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UCLA–USC rivalry

The UCLA–USC rivalry is the American collegiate athletics rivalry between the UCLA Bruins sports teams of the University of California, Los Angeles and USC Trojans teams of the University of Southern California. Both universities are members of the Pac-12 Conference; the rivalry between the two is among the more unusual in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I sports, because the campuses are only 12 miles apart, both are located within the same megacity. UCLA teams have won the second-most NCAA Division I-sanctioned team championships with 118 while USC has the third-most with 107. Only Stanford University, a fellow Pac-12 member located in California, has more than either UCLA or USC, with 122. USC is recognized as being one of the top football programs in the nation, while UCLA is recognized as being one of the top basketball programs in the nation. However, a somewhat rare confluence of events occurred in 1954, which began with USC in their last of only two Final Four appearance in the 1954 NCAA Men's Division I Basketball Tournament and ended with UCLA winning their only non-NCAA Football National Championship.

Both schools are successful in many "non-revenue" or "Olympic" sports. Both have had success in track and field, water polo, tennis and golf. USC has won 26 NCAA Championships in Men's Outdoor Track and Field, 21 in Men's Tennis, 12 in Baseball, the most of any school in each respective sport. UCLA has won 19 NCAA Championships in Men's Volleyball, 12 in Softball, 7 in Women's Water Polo the most of any school in those sports. UCLA ranks second overall in NCAA team championships, with 118, behind Stanford, with 123, they rank second in men's NCAA team championships with 75, second in women's NCAA team championships with 43. USC ranks higher than UCLA and first in the nation in men's NCAA team championships with 85. Both schools have several non-NCAA Championships, including AIAW and pre-NCAA championships; the SoCal BMW Crosstown Cup the Lexus Gauntlet, is the name given to a competition between UCLA and USC in the 18 varsity sports that both compete in head-to-head. After the 2009 season, Lexus stopped sponsoring the award.

Since the end of the Lexus sponsorship, USC won in 2010 and 2011. USC continued a their dominant streak in the pursuit of the rivalry gauntlet winning in 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016 before UCLA took it over in 2017. 2018 again went to the USC Trojans. The award was sponsored by the Southern California BMW dealers starting in 2014. Quite the winner of the football game has won or shared the Pac-12 Conference title in football. A berth in the Rose Bowl game has been on the line many times as well for both schools. Since the 1916 formation of the Pacific Coast Conference, which the Pac-12 claims as part of its history, USC has won or shared 37 conference titles and UCLA has won or shared 17 titles. Washington is third in overall conference titles with 15. Since the 1959 season, when the Pac-12 was formed as the Athletic Association of Western Universities, through the 2007 season, the schools have won or shared 33 of the 48 conference titles. USC has shared eight and gone to the Rose Bowl or BCS bowl 21 times.

UCLA has shared five and gone to the Rose Bowl eight times. The schools have thrice shared the championship. In 2011, UCLA became the first Pac-12 South Division champion – while USC held the better of the two records, the Trojans were ineligible for postseason play that year due to NCAA sanctions. Both teams have spoiled conference and national championship runs for the other. USC was a somewhat established national football power under Howard Jones and had begun a major rivalry with Notre Dame when UCLA joined the Pacific Coast Conference in 1928. Los Angeles Times sportswriter Braven Dyer predicted on the day of the first football meeting on September 28, 1929, "In years to come, this game will be one of the football spectacles of the West" USC dominated the early games until UCLA established itself. By the late 1930s, star players such as Kenny Washington, Jackie Robinson, Bob Waterfield enabled UCLA to be competitive. With the hiring of Hall of Fame Coach Henry "Red" Sanders, UCLA became the more dominant program in the 1950s with their one and only National Championship in 1954.

A famous quote was attributed to Sanders regarding the rivalry, "Beating'SC is not a matter of life or death, it's more important than that." But Sanders died of a heart attack, shortly thereafter, one of the greatest colleges football coaches in NCAA history took over the struggling USC program. Upon the arrival of their new head coach John McKay, USC entered a new golden age in their storied history. During McKay's tenure, the Trojans won 8 conference titles, 5 Rose Bowls, produced two Heisman Trophy winners and won three National Championships and shared one. Against UCLA, McKay was tough to beat, posting a 10–5–1 record against the Bruins between 1960 and 1975. For most seasons from the mid-1960s to the end of the 1970s, the two schools were the top powers on the West Coast with USC holding the top spot. In the 15 Rose Bowls played from 1966 to 1980, USC or UCLA played in 12 of them. With the rise of Don James' Washington Huskies

Nelson Monument, Edinburgh

The Nelson Monument is a commemorative tower in honour of Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson, located in Edinburgh, Scotland. It is situated on top of Calton Hill, provides a dramatic termination to the vista along Princes Street from the west; the monument was built between 1807 and 1816 to commemorate Nelson's victory over the French and Spanish fleets at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805, his own death at the same battle. In 1852 a mechanized time ball was added, as a time signal to shipping in Leith harbour; the time ball is synchronized with the one o'clock gun firing from Edinburgh Castle. The monument was restored in 2009; the Royal Navy's White Ensign and signal flags spelling out Nelson's famous message "England expects that every man will do his duty" are flown from the monument on Trafalgar Day each year. The monument was constructed at the highest point of Calton Hill, at 171 metres above sea-level, replacing an earlier mast used to send signals to shipping in the Forth; the monument was funded by an initial design prepared by Alexander Nasmyth.

His pagoda-like design was deemed too expensive, an alternative design in the form of an upturned telescope—an object associated with Nelson—was obtained from the architect Robert Burn. Building began in 1807, was complete when money ran out the following year. Burn died in 1815, it was left to Thomas Bonnar to complete the pentagonal castellated building, which forms the base to the tower, between 1814 and 1816; the tower was intended as a signal mast, attended by sailors who would be accommodated within the ground floor rooms, although these were in use as a tea room by 1820. Public access was available from the start, for a small fee; the rooms were used to house the monument's caretaker. In 2009, as part of the "Twelve Monuments Restoration Project", the tower was comprehensively restored, including repairs to stonework and metalwork; the monument is a category A listed building. The monument is 32 metres high, has 143 steps leading to a public viewing gallery; the castellated design reflects the castellated prison buildings which stood on the south side of Calton Hill in the early 19th century.

A plaque above the entrance to the monument carries the following dedication: Above the plaque is a stone carving of the San Josef, a ship captured by Nelson at the Battle of Cape St Vincent in 1797. On top of the tower is a time ball, a large ball, raised and lowered to mark the time, it was installed in 1852 to act as a time signal to the ships in Edinburgh's port of Leith, to ships at the anchorage in the Firth of Forth known as Leith Roads, allowing the ships to set their chronometers. The time ball was the idea of Charles Piazzi Smyth, the Astronomer Royal for Scotland, was triggered by a clock in the adjacent City Observatory, to which it was connected by an underground wire; the mechanism was the work of Maudslay, Sons & Field of Lambeth, who had constructed the time ball mechanism for Greenwich Observatory. The installation was carried out by James Ritchie & Son Ltd, who are still retained by City of Edinburgh Council to maintain and operate the time ball; the ball, constructed of wood and covered in zinc, weighing 762 kilograms, is raised just before 1 pm, at 1 pm, is dropped from atop the mast.

In 1861, the One O'Clock Gun was established at Edinburgh Castle to provide an audible signal when fog obscured the time ball. The time ball was operated for over 150 years, until it was damaged by a storm in 2007. In 2009, as part of the restoration of the monument, the time ball was removed, the mechanism repaired; the time ball was brought back into service on 24 September 2009. The mechanism is now operated manually, based on the firing of the One O'Clock Gun. Monuments and memorials to Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, for other monuments to Lord Nelson Nelson Monument conservation, Edinburgh World Heritage

Powerscourt Waterfall

Powerscourt Waterfall, is a 121-metre high waterfall, on the River Dargle near Enniskerry in County Wicklow, Ireland. Situated at the base of the Glensoulan Valley, the waterfall is overlooked by Djouce 725 metres and Maulin 570 metres; the waterfall flows continuously all year, falling in a horsetail-fan, ranks as the highest waterfall in Ireland. The waterfall is in the Powerscourt Estate, is open to the public for a visitor fee. Powerscourt Waterfall, known in Irish as Eas Chonaill, lies at the base of the Glensoulan valley, a hanging valley, through which the River Dargle flows from its source on the southern slopes of Tonduff mountain falling into the steep corrie in which the waterfall lies. Several mountains surround the upper section of the Glensoulan valley in a "horseshoe-shape", being: Maulin 570 metres, Tonduff 642 metres, War Hill 686 metres, Djouce 725 metres; the waterfall is bounded by Crone Woods on its northern section. Geological Survey of Ireland regard the waterfalls an "important site for both the glacial feature and for the geological influence of the rocks themselves on the formation of the waterfall".

The Powerscourt waterfall flows over Irish Ribband Group schists, which sit in a metamorphic aureole of Leinster granite. The cleavage dips steeply outwards, paralleling the sides of the granite pluton, which forms the surface over which the water cascades. Both boulders of schist, of granite, can be seen in the pools at the base of the waterfall; the waterfall is part of the Powerscourt Estate, who grant paid-access to the public through a separate visitor entrance during set times. At the base of the waterfall are visitor facilities, car parking and barbecue area, various concessions; the waterfall can be viewed from Ride Rock in Crone Woods, which offers trails to the summit of Maulin. A 7-kilometre 3-hour hill-walking route known as the Maulin Circuit, takes in Crone Woods and the Powerscourt waterfall. In August 1821, during the visit of King George IV to Ireland, Richard Wingfield, 5th Viscount Powerscourt dammed the waterfall so he could release a torrent while the two stood on the bridge below the falls.

For reasons unknown, the king did not leave the banquet at Powerscourt House to view the waterfall, fortunate as, when the water was released, the bridge was washed away. Powerscourt waterfall features in various scenes in the 2013 television historical drama series Vikings; the waterfall features in other films including the 1981 film Excalibur by John Boorman. Powerscourt Estate Glenmacnass Waterfall Torc Waterfall Official Website Powerscourt Waterfall World Waterfall Database SkyCam View of Powerscourt Waterfall. TheJournal.ie