that had a monetary value of 8 Spanish units of currency, or reales. In 1792 the U. S. Congress passed a Coinage Act. Section 9 of that act authorized the production of various coins, including "DOLLARS OR UNITS—each to be of the value of a Spanish milled dollar as the same is now current, to contain three hundred and seventy-one grains and four sixteenth parts of a grain of pure, or four hundred and sixteen grains of standard silver". Section 20 of the act provided, "That the money of account of the United States shall be expressed in dollars, or units... and that all accounts in the public offices and all proceedings in the courts of the United States shall be kept and had in conformity to this regulation". In other words, this act designated the United States dollar as the unit of currency of the United States. Unlike the Spanish milled dollar, the U.
S. dollar is based upon a decimal system of values. In addition to the dollar the coinage act established monetary units of mill or one-thousandth of a dollar, cent or one-hundredth of a dollar, dime or one-tenth of a dollar, eagle or ten dollars, with prescribed weights and composition of gold, silver, or copper for each, it was proposed in the mid-1800s that one hundred dollars be known as a union, but no union coins were struck and only patterns for the $50 half union exist. However, only cents are in everyday use as divisions of the dollar. XX9 per gallon, e.g. $3.599, more written as $3.599⁄10. When issued in circulating form, denominations equal to or less than a dollar are emitted as U. S. coins while denominations equal to or greater than a dollar are emitted as Federal Reserve notes. Both one-dollar coins and notes are produced today, although the note form is more common. In the past, "paper money" was issued in denominations less than a dollar and gold coins were issued for circulation up to the value of $20.
The term eagle was used in the Coinage Act of 1792 for the denomination of ten dollars, subsequently was used in naming gold coins. Paper currency less than one dollar in denomination, known as "fractional currency", was sometimes pejoratively referred to as "shinplasters". In 1854, James Guthrie Secretary of the Treasury, proposed creating $100, $50 and $25 gold coins, which were referred to as a "Union", "Half Union", "Quarter Union", thus implying a denomination of 1 Union = $100. Today, USD notes are made from cotton fiber paper, unlike most common paper, made of wood fiber. U. S. coins are produced by the United States Mint. U. S. dollar banknotes are printed by the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and, since 1914, have been issued by t
Texaco, Inc. is an American oil subsidiary of Chevron Corporation. Its flagship product is its fuel "Texaco with Techron", it owns the Havoline motor oil brand. Texaco was an independent company until its refining operations merged into Chevron Corporation in 2001, at which time most of its station franchises were divested to the Shell Oil Company, it began as the Texas Fuel Company, founded in 1901 in Beaumont, Texas, by Joseph S. Cullinan, Thomas J. Donoghue, Walter Benona Sharp, Arnold Schlaet upon the discovery of oil at Spindletop; the Texas Fuel Company was not set up to produce crude oil. To accomplish this, Cullinan organized the Producers Oil Company in 1902 as a group of investors affiliated with The Texas Fuel Company. Men like John W. Gates invested in "certificates of interest" to an amount of ninety thousand dollars. Future restructuring would merge Producers Oil Company and The Texas Fuel Company as Texaco when the company needed additional funding which J. W. Gates provided in the amount of around $590,000.00 in return for company stock.
For many years, Texaco was the only company selling gasoline under the same brand name in all 50 US states, as well as Canada, making it the most national brand among its competitors. It was one of the Seven Sisters which dominated the global petroleum industry from the mid-1940s to the 1970s, its current logo features a white star in a red circle, leading to the long-running advertising jingles "You can trust your car to the man who wears the star" and "Star of the American Road." The company was headquartered in Harrison, New York, near White Plains, prior to the merger with Chevron. Texaco gasoline comes with Techron, an additive developed by Chevron, as of 2005, replacing the previous CleanSystem3; the Texaco brand is strong in the U. S. Latin America and West Africa, it has a presence in Europe as well. Texaco was founded in Beaumont, Texas as the Texas Fuel Company in 1902. In 1905, it established an operation in Antwerp, under the name Continental Petroleum Company, which it acquired control of in 1913.
The next year, Texaco moved to new offices in Houston on the corner of San Rusk. In 1928, Texaco became the first U. S. oil company to sell its gasoline nationwide under one single brand name in all 48 states. In 1931, Texaco purchased Indian Oil Company, based in Illinois; this expanded Texaco's refining and marketing base in the Midwest and gave Texaco the rights to Indian's Havoline motor oil, which became a Texaco product. The next year, Texaco introduced Fire Chief gasoline nationwide, a so-called "super-octane" motor fuel touted as meeting or exceeding government standards for gasoline for fire engines and other emergency vehicles, it was promoted through a radio program over NBC hosted by Ed Wynn, called the Texaco Fire Chief. In 1936, the Texas Corporation purchased the Barco oil concession in Colombia, formed a joint venture with Socony-Vacuum, now Mobil, to develop it. Over the next three years the company engaged in a challenging project to drill wells and build a pipeline to the coast across mountains and through uncharted swamps and jungles.
During this time, Texaco illegally supplied the fascist Gen. Franco faction in Spanish Civil War, despite a federal fine, with a total 3,500,000 barrels of oil. In 1936, marketing operations east of Suez were placed into a joint venture with Standard Oil Company of California – Socal under the brand name Caltex, in exchange for Socal placing its Bahrain refinery and Arabian oilfields into the venture; the next year, Texaco commissioned industrial designer Walter Dorwin Teague to develop a modern service station design. In 1938, Texaco introduced Sky Chief gasoline, a premium fuel developed from the ground up as a high-octane gasoline rather than just an ethylized regular product. In 1939, Texaco became one of the first oil companies to introduce a "Registered Rest Room" program to ensure that restroom facilities at all Texaco stations nationwide maintained a standard level of cleanliness to the motoring public. After the onset of World War II in 1939, Texaco's CEO, Torkild Rieber, an admirer of Hitler, hired pro-Nazi assistants who cabled Berlin "coded information about ships leaving New York for Britain and what their cargoes were."
This espionage enabled Hitler to destroy the ships. In 1940, Rieber was forced to resign when his connections with German Nazism, his illegal supply of oil to the fascist forces during the Spanish Civil War were made public by the Herald Tribune through information produced by British Security Coordination. Life Magazine portrayed Rieber's resignation as unfair, advocating that he only dined with Westrick, lent him a company car. During the war, Texaco ranked 93rd among United States corporations in the value of military production contracts. In 1947, Caltex expanded to include Texaco's European marketing operations; that same year, Texaco merged its British operation with Trinidad Leaseholds under the name Regent. In 1954, the company added the detergent additive Petrox to its "Sky Chief" gasoline, souped up with higher octane to meet the antiknock needs of new cars with high-compression engines; the next year, Texaco became the sole sponsor of The Huntley-Brinkley Report on NBC-TV. In 1959, the Texas Company changed its corporate name to Texaco, Inc. to better reflect the value of the Texaco brand name, which represented the biggest selling gasoline brand in the U.
S. and only marketer sel
Hilton Hotels & Resorts
Hilton Hotels & Resorts is a global brand of full-service hotels and resorts and the flagship brand of American multinational hospitality company Hilton. The original company was founded by Conrad Hilton; as of 2017, there were more than 570 Hilton Hotels & Resorts properties in 85 countries and territories across six continents. Properties are either managed by, or franchised to independent operators by Hilton. Hilton Hotels & Resorts is one of the largest hotel brands in the world; the brand is targeted at both business and leisure travelers with locations in major city centers, near airports, convention centers, popular vacation destinations around the world. Hilton Hotels & Resorts participates in Hilton's guest loyalty program. Members who book directly through Hilton-owned channels receive exclusive discounts and amenities such as free Wi-Fi, digital check-in, keyless entry, the ability to use a mobile app to choose specific rooms. Conrad Hilton founded the hotel chain in 1919, when he bought his first property, the Mobley Hotel, in Cisco, Texas.
The first hotel to bear the Hilton name was the Dallas Hilton, a high-rise that opened in Dallas, Texas in 1925. In 1954, at the Caribe Hilton Hotel's Beachcomber Bar in San Juan, Puerto Rico, Ramon "Monchito" Marrero created the Piña Colada; the Conrad Hilton Hotel in Chicago figured prominently in the 1968 Democratic Convention police riot that occurred on Michigan Avenue and across the street in Grant Park on August 28. During the riot the demonstrators took up the chant "The whole world is watching", the hotel's doors were locked for the first time in its history; the hotel suffered minor damage as a result of the violence, as a couple of street level windows gave way under the weight of dozens of protesters being pushed up against them by the police. John Lennon and Yoko Ono held their first Bed-In for Peace between March 25 and 31, 1969, at the Amsterdam Hilton, in Room 902; this room became a popular tourist destination. In the London Hilton bombing of September 1975, a bomb exploded in the lobby of the London Hilton on Park Lane killing two people and injuring 63.
With construction on the Beirut Hilton finished, the hotel was scheduled to open on April 14, 1975, but the Lebanese Civil War erupted one day before the April 13 Grand Opening date. The hotel never opened and was damaged during the war, the building was demolished in the late 1990s. However, a different hotel was established under the name "Hilton Beirut Grand Habtoor", in the nearby eastern suburb. On, the Hilton Chain bought the Metropolitan hotel directly facing the Grand Habtoor and renamed it "Hilton Metropolitan". On February 13, 1978, the Sydney Hilton Hotel was the site of one of the few terrorist incidents on Australian soil, when a bomb blast killed three people; the Hilton Nicosia in Nicosia, was the scene of the assassination of Youssef Sebai, an Egyptian newspaper editor and friend of Egyptian President Anwar El Sadat, on February 19, 1978. The assassination and the hijacking of a Cyprus Airways DC-8 at Larnaca Airport led to the Egyptian raid on Larnaca International Airport by Egyptian forces.
The intervention by the Egyptians led to the deterioration of relations between Egypt. In 1989, Hilton established Hilton's guest loyalty program. On October 24, 1999, the four double columns of the left hand side of the modern Barbados Hilton in Needham's Point, St. Michael, was collapsed and imploded inwards in just ten to fifteen seconds when the earthquake had rocked Barbados, it was demolished in May 2005 after they constructed the new Barbados Hilton in January 2005. In 2004, Hilton Hotels opened their new Kuala Lumpur property in KL Sentral, directly opposite the main entrance to the Sentral Terminal, as the replacement for their former premises in Jalan Sultan Ismail; the latter was the first internationally-run hotel in the city when opening in 1973, changed management in 2002 before being demolished in 2015 for a mixed-use development. In 2009, the company relocated its global headquarters from Beverly Hills, California to McLean, Virginia. In 2009 Hilton opened Canada's tallest hotel in Niagara Falls, Ontario.
In late 2010, Hilton announced a name change of the Hilton Hotels brand to Hilton Hotels & Resorts along with a new logo design, as part of a rebranding effort for the flagship brand. In March 2013, Hilton announced that it would be entering Burma for the first time with the construction of a 300-room hotel in Yangon. In 2015 20 Hilton Hotels & Resorts properties were inducted into the Historic Hotels of America organization. Among these hotels were Hilton Fort Worth, which hosted John F. Kennedy's final speech, Hilton Hawaiian Village Waikiki Beach Resort, the setting of the film Blue Hawaii. In 2016, Hilton N’Djamena opened in Chad, it was the brand's first property in the country and the 100th country Hilton began operations in worldwide. In June 2016, Hilton opened his first hotel in the Baltic states. In 2017, Hilton announced that it will remain the sponsor for McLaren until 2021. Hilton is one of the oldest sponsor of F1 series and is sponsoring McLaren since 2005. In October 2017, Hilton announced it had committed a total of $50m over five years to its Hilton Africa Growth Initiative to support the continued expansion of its Sub-Saharan African portfolio.
In early 2018, Hilton will be all set to open their first hotel in Bangladesh designed by Mustapha Khalid Palash. In March 2018, Hilton opened his first hotel in Serbia, it is a four-star hotel located in
Star Alliance is one of the world's largest global airline alliances. Founded on 14 May 1997, its current CEO is Jeffrey Goh and its headquarters is located in Frankfurt am Main, Germany; as of April 2018, Star Alliance is the second largest global alliance by passenger count with 728 million, behind SkyTeam and ahead of Oneworld. Its slogan is "The Way The Earth Connects". Star Alliance's 27 member airlines operate a fleet of 4,657 aircraft, serving more than 1,330 airports in 192 countries on more than 18,500 daily departures; the alliance has a two-tier rewards program and Gold, with incentives including priority boarding and upgrades. Like other airline alliances, Star Alliance airlines share airport terminals and many member planes are painted in the alliance's livery. On 14 May 1997, an agreement was announced forming Star Alliance from five airlines on three continents: United Airlines, Scandinavian Airlines, Thai Airways, Air Canada, Lufthansa; the alliance chose Rubicam for advertising, with a budget of $25 million.
The airlines shared the star logo from the beginning, with its five points representing the founding airlines. The alliance adopted its first slogan, "The Airline Network for Earth", with its goal "an alliance that will take passengers to every major city on earth"; the now defunct Brazilian airline VARIG joined the Star Alliance network on 22 October 1997, extending the alliance into South America. Joining were Ansett Australia and Air New Zealand, expanding Star Alliance to Australia and the Pacific. With the addition of the latter two carriers, the alliance served 720 destinations in 110 countries with a combined fleet of 1,650 aircraft; the next airline to join was All Nippon Airways, the group's second Asian airline, on 15 October 1999. During the early 2000s, a number of airlines joined Star Alliance. BMI and Mexicana Airlines joined on 1 July, bringing the alliance's membership to 13; the addition of BMI made London Heathrow the only European hub with two alliances. During the year, Emirates decided against it.
That year the now-defunct BWIA West Indies Airways, which had entered an alliance with United Airlines, considered becoming a member but did not. In 2000, the alliance opened its first three business centers and announced the formation of an Alliance Management Team, the partnership's executive body. In September 2001, Ansett Australia left Star Alliance due to bankruptcy, giving most of the Australian market to Qantas; that year, Star Alliance announced the appointment of Jaan Albrecht. Asiana Airlines joined the alliance on 1 March 2003, Spanair on 1 May, LOT Polish Airlines in October. Around this time, Mexicana Airlines left the alliance after deciding not to renew a codeshare agreement with United Airlines joining Oneworld. US Airways joined the alliance in May 2004. In November Adria Airways, Blue1 and Croatia Airlines joined the alliance as its first three regional members. Although Star Alliance invited Lineas Aereas Azteca in 2005 to join in mid-2007, the airline filed for bankruptcy.
TAP Air Portugal joined on 14 March 2005. In April 2006 Swiss International Air Lines, the alliance's sixth European airline, South African Airways became the 17th and 18th members. By May 2007, Star Alliance's 10th anniversary, its members had a combined 16,000 daily departures to 855 destinations in 155 countries and served 406 million passengers annually; the alliance introduced Biosphere Connections, a partnership with UNESCO, the International Union for Conservation of Nature, the Ramsar Convention On Wetlands to promote environmental sustainability. Today, nearly 30% of global air travellers use the services of our member carriers or, looking at it from an overall industry perspective, two thirds of worldwide air travellers use one of the three airline alliances. VARIG left the alliance on 31 January 2007, the two Chinese airlines, Air China and Shanghai Airlines joined on 12 December. On 1 April 2008, Turkish Airlines joined the alliance after a 15-month integration process beginning in December 2006, becoming its seventh European airline and 20th member.
EgyptAir, Egypt's national airline and Star Alliance's second African carrier, joined on 11 July 2008. On 27 October 2009, Continental Airlines became the 25th member of Star Alliance after leaving SkyTeam three days earlier. According to alliance CEO Jaan Albrecht, "Bringing Continental Airlines into Star Alliance has been a unique experience; this is the first time an airline has moved directly from one alliance to another and I would like to thank all those involved in ensuring a smooth switch". At the time, it was rumored that the switch was Continental's first move in a planned merger with United Airlines. Two months Brussels Airlines joined the alliance. Brazilian carrier TAM Airlines joined Star Alliance on 13 May 2010, increasing its foothold in South America. Aegean Airlines, Greece's largest airline by number of passengers, joined on 30 June. Shanghai Airlines left the alliance on 31 October 2010 when it merged with China Eastern Airlines, a SkyTeam member. On 29 September, the chief executive board approved Ethiopian Airlines as Star Alliance's 30th member.
In 2010 the alliance flew with about 21,200 daily departures. Since 2011, the alliance has gained several large memb
Air Wisconsin Airlines is a regional airline based at Appleton International Airport in the town of Greenville, United States, near Appleton. Air Wisconsin operated US Airways Express service on behalf of US Airways prior to becoming an American Eagle regional air carrier; as of March 2018, Air Wisconsin operates as a United Express regional air carrier with primary hubs to located at Chicago O'Hare International Airport and Washington Dulles International Airport. In 1963 investors from the Fox Cities raised $110,000 to start a new airline; the airline was established as an independent commuter air carrier in 1965 and started operations on August 23, 1965, just one day after the brand new Outagamie County Regional Airport was opened using de Havilland Dove commuter aircraft configured with nine passenger seats. It was founded to connect Appleton with Chicago and had 17 employees and two de Havilland Dove aircraft. According to the August 23, 1965 Air Wisconsin timetable, the airline was flying one route between Appleton and Chicago O'Hare Airport with four round trips on weekdays and two round trips on Saturdays and Sundays operated with the British-manufactured Dove twin prop aircraft.
By the mid 1970s, Air Wisconsin was flying two small commuter turboprop airliner types, being the de Havilland Canada DHC-6 Twin Otter and Swearingen Metro, was operating a small hub at Chicago O'Hare Airport with service to destinations in Indiana and Wisconsin as well as to Minneapolis/Saint Paul from several small cities in Wisconsin. In September 1978 the airline was certified by the Civil Aeronautics Board as a regional air carrier. In October 1978 it had over $10 million in assets. Joining Air Wisconsin in 1965 as traffic manager and becoming president, Preston H. Wilbourne's leadership oversaw Air Wisconsin grow to an airline serving 29 cities in an eleven state area with 32 aircraft boarding over 10,000 passengers daily. Air Wisconsin gained the nicknames "Air Willy" and "Rag Tag" and more "Air Wis" and "Air Wisky". By 1985, Air Wisconsin had become large independent regional air carrier operating British Aerospace BAe 146-200 and British Aircraft Corporation BAC One-Eleven jets as well as de Havilland Canada DHC-7 Dash 7 turboprops with flights as far west as Grand Island and Minneapolis/Saint Paul, as far east as Bridgeport and New Haven, Connecticut with a large connecting hub located at Chicago O'Hare Airport.
By early 1986, the airline was serving sixteen airports with its British-manufactured jets with flights to Appleton, Cedar Rapids, Chicago O'Hare Airport, Michigan, Fort Wayne, Grand Island, Green Bay, Kalamazoo, Lincoln, Moline, Illinois/Quad Cities, New Haven, South Bend, Toledo, Waterloo and Wausau/Stevens Point, Wisconsin with other flights and destinations in its route system being served with the Canadian-manufactured four engine Dash 7 turboprop. Air Wisconsin pioneered the concept of code sharing as a United Express carrier operating on behalf of United Airlines; as an independent air carrier prior to its business agreement with United to provide passenger feed, Air Wisconsin became the nation's largest regional airline in the 1980s. In 1985 it merged with Mississippi Valley Airlines and continued to operate under the Air Wisconsin name. By late 1989 Air Wisconsin was operating United Express code share service from two United hubs: Chicago O'Hare International Airport and Washington Dulles International Airport.
According to the Official Airline Guide at this time, United Express flights were operated with British Aerospace BAe 146-200 jets and Fokker F27 Friendship turboprops nonstop to Chicago O'Hare from Akron/Canton, Appleton, Cedar Rapids, Illinois, Fort Wayne, Green Bay, Kalamazoo, La Crosse, Lansing, Lexington, Moline/Quad Cities, Wisconsin, Illinois, Virginia, South Bend and Wausau, with BAe 146-200 jets and Short 360 turboprops nonstop to Washington Dulles from Charleston, West Virginia, Charlottesville and Richmond, Virginia, as well as Harrisburg and State College, Pennsylvania. In 1990 Air Wisconsin acquired Denver-based Aspen Airways and was itself bought by United Airlines a year later. At one point, Air Wisconsin operated British Aerospace ATP turboprop aircraft as well as BAe 146-100, BAe 146-200, BAe 146-300 jet aircraft on United Express services; these were all large aircraft types when compared to other regional aircraft in operation at the time. Air Wisconsin was the only U. S. operator of the BAe ATP turboprop and the BAe 146-300, the largest member of the BAe 146 family of jet aircraft.
United Airlines sold Air Wisconsin and the BAe 146 fleet to CJT Holdings in 1993. Air Wisconsin was renamed Air Wisconsin Airlines Corporation as UAL retained the rights to the Air Wisconsin name and logo. In April 1995 during the late ski season, Air Wisconsin was operating British Aerospace BAe 146 jet shuttle service as United Express on the former Aspen Airways route between Aspen and Denver with at least fourteen daily nonstop flights in each direction. In February 1998 AWAC acquired the assets of Mountain Air Express including Dornier 328 turboprop aircraft which were used to expand United Express service in the west. In the fall of 2003 AWAC acquired ten Canadair CRJ regional jet aircraft from bankrupt Midway Airlines and became a feeder for AirTran Airways under the name AirTran JetConnect, but this relationship was discontinued in July 2004. Towards the end of the co
Continental Airlines was a major United States airline founded in 1934 and headquartered in Houston, Texas. It had ownership interests and brand partnerships with several carriers. Continental started out as one of the smaller carriers in the United States, known for its limited operations under the regulated era. Post 1978, Continental grew into one of the country's largest carriers despite facing financial troubles and other issues becoming one of the more successful airlines in the United States; the airline merged with UAL Corporation via a stock swap in 2010. Continental's shares were acquired by UAL Corporation. During the integration period, each airline ran a separate operation under the direction of a combined leadership team, based in Chicago; the integration was completed on March 3, 2012. Although the merged airline retained the United name, it uses Continental's operating certificate and livery. Varney Speed Lines was formed in 1934, operating airmail and passenger services in the American Southwest over a route originating from El Paso and extending through Albuquerque, Santa Fe, Las Vegas, New Mexico to Pueblo, Colorado.
The airline commenced operations with the Lockheed Vega, a single-engine plane that carried four passengers. Following cancellation of all domestic airmail contracts by the Roosevelt administration in 1934, Robert F. Six learned of an opportunity to buy into the Southwest Division of Varney Speed Lines which needed money to handle its newly won Pueblo-El Paso route. Six was introduced to Louis Mueller. Mueller had helped found the Southwest Division of Varney in 1934 with Walter T. Varney; as an upshot of all this, Six bought into the airline with US$90,000 and became general manager on July 5, 1936. Varney was awarded a 17-cent-rate airmail contract between El Paso; the carrier was renamed Continental Air Lines on July 8, 1937. Six relocated the airline's headquarters to Denver Union Airport in Denver in October 1937. Six changed the name to "Continental" because he wanted the airline name to reflect his desire to have the airline fly all directions throughout the United States. During World War II Continental's Denver maintenance base converted Boeing B-17 Flying Fortresses, Boeing B-29 Superfortresses and North American P-51 Mustangs for the United States Army Air Forces.
Profits from military transportation and aircraft conversion enabled Continental to contemplate expansion and acquisition of new airliners after the war. Among those were the Douglas DC-3, the Convair 240 and the Convair 340; the Convairs were Continental's first pressurized airliners. The airline's early route was El Paso to Albuquerque and Denver, with routes being added during the war from Denver, El Paso eastward across Kansas, New Mexico, Texas. In 1946 Continental flew Denver to Kansas City, Tulsa, to Oklahoma City, from El Paso and Albuquerque to San Antonio; each route included stops in several of 22 smaller cities. In the early 1950s, Continental began several interchange routes with American and United Airlines. Routes were operated on American from Los Angeles and San Francisco to El Paso continuing onto Continental's route to San Antonio and Houston. Continental's Denver to Kansas City route would interchange onto St. Louis with Braniff Airways and United's routes from Seattle and Portland to Denver would interchange with Continental's routes onto Wichita and Tulsa.
These interchange routes continued for many years until Continental was able to secure routes of its own between each city. In 1955 Continental merged with Pioneer Air Lines, gaining access to 16 more cities in Texas and New Mexico. In August 1953 Continental flew to 35 airports and Pioneer flew to 19, but Continental's network didn't reach beyond Denver, El Paso and Kansas City until April 1957 when it started Chicago-Denver-Los Angeles, two Douglas DC-7Bs a day each way. Pioneer's Executive Vice President Harding Luther Lawrence arrived at Continental as a result of the merger. Bob Six commented on more than one occasion that, "the reason we bought Pioneer was to get Harding." Harding Lawrence implemented several innovative changes at Continental as well as a flamboyant advertising campaign during his ten years as Six's protege. During Lawrence's tenure Continental grew by 500 percent. Lawrence left Continental in April 1965 to head Braniff Airways. Six petitioned the Civil Aeronautics Board for longer routes to larger cities, hoping to transform the regional into a trunkline like United Airlines, TWA, American Airlines.
He was discussing with Boeing for Continental to become one of the first to operate the soon-to-be-launched 707. The timing was crucial, since new routes would justify the 707s, vice versa. Continental Airlines had seen a broad expansion of its routes, thanks to a responsive CAB and persistent efforts by Six and Executive Vice President Harding Lawrence, who both referred to his company as "the Airline that needs to grow." In 1958 Continental began turboprop flights with the Vickers Viscount on the new medium-haul routes. The CAB permitted Continental to drop service at many smaller cities, enabling the carrier's new aircraft to operate more economically on longer flights. In 1960 Continental flew more than three times the passenger-miles it had in 1956. (Aviation Week June 22, 1959: "Continental's current re-equipment program — involving a tota
Washington Dulles International Airport
Washington Dulles International Airport is an international airport in the eastern United States, located in Loudoun and Fairfax counties in Virginia, 26 miles west of downtown Washington, D. C. Opened in 1962, it is named after John Foster Dulles, the 52nd Secretary of State who served under President Dwight D. Eisenhower; the Dulles main terminal is a well-known landmark designed by Eero Saarinen. Operated by the Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority, Dulles Airport occupies 13,000 acres straddling the Loudoun-Fairfax line. Most of the airport is in the unincorporated community of Dulles in Loudoun County, with a small portion in the unincorporated community of Chantilly in Fairfax County; the airport serves the Washington metropolitan area. Dulles is one of the three major airports in the larger Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area with more than 21 million passengers a year. Dulles has the most international passenger traffic of any airport in the Mid-Atlantic outside the New York metropolitan area, including 90% of the international passenger traffic in the Baltimore-Washington region.
On a typical day, more than 60,000 passengers pass through Dulles to and from more than 125 destinations around the world. Dulles Airport in 2018 surpassed Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport in yearly passenger boardings after having fewer passengers since 2015. However, Dulles Airport still ranks behind Baltimore–Washington International Airport in total annual passenger boardings, despite being a larger facility with more gates. Prior to World War II, Hoover Field was the main commercial airport serving Washington, on the site now occupied by The Pentagon and its parking lots, it was replaced by Washington National Airport in a short distance southeast. After the war, in 1948, the Civil Aeronautics Administration began to consider sites for a second major airport to serve the nation's capital. Congress passed the Washington Airport Act in 1950 to provide funding for a new airport in the region; the initial CAA proposal in 1951 called for the airport to be built in Fairfax County near what is now Burke Lake Park, but protests from residents, as well as the rapid expansion of Washington's suburbs during the time, led to reconsideration of this plan.
One competing plan called for the airport to be built in the Pender area of Fairfax County, while another called for the conversion of Andrews Air Force Base in Prince George's County, Maryland into an airport. The current site was selected by President Eisenhower in 1958; as a result of the site selection, the unincorporated African-American community of Willard, which once stood in the airport's current footprint, was demolished, 87 property owners had their holdings condemned. Dulles was built over a lesser known airport named Blue Ridge Airport, chartered in 1938 by the U. S.. The airport was Loudoun County's first official airport consisting of two grass intersecting runways in the shape of an "X"; the location of the former Blue Ridge Airport sits where the Dulles Air Freight complex and Washington Dulles Airport Marriott now sit today. The civil engineering firm Ammann and Whitney was named lead contractor; the airport was dedicated by President John F. Kennedy and Eisenhower on November 17, 1962.
As opened, the airport had three runways. Its original name, Dulles International Airport, was changed in 1984 to Washington Dulles International Airport; the main terminal was designed in 1958 by famed Finnish-American architect Eero Saarinen, it is regarded for its graceful beauty, suggestive of flight. In the 1990s, the main terminal at Dulles was reconfigured to allow more space between the front of the building and the ticket counters. Additions at both ends of the main terminal more than doubled the structure's length; the original terminal at Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport in Taoyuan, Taiwan was modeled after the Saarinen terminal at Dulles. The design included a landscaped man-made lake to collect rainwater, a low-rise hotel, a row of office buildings along the north side of the main parking lot; the design included a two-level road in front of the terminal to separate arrival and departure traffic and a federally owned limited access highway connecting the terminal to the Capital Beltway about 17 miles to the east..
The access road had a wide median strip to allow the construction of a passenger rail line, which will be in the form of an extension of the Washington Metro's Silver Line and is expected to be completed in 2020. The first scheduled flight at Dulles was an Eastern Air Lines Super Electra from Newark International Airport in New Jersey on November 19, 1962. Dulles was considered a white elephant, being far out of town with few flights. Airport operations grew along with the Dulles Technology Corridor. In 1969, Dulles had 2.01 million passengers. The era of jumbo jets began on January 15, 1970 when First Lady Pat Nixon christened a Pan Am Boeing 747 at Dulles in the presence of Pan Am chairman Najeeb Halaby. Rather than a traditional champagne bottle, red and blue water