UBM plc was a British business-to-business events organiser headquartered in London, United Kingdom before its acquisition by Informa. It had a long history as a multinational media company, its current main focus is on B2B events, but its principal operations have included live media and business-to-business communications, marketing services and data provision, it principally serves the technology, healthcare and transport, ingredients and fashion industries. UBM was listed on the London Stock Exchange and was a constituent of the FTSE 250 Index until it was acquired by Informa in June 2018; the history of the companies that now make up UBM stretches back two hundred years. UBM businesses still publish many other titles that were launched in the 19th century, including Building magazine, launched in 1843 by Joseph Hansom, as well as Chemist & Druggist; the company was founded in 1918 as United Newspapers by David Lloyd George to acquire the Daily Chronicle and Lloyd's Weekly Newspaper. In 1929, the company merged with an owner of regional papers in the north.
The company continued for decades as a regional newspaper publisher, making acquisitions such as Yorkshire Post Newspapers in 1969. It acquired PR Newswire in 1982. In 1985, it continued to publish the Daily Express for some 15 years. In 1985, it bought US trade magazine and book publisher Miller Freeman, it changed its name to United News & Media in 1995, sold its regional papers in 1998, bought CMP Media, a technology-focused trade media company, in 1999 for $920 million. In 2000, it sold the Daily Express to Richard Desmond, sold most of Miller Freeman to VNU and Reed Elsevier and adopted the name of United Business Media. United Business Media acquired the trade publisher Aprovia UK in 2003 and the medical publishing company MediMedia in 2004. MAI was part of a consortium which bid for the ITV south and south east area, which formed Meridian Broadcasting in 1991. MAI began to expand following the successful launch of Meridian: in 1994 the company bought Anglia Television, the ITV franchise for the east of England, the following year became a major shareholder in the consortium that won the franchise for Channel 5.
In 1996, MAI merged with United Newspapers to form United Media. The resulting company owned the Daily Express newspaper, Anglia, a large shareholding in Yorkshire Tyne Tees Television, the owners of Yorkshire Television and Tyne Tees Television; the stake in Yorkshire Tyne Tees Television was sold to Granada, allowing them to take control of the two franchises in 1997. In November 1997 UBM launched the now defunct satellite TV Channel Rapture TV which focussed on dance music and extreme sports; the channel was put up for sale in 2001, was brought by Edinburgh based company Power TV a year in April 2002. United News and Media agreed to buy Scottish Television's 20% stake in HTV and on 28 June 1997, HTV was taken over by UNM for £370 million. In 1999, plans emerged of a merger between UNM and rival Carlton, however these talks failed when it appeared that Meridian would have to be sold off as a condition of the deal; as a result, the television assets of UNM were sold to Granada, however due to regulations stating that the company could not control that large an audience share, the broadcasting arm of HTV was sold to Carlton in exchange for Central's 20% stake in Meridian.
In 2005 UBM re-focused on two principal businesses: PR Newswire, a global news distribution business. It disposed of NOP, acquired by GfK for £383 million in 2005. In September 2006, NewBay Media acquired CMP Entertainment Media from United Business Media; the trade book operations of CMP were sold to Hal Leonard. It went on to acquire Commonwealth Business Media for $152 million in 2006. On 1 July 2008, as part of a reorganisation of the corporate structure of the Group, United Business Media Limited was created as a new holding company and parent company of the Group. UBML is incorporated in Jersey. In 2010 the principal holding company of the United Business Media group was organised into five operating segments: Events, TD & M, Data Services and Print. In 2008, UBM moved its tax headquarters to Ireland, but in 2012, the company announced its intent to move its tax base back to the United Kingdom. In September 2010, Canon Communications announced that it had agreed to be acquired by UBM. In May 2011, United Business Media changed its name to UBM plc.
In February 2012 Yankee Group sold its annual 4G World telecoms and wireless trade show to UBM plc where it was incorporated into its UBM Tech division. Briefing Media acquired UBM plc's UK agriculture and medical general practitioner portfolios for £10 million in February 2012 while UBM plc announced the acquisition of four trade shows in Asia for 19.4 million in the same month, marking UBM plc's continuing transformation into an events and B2B marketing services company. In 2012, PA Group, the parent company of the Press Association, sold its 50% stake in Canada Newswire to joint venture partner UBM for £30.1 million. In April 2013, UBM's data services. In October 2014, UBM announced. In November 2014 UBM plc CEO,Tim Cobbold,announced a new Events First strategy By 2015, UBM had rebranded itself as focused on B2B events. Reflecting this, 82 percent of its business in 2016 derived from events and only 18 percent from other marketing services. In December 2015, U
MV Adolphus Busch was a cargo ship, sunk off of Looe Key, Florida, as an artificial reef and dive site. The ship was built as London by the Burntisland Shipbuilding Company, Scotland, for the Dundee, Perth & London Shipping Co Ltd and was launched on 20 December 1950, she sailed under a number of names during her career before she was wrecked at Port-au-Prince on 24 September 1998 under the name Ocean Alley. The wreck was bought by August Adolphus Busch IV and named after his great-grandfather, Adolphus Busch, he had the ship stripped out and arranged for its sinking as an artificial reef to help preserve marine habitat. The ship was sunk on 5 December 1998; the Adolphus Busch rests upright on a sand bottom at an average depth of 80 feet. Maximum depth is 110 feet; the wreck is penetrable, can be entered through the bridge or cargo holds. The machinery in the engine room is still present and presents the only major entanglement hazard to divers; the glass from the wheelhouse windows and the covers to the cargo holds have been removed.
Multiple mooring balls are secured to the wreck to allow boats to tie up to the site. Reef fish are common on the site, as are large jewfish and large pelagic fish. Sharks have been seen on the reef, but are not considered typical
7... is the seventh studio album by Mint Condition released on April 5, 2011. It is the first album; the album title refers to this being their seventh album in their 20 years of performing. At under 46 minutes, it is distinctive as being the shortest album in their catalog; the album cover was photographed by bassist Ricky Kinchen, who has done the photography for all Mint Condition albums since 1999's Life's Aquarium. The music videos released from the album are recognized for their ties to actors. Actress Regina King directed the video for the Kelly Price duet "Not My Daddy"; the video for the single "Walk On" stars Carl Anthony Payne II of The Cosby Martin fame. Stokley Williams - lead vocals, background vocals, bass, drums, steel pan, mastering Lawrence El - piano, keyboards Ricky Kinchen - guitar, keyboards, background vocals, drum programming, photography O'Dell - guitar, sitar Jeffrey Allen - keyboards, background vocals Kelly Price - lead and background vocals on "Not My Daddy" Brandon Commodore - drums on "Mind Slicker" Darnell Davis - organ on "Unsung" K. Jackson - rap on "7" Tonia Hughes-Kendrick - vocals on "Unsung" Arion-Brasil Williams - shaker on "Can't Get Away" Aaliyah Kellogg - additional backgrounds on "Can't Get Away" Brian Johnson - mixing on "Caught My Eye"
Exchange bias or exchange anisotropy occurs in bilayers of magnetic materials where the hard magnetization behavior of an antiferromagnetic thin film causes a shift in the soft magnetization curve of a ferromagnetic film. The exchange bias phenomenon is of tremendous utility in magnetic recording, where it is used to pin the state of the readback heads of hard disk drives at their point of maximum sensitivity; the essential physics underlying the phenomenon is the exchange interaction between the antiferromagnet and ferromagnet at their interface. Since antiferromagnets have a small or no net magnetization, their spin orientation is only weakly influenced by an externally applied magnetic field. A soft ferromagnetic film, exchange-coupled to the antiferromagnet will have its interfacial spins pinned. Reversal of the ferromagnet's moment will have an added energetic cost corresponding to the energy necessary to create a Néel domain wall within the antiferromagnetic film; the added energy term implies a shift in the switching field of the ferromagnet.
Thus the magnetization curve of an exchange-biased ferromagnetic film looks like that of the normal ferromagnet except, shifted away from the H=0 axis by an amount Hb. In most well-studied ferromagnet/antiferromagnet bilayers, the Curie temperature of the ferromagnet is larger than the Néel temperature TN of the antiferromagnet; this inequality means that the direction of the exchange bias can be set by cooling through TN in the presence of an applied magnetic field. The moment of the magnetically ordered ferromagnet will apply an effective field to the antiferromagnet as it orders, breaking the symmetry and influencing the formation of domains; the exchange bias effect is attributed to a ferromagnetic unidirectional anisotropy formed at the interface between different magnetic phases. The process of field cooling from higher temperature is used to obtain ferromagnetic unidirectional anisotropy in different exchange bias systems. In 2011, a large exchange bias has been realized after zero-field cooling from an unmagnetized state, attributed to the newly formed interface between different magnetic phases during the initial magnetization process.
Exchange anisotropy has long been poorly understood due to the difficulty of studying the dynamics of domain walls in thin antiferromagnetic films. A naive approach to the problem would suggest the following expression for energy per unit area: E = 1 2 n J e x S F S A F + M F t F H where n is the number of interfacial spins interactions per unit area, Jex is the exchange constant at the interface, S refers to the spin vector, M refers to the magnetization, t refers to film thickness and H is the external field; the subscript F describes the properties of AF to the antiferromagnet. The expression omits magnetocrystalline anisotropy, unaffected by the presence of the antiferromagnet. At the switching field of the ferromagnet, the pinning energy represented by the first term and the Zeeman dipole coupling represented by the second term will balance; the equation predicts that the exchange bias shift Hb will be given by the expression H b = n J e x S F S A F 2 M F t F Many experimental findings regarding the exchange bias contradict this simple model.
For example, the magnitude of measured Hb values is 100 times less than that predicted by the equation for reasonable values of the parameters. The amount of hysteresis shift Hb is not correlated with the density n of uncompensated spins in the plane of the antiferromagnet that appears at the interface. In addition, the exchange bias effect tends to be smaller in epitaxial bilayers than in polycrystalline ones, suggesting an important role for defects. In recent years progress in fundamental understanding has been made via synchrotron radiation based element-specific magnetic linear dichroism experiments that can image antiferromagnetic domains and frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility measurements that can probe the dynamics. Experiments on the Fe/FeF2 and Fe/MnF2 model systems have been fruitful. Exchange bias was used to stabilize the magnetization of soft ferromagnetic layers in readback heads based on the anisotropic magnetoresistance effect. Without the stabilization, the magnetic domain state of the head could be unpredictable, leading to reliability problems.
Exchange bias is used to pin the harder reference layer in spin valve readback heads and MRAM memory circuits that utilize the giant magnetoresistance or magnetic tunneling effect. The most advanced disk media are antiferromagnetically coupled, making use of interfacial exchange to increase the stability of small magnetic particles whose behavior would otherwise be superparamagnetic. Desirable properties for an exchange bias material include a high Néel temperature, a large magnetocrystalline anisotropy and good chemical and structural compatibility with NiFe and Co, the most important ferromagnetic films; the most technologically significant exchange bias materials have been the rocksalt-structure antiferromagnetic oxides like NiO, CoO and their alloys and the rocksalt-structure i
Miroslav Kouřil is a Czech football manager and former player. He is the manager of Třinec in the third-tier Moravian–Silesian Football League, his playing position was forward. Kouřil played in the Czechoslovak First League and Gambrinus liga, making over 100 league appearances between 1985 and 1994. Kouřil became the manager of FK Drnovice during the 2005–06 Czech 2. Liga, replacing Josef Mazura. Kouřil took over at FK Fotbal Třinec in September 2007. Kouřil enjoyed success in his first match as manager, defeating FC Tescoma Zlín in the second round of the 2007–08 Czech Cup, he moved to 1. HFK Olomouc during the 2008–09 Czech 2. Liga, replacing Josef Mucha after 18 matches of the season. Despite the club being relegated to the third-tier Moravian–Silesian Football League after finishing the season in 15th place, Kouřil signed a new contract in the summer. After just six games of the following season however, he was replaced by Petr Uličný. Kouřil returned to manage Třinec in May 2012
Ebbe Carsten Hornemann Hertzberg was a Norwegian professor and social economist. He was a legal historian and published several works in that field. Hertzberg was born at Holmestrand in Norway, he was the son of Johan Christian Linde Inger Horneman. He attended the University of Christiania. In 1868, he was awarded the Crown Prince's gold medal for a thesis regarding changes in Norwegian judicial institutions, he graduated as cand.jur. in 1870. He earned a travel scholarship and studied at Uppsala University from 1870. From 1872 to 1873, he studied under legal historian Konrad Maurer at the University of Munich, he was appointed professor of statistics and economics at the University of Christiania in 1877. He was a short-time government minister during April-June 1884 as a member of the Council of State Division in Stockholm. In 1886, Hertzberg moved away from Kristiania for a decade; this was motivated by a desire to focus on his research, but in reality he been pushed to resign by the university after admitting to being homosexual.
During his exile in Berlin, Holmestrand and Stockholm, he completed his greatest work, a glossary of historic Norwegian legal terms, Glossarium til Norges gamle love. In 1896, he returned to Kristiania where in 1903 he became director of Norges Hypotekbank and in 1906 he was appointed as an administrator in the National Archives. In 1901, he was awarded Knight 1st Class and in 1907 was decorated Commander of the Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav. Grundtrækkene i den ældste norske proces Om kreditens begreb og væsen Glossarium til Norges gamle love Glossarium zu Norges gamle Love indtil 1387. Volltextversion auf CD-ROM eingeleitet u. mit e. Bibliographie versehen von Hans Fix. Saarbrücken: AQ-Verlag 2013. ISBN 978-3-922441-47-2