California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States. With 39.6 million residents, California is the most populous U. S. the third-largest by area. The state capital is Sacramento; the Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second and fifth most populous urban regions, with 18.7 million and 9.7 million residents respectively. Los Angeles is California's most populous city, the country's second most populous, after New York City. California has the nation's most populous county, Los Angeles County, its largest county by area, San Bernardino County; the City and County of San Francisco is both the country's second-most densely populated major city after New York City and the fifth-most densely populated county, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs. California's $3.0 trillion economy is larger than that of any other state, larger than those of Texas and Florida combined, the largest sub-national economy in the world. If it were a country, California would be the 5th largest economy in the world, the 36th most populous as of 2017.
The Greater Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nation's second- and third-largest urban economies, after the New York metropolitan area. The San Francisco Bay Area PSA had the nation's highest GDP per capita in 2017 among large PSAs, is home to three of the world's ten largest companies by market capitalization and four of the world's ten richest people. California is considered a global trendsetter in popular culture, innovation and politics, it is considered the origin of the American film industry, the hippie counterculture, fast food, the Internet, the personal computer, among others. The San Francisco Bay Area and the Greater Los Angeles Area are seen as global centers of the technology and entertainment industries, respectively. California has a diverse economy: 58% of the state's economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5% of the state's economy, California's agriculture industry has the highest output of any U.
S. state. California is bordered by Oregon to the north and Arizona to the east, the Mexican state of Baja California to the south; the state's diverse geography ranges from the Pacific Coast in the west to the Sierra Nevada mountain range in the east, from the redwood–Douglas fir forests in the northwest to the Mojave Desert in the southeast. The Central Valley, a major agricultural area, dominates the state's center. Although California is well-known for its warm Mediterranean climate, the large size of the state results in climates that vary from moist temperate rainforest in the north to arid desert in the interior, as well as snowy alpine in the mountains. Over time and wildfires have become more pervasive features. What is now California was first settled by various Native Californian tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries; the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its successful war for independence but was ceded to the United States in 1848 after the Mexican–American War.
The western portion of Alta California was organized and admitted as the 31st state on September 9, 1850. The California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom; the word California referred to the Baja California Peninsula of Mexico. The name derived from the mythical island California in the fictional story of Queen Calafia, as recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián by Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo; this work was the fifth in a popular Spanish chivalric romance series that began with Amadis de Gaula. Queen Calafia's kingdom was said to be a remote land rich in gold and pearls, inhabited by beautiful black women who wore gold armor and lived like Amazons, as well as griffins and other strange beasts. In the fictional paradise, the ruler Queen Calafia fought alongside Muslims and her name may have been chosen to echo the title of a Muslim leader, the Caliph. It's possible.
Know ye that at the right hand of the Indies there is an island called California close to that part of the Terrestrial Paradise, inhabited by black women without a single man among them, they lived in the manner of Amazons. They were robust of body with great virtue; the island itself is one of the wildest in the world on account of the craggy rocks. Shortened forms of the state's name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA. Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, California was one of the most culturally and linguistically diverse areas in pre-Columbian North America. Various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000; the Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their political organization with bands, villages, on the resource-rich coasts, large chiefdoms, such as the Chumash and Salinan.
Trade, intermarriage a
The Galen Center is a multipurpose indoor arena and athletic facility owned and operated by the University of Southern California. Located at the southeast corner of Jefferson Boulevard and Figueroa Street in the Exposition Park area of Los Angeles, United States, it is right across the street from the campus and near the Shrine Auditorium; the Galen Center is the home of USC volleyball. The annual Kids' Choice Awards were held here from 2011 to 2014, returned in 2017. USC had planned to build an on-campus indoor arena for more than 100 years. Before the Galen Center, USC basketball had been played at a variety of locations, including the neighboring Shrine Auditorium stage, the old Pan-Pacific Auditorium in the Fairfax District, from 1959 onward at the Los Angeles Memorial Sports Arena; the final push to build the new facility began in 2002, when Louis Galen, a successful banker and longtime Trojan fan, his wife Helene donated $10 million to the new center after USC football quarterback Carson Palmer won the 2002 Heisman Trophy.
The Galens donated an additional $25 million to the project to have the building named after them and upped their donation an additional $15 million to make sure that a connected practice facility would bear their name, bringing the total donation to $50 million. The USC men's and women's basketball teams practiced at the smaller, on-campus North Gym; the Galen Center replaced the Los Angeles Memorial Sports Arena as the home for USC men's and women's basketball. Galen Center construction cost an estimated $147 million, which includes the arena, team offices, a state-of-the-art practice facility; the largest tax revenue would be generated by the city of Los Angeles' 10% parking tax. Other sources of tax revenue will include sales tax, utility users tax, business license tax, income from advertising. In addition, two new parking structures were built: a 1,200-space structure located between the Radisson Hotel and the arena, with access from Flower Street, a second structure at the southeast corner of Figueroa Street and Exposition Boulevard.
The additional parking structures increased the available parking for both the USC campus and the nearby Los Angeles Memorial Coliseum. The architectural firm behind the design of the Galen Center is HNTB. Construction began on October 31, 2004, with a groundbreaking ceremony including Los Angeles City Council members Bernard Parks and Jan Perry along with Helene and Louis Galen, longtime USC fans for whom the facility is named; the first event, a women's volleyball game between USC and Stanford University, took place on October 12, 2006. The first concert at the center was featured Al Green; the first men's basketball was held on November 16 against the University of South Carolina. The first sellout crowd was the men's basketball game against the UCLA Bruins on January 12, 2007 with an attendance of 9,682; the highest attendance in the first year was for the Cal Bears men's basketball game on February 24, 2007 at 10,027. On January 31, 2008, the USC men's basketball game against the Arizona Wildcats set the arena's attendance record with crowd of 10,258 in attendance.
On May 10, 2014, the arena hosted a heavyweight title boxing fight between Chris Arreola and Bermane Stiverne for the vacant World Boxing Council Heavyweight Title. Stiverne won the title after a sixth-round knockout of Arreola, becoming the first Haitian-born boxer to win a world heavyweight championship, as well as the first out of the province of Quebec, to win the WBC world heavyweight championship; the Galen Center's basketball court was named after former USC basketball player Jim Sterkel, who played for the Trojans for two seasons in the 1950s, averaging 10 points a game. Two unique factors in the naming rights were the obscurity of the name choice and that the Sterkel family was not aware that the court was named after the late Jim Sterkel until after the facility had opened. B. Wayne Hughes, a longtime friend of Sterkel's made the $5 million donation under the agreement that his name never be revealed. In an interview with Los Angeles Times columnist Bill Plaschke, who tracked down Hughes but did not reveal his name,'Anonymous' said that he grew up with Sterkel: both attended Mark Keppel High School, both began at USC in 1955 and were roommates.'Anonymous' hired Sterkel and helped pay for his treatment when Sterkel was diagnosed with cancer.
When the son of the anonymous donor contracted leukemia, Sterkel wrote a poem and sealed it to be read only when the son had died. Sterkel died in 1997, with the son dying two years later. Inspired by the poem and his friendship with Sterkel,'Anonymous' made the donation and named the court after his friend, saying, "Some people don't deserve to be forgotten." The facility is 255,000 square feet, with a 45,000 square feet pavilion, has three practice courts and offices. The seating capacity is 10,258, there are 22 private suites; the rights to purchase tickets for ⅓ of the seats are being sold through lifetime personal seat licenses, ranging from $2,500–$10,000 per seat. Taiwanese singer Jay Chou held his first concert on December 24, 2007 for his World Tour 2007; the venue was the temporary home of the Nickelodeon's Kids' Choice Awards while renovations occurred at UCLA's Pauley Pavilion beginning with the 2011 ceremony. The Galen hosted the KCA ceremonies from 2011 to 2014 the network returned in 2017, will once again return in 2019.
LAPD Cadets of Class 1-11 was held in May 2011. A Los Angeles Lakers practice game was held on December 16, 2011. Mic
The UCLA Bruins are the athletic teams that represent the University of California, Los Angeles. The Bruin men's and women's teams participate in NCAA Division I as part of the Pac-12 Conference and the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation. For football, they are in the Football Bowl Subdivision of Division I. UCLA is second to only Stanford University as the school with the most NCAA team championships at 116 NCAA team championships. UCLA offers 11 varsity sports 14 for women; the UCLA athletic teams' colors are True Gold. In the early days of the school, UCLA had the same colors as the University of Berkeley; when football coach Red Sanders came to UCLA for the 1949 season he redesigned the football uniforms. The Yale blue was changed to a lighter shade of blue. Sanders figured that the baby blue would look better in a film, he would dub powder blue with an explosive kick. For the 1954 football season, Sanders added a gold loop on the UCLA Stripe. UCLA still uses different color blues, they have an alternate uniform, predominately Navy.
Their helmet has the UCLA script in Royal. The 2010 team, under head coach John Savage, won the Los Angeles Regional and Super-Regional, was the first team to win 48 games in a season; the Bruins joined seven other teams in the 2010 College World Series and finished in second place, behind the University of South Carolina Gamecocks. The 2011 team won the Pac-10 Conference title; the 2013 team won UCLA's 109th NCAA Championship and their first in baseball in the 2013 College World Series by beating Mississippi State 3–1 and 8–0. Many UCLA baseball players have gone on to play in Major League Baseball. In the 2009 World Series, Chase Utley hit two home runs to help the Philadelphia Phillies win Game 1. There were a total of four former UCLA baseball players in the 2009 playoffs: Philadelphia's Ben Francisco and Chase Utley, Colorado's Garrett Atkins, St. Louis' Troy Glaus, the 2002 World Series MVP for the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim. Chris Chambliss and Gerrit Cole were No. 1 overall picks in the MLB drafts.
Trevor Bauer was drafted as the No. 3 pick by the Arizona Diamondbacks on June 6, 2011. Former UCLA shortstop Brandon Crawford hit a grand-slam home run in his major-league debut with the San Francisco Giants on May 27, 2011, helped the Giants to win the 2012 Major League World Series. Cole debuted with the Pittsburgh Pirates by winning his first four games he pitched and drove in two runs with a single in his first at-bat in the 2013 major league. Several of the most revered championships were won by the Men's Basketball team under coaches John Wooden and Jim Harrick; the rich legacy of UCLA basketball has produced 11 NCAA championships – 1964, 1965, 1967, 1968, 1969, 1970, 1971, 1972, 1973, 1975, 1995. From 1971 to 1974, UCLA won 88 an NCAA record for men. Recent UConn Huskies women's basketball teams have set overall NCAA basketball records with 90-game and 91-game winning streaks; the 35-year period preceding and including the UCLA streak was characterized by less dynasties, however: 20 different men's teams won titles during that span.
In comparison, the women's game to date has produced 35% less parity, with 13 schools winning all 35 titles offered since its inception. Past rosters of UCLA basketball teams have included greats such as Rafer Johnson, the 1960 Olympic Decathlon Champion, Gail Goodrich, Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, Bill Walton, Reggie Miller and Walt Hazzard; the Bruins had a winning record for 54 consecutive seasons from the 1948–1949 season to the 2001–2002 season. In recent years, UCLA Men's Basketball has returned to prominence under Coach Ben Howland. Between 2006 and 2008, UCLA has been to three consecutive Final Fours, while UCLA's players have received numerous awards, most notably Arron Afflalo, a 2007 First-Team All American and the Pac-10 Player of the Year, Kevin Love, a 2008 First-Team All American and the Pac-10 Player of the Year. UCLA has produced the most NBA Most Valuable Player Award winners, six of them by Abdul-Jabbar and one by Walton, Abdul-Jabbar's successor. In March 2013, UCLA relieved head men's basketball coach Ben Howland of his duties after UCLA dropped an 83–63 decision to Minnesota in a second-round game of the NCAA Tournament.
The current head coach is Murry Bartow, former head coach at UAB and interim head coach of South Florida. He is the interim head coach after Steve Alford was fired on December 31st, 2018. In the 1977–78 season, the women's basketball team, with a 27–2 record, were the AIAW Champions under head coach Billie Moore; the 2014–15 team won the 2015 WNIT championship by defeating the West Virginia Mountaineers 62–60 on April 4, 2015. The UCLA Bruins men's cross country team appeared in the NCAA Tournament thirteen times, with their highest finish being 5th place in the 1980–81 and 1981–82 school years; the UCLA Bruins women's cross country team appeared in the NCAA Tournament eleven times, with their highest finish being 6th place in the 1985–86 school year. In 1954, the UCLA football team earned a share of the national title with a 9–0 record and a #1 ranking in the Coaches UPI football poll, while Ohio State was ranked #1 in the AP Poll. Owing to rules in place at the time, UCLA was unable to face off against Ohio State in the Rose Bowl, which would have resulted in one or the other being declared national champion.
The Bruins have played in the Rose Bowl Game 12 times. The Bruins have shared the conference title 17 times. Among the many former UCLA football stars are Jackie Robinson (better known for his exploits as a bas
University of California, Los Angeles
The University of California, Los Angeles is a public research university in Los Angeles. It became the Southern Branch of the University of California in 1919, making it the third-oldest undergraduate campus of the 10-campus University of California system, it offers 337 graduate degree programs in a wide range of disciplines. UCLA enrolls about 31,000 undergraduate and 13,000 graduate students and had 119,000 applicants for Fall 2016, including transfer applicants, making the school the most applied-to of any American university; the university is organized into six undergraduate colleges, seven professional schools, four professional health science schools. The undergraduate colleges are the College of Science; as of 2017, 24 Nobel laureates, three Fields Medalists, five Turing Award winners, two Chief Scientists of the U. S. Air Force have been affiliated with UCLA as researchers, or alumni. Among the current faculty members, 55 have been elected to the National Academy of Sciences, 28 to the National Academy of Engineering, 39 to the Institute of Medicine, 124 to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.
The university was elected to the Association of American Universities in 1974. UCLA is considered one of the country's Public Ivies, meaning that it is a public university thought to provide a quality of education comparable with that of the Ivy League. In 2018, US News & World Report named UCLA the best public university in the United States. UCLA student-athletes compete as the Bruins in the Pac-12 Conference; the Bruins have won 126 national championships, including 116 NCAA team championships, more than any other university except Stanford, who has won 117. UCLA student-athletes and staff won 251 Olympic medals: 126 gold, 65 silver, 60 bronze. UCLA student-athletes competed in every Olympics since 1920 with one exception and won a gold medal in every Olympics the U. S. participated in since 1932. In March 1881, the California State Legislature authorized the creation of a southern branch of the California State Normal School in downtown Los Angeles to train teachers for the growing population of Southern California.
The Los Angeles branch of the California State Normal School opened on August 29, 1882, on what is now the site of the Central Library of the Los Angeles Public Library system. The facility included an elementary school where teachers-in-training could practice their technique with children; that elementary school is related to the present day UCLA Lab School. In 1887, the branch campus became independent and changed its name to Los Angeles State Normal School. In 1914, the school moved to a new campus on Vermont Avenue in East Hollywood. In 1917, UC Regent Edward Augustus Dickson, the only regent representing the Southland at the time, Ernest Carroll Moore, Director of the Normal School, began to lobby the State Legislature to enable the school to become the second University of California campus, after UC Berkeley, they met resistance from UC Berkeley alumni, Northern California members of the state legislature, Benjamin Ide Wheeler, President of the University of California from 1899 to 1919, who were all vigorously opposed to the idea of a southern campus.
However, David Prescott Barrows, the new President of the University of California, did not share Wheeler's objections. On May 23, 1919, the Southern Californians' efforts were rewarded when Governor William D. Stephens signed Assembly Bill 626 into law, which transformed the Los Angeles Normal School into the Southern Branch of the University of California; the same legislation added the College of Letters and Science. The Southern Branch campus opened on September 15 of that year, offering two-year undergraduate programs to 250 Letters and Science students and 1,250 students in the Teachers College, under Moore's continued direction. Under University of California President William Wallace Campbell, enrollment at the Southern Branch expanded so that by the mid-1920s the institution was outgrowing the 25 acre Vermont Avenue location; the Regents searched for a new location and announced their selection of the so-called "Beverly Site"—just west of Beverly Hills—on March 21, 1925 edging out the panoramic hills of the still-empty Palos Verdes Peninsula.
After the athletic teams entered the Pacific Coast conference in 1926, the Southern Branch student council adopted the nickname "Bruins", a name offered by the student council at UC Berkeley. In 1927, the Regents renamed the Southern Branch the University of California at Los Angeles. In the same year, the state broke ground in Westwood on land sold for $1 million, less than one-third its value, by real estate developers Edwin and Harold Janss, for whom the Janss Steps are named; the campus in Westwood opened to students in 1929. The original four buildings were the College Library, Royce Hall, the Physics-Biology Building, the Chemistry Building, arrayed around a quadrangular courtyard on the 400 acre campus; the first undergraduate classes on the new campus were held in 1929 with 5,500 students. After lobbying by alumni, faculty and community leaders, UCLA was permitted to award the master's degree in 1933, the doctorate in 1936, against continued resistance from UC Berkeley. A timeline of the history can be found on its website, as well
1990 NCAA Division I Women's Basketball Tournament
The 1990 NCAA Division I Women's Basketball Tournament began on March 11 and ended on April 1. The tournament featured 48 teams; the Final Four consisted of Virginia, Stanford and Louisiana Tech, with Stanford defeating Auburn 76-60 to win its first NCAA title. Stanford's Jennifer Azzi was named the Most Outstanding Player of the tournament. Forty-eight teams started the tournament on the eleventh of March. Thirteen days there were four team left, Auburn, Louisiana Tech and Stanford, headed to Knoxville, Tennessee for the Final Four. Stanford, after playing in the initial 1982 tournament, did not qualify between 1983–1987, but had reached the Sweet Sixteen in 1988, the Elite Eight in 1989. Virginia was competing in their seventh consecutive NCAA tournament, finishing as high as the Elite Eight in 1988. However, they had been knocked out of the tournament by Tennessee in each of the last three tournaments. Auburn, coached by Joe Ciampi, had been to all but one of the NCAA tournaments, reached the last two Final Fours, but finished in the Runner-up position in each year.
Louisiana Tech had not just played in every NCAA tournament, but had reached at least the Elite Eight every year, had two national championships. For the fourth consecutive year, Virginia faced Tennessee in the tournament; the previous three match ups were all won by Tennessee, including an 80–37 win in the 1989 tournament. This time, led by Dawn Staley who would win the MVP for her performance in the East Regional, the Cavaliers took the Volunteers to overtime, won 79–75. Virginia next faced Stanford, who had only lost one game all season, reached the final four by beating Arkansas 114–87 in the West Regional. Stanford wouldn't lose this game, prevailed over Virginia 75–66. In the other semi-final game, Auburn faced Louisiana Tech. Auburn came into the tournament as the prior year's runner-up, but was a two seed in the bracket with Washington, the only team to beat Stanford during the regular season. Auburn won beating the Huskies 76–50; the Tech team, only two years removed from their last national championship, were a 1 seed and beat Texas to advance to the Final Four.
Auburn was too strong for the Lady Techsters, advanced to the championship game with an 81–69 victory. Over twenty thousand people bought tickets for the championship game in Knoxville, the largest crowd to watch a women's basketball game. In 1985, Stanford head coach Tara VanDerveer had traveled to Knoxville to meet with the family of Jennifer Azzi, to try to persuade Azzi to come to Stanford. Despite finishing 9–19 the year before, VanDerveer talked about competing for a national championship, Azzi came to Stanford, four years was twenty miles from her Oak Ridge hometown, playing for the national championship. Auburn, led by Caroline Jones, pulled out to a nine-point lead in the first half. Azzi, who had not been able to take a shot in the first eleven minutes, took over, she brought the team to a tie at halftime, helped lead a 9–2 run early in the second half to take over the game. Azzi would win the tournament award for the most outstanding player, her teammate Katy Steding set three point shooting records to help Stanford win their first national championship 88–81, while Auburn would finish as runner-up for the third consecutive year.
Katy Steding set the Final Four record for both three points field goal attempts and three point field goals made, in the championship game against Auburn. Stanford set the NCAA Women's Tournament record for assist in a single games, with 37 assists in their Regional Final game against Arkansas. Forty-eight teams were selected to participate in the 1990 NCAA Tournament. Twenty-one conferences were eligible for an automatic bid to the 1990 NCAA tournament. Twenty-seven additional teams were selected to complete the forty-eight invitations. Twenty-one conferences earned an automatic bid. In eleven cases, the automatic bid was the only representative from the conference. Two conferences sent two representatives as an at-large team. Twenty-four additional at-large teams were selected from ten of the conferences. In 1990, the field remained at 48 teams; the teams were seeded, assigned to four geographic regions, with seeds 1-12 in each region. In Round 1, seeds 8 and 9 faced each other for the opportunity to face the 1 seed in the second round, seeds 7 and 10 played for the opportunity to face the 2 seed, seeds 5 and 12 played for the opportunity to face the 4 seed, seeds 6 and 11 played for the opportunity to face the 3 seed.
In the first two rounds, the higher seed was given the opportunity to host the first-round game. In most cases, the higher seed accepted the opportunity; the exception: Seventh seeded Penn State played tenth seeded Florida State at Florida StateThe following table lists the region, host school and the thirty-two first and second round locations: The Regionals, named for the general location, were held from March 22 to March 24 at these sites: East Regional E. A. Diddle Arena, Bowling Green, Kentucky Mideast Regional Memorial Coliseum, Alabama Midwest Regional Thomas Assembly Center, Louisiana West Regional Maples Pavilion, California Each regional winner advanced to the Final Four, held March 30 and April 1 in Knoxville, Tennessee at the Thompson-Boling Arena The forty-eight teams came from thirty states. California and Illinois had the most teams with four each. Twenty states did not have any teams receiving bids. First - and second-round games played at higher seed except. Fifteen conferences had more than one bid, or at least
Notre Dame Fighting Irish
The Notre Dame Fighting Irish are the athletic teams that represent the University of Notre Dame. The Fighting Irish participate in 23 National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I intercollegiate sports and in the NCAA's Division I in all sports, with many teams competing in the Atlantic Coast Conference. Notre Dame is one of only 16 universities in the United States that plays Division I FBS football and Division I men's ice hockey; the school colors are Gold and Blue and the mascot is the Leprechaun. Just where the moniker "Fighting Irish" came from is a matter of much debate and legend. One possibility is that the nickname is inherited from Irish immigrant soldiers who fought in the Civil War with the Union's Irish Brigade. Notre Dame's claim to the nickname would seem to come from the presence of Fr. William Corby, CSC, the third president of Notre Dame, at the Battle of Gettysburg. Fr. Corby served as chaplain of the Irish Brigade and granted general absolution to the troops in the midst of the battle.
This is commemorated in the painting "Absolution Under Fire," part of Notre Dame's permanent art collection. A print of the painting "The Original Fighting Irish" by former Fighting Irish lacrosse player Revere La Noue is on permanent display at Notre Dame's Arlotta Stadium; the print hangs in the office of head Notre Dame football coach Brian Kelly, who said that he had to have the work which captures the "swagger" and "toughness" of the football program after seeing it online. The athletes and teams at Notre Dame, now known as the Fighting Irish, were known by many different unofficial nicknames throughout the late 19th and early 20th centuries. During the Knute Rockne football era, Notre Dame had several unofficial nicknames, among them the "Rovers" and the "Ramblers"; these names reflected the teams' propensity to travel the nation to play its football contests, long before such national travel became the collegiate norm. Notre Dame was known unofficially as the "Terriers," after the Irish breed of the dog, for some years, an Irish Terrier would be found on the ND football sidelines.
One theory traces back to the visit from Irish freedom fighter and President of the Republic of Ireland, Éamon de Valera, part of the 1916 Easter Rising and was imprisoned and sentenced to death. He was elected to Parliament and arrested by the English again, he slipped off to America to avoid recapture. Barnstorming the country, the future president of Ireland was welcomed as a hero at Notre Dame on October 15, 1919. Accounts in Scholastic, a student publication, indicate that his visit tilted campus opinion in favor of the "Fighting Irish" moniker — though not completely. De Valera planted a "tree of liberty" as a memorial of his visit — only to have it uprooted a week and thrown in one of the campus lakes by a student "of Unionist persuasion."There are several other legends of how Notre Dame came to be the "Fighting Irish." One story suggests the moniker was born in 1899 during a game between Notre Northwestern. The Fighting Irish were leading 5–0 at halftime when the Wildcat fans began to chant, "Kill the Fighting Irish, kill the Fighting Irish," as the second half opened.
Another tale has the nickname originating at halftime of the Notre Dame-Michigan game in 1909. With his team trailing, one Notre Dame player yelled to his teammates —who had names like Dolan, Donnelly, Glynn and Ryan— "What's the matter with you guys? You're all Irish and you're not fighting worth a lick." Notre Dame came back to win the game, the press, after overhearing the remark, reported the game as a victory for the "Fighting Irish." Notre Dame was a member of the "old" Big East Conference until 2013. It is a member of the Atlantic Coast Conference in all sports except for the following: Football, in which the university maintains its status as an independent university, it is a member of the Football Bowl Subdivision, for postseason purposes Notre Dame is the only independent with the privileges granted to teams in the Power Five conferences. Men's hockey competes in the Big Ten, their former hockey conference, the Central Collegiate Hockey Association, disbanded after the 2012–13 season due to a major realignment of hockey conferences.
The Irish spent three seasons as a member of Hockey East before joining the Big Ten. According to men's basketball Coach Mike Brey, Notre Dame considered joining the Big Ten Conference in 2003, with the decision not to proceed occurring at the "11th hour." Head Coach: Brian Kelly Stadium: Notre Dame Stadium National Championships: 11 Consensus. There are other years where various polls claim Notre Dame as a National Champion, but those years are not consensus titles, thus are not claimed by the university; the school has a comprehensive and nationally competitive Division I athletic program, but it is most famous for its football program. Notre Dame fielded its first football team in 1887. With eleven football championships acknowledged by the NCAA, over 800 all-time wins, seven Heisman Trophy winners, famous head coaches, a 73.6% winning percentage and the most consensus All-Americans of any school, Notre Dame football is one of the most storied programs both on the gridiron and college athletics in general.
Notre Dame has struggled, going through several head coaches and setting the all-time bowl losing streak of nine straight with the loss to LSU in the 2007 Sugar Bowl before beating Hawaii in the 2008 Hawaii Bowl. Notre Dame is the only football program in the nation, including both collegiate and professional ones, with every home game being on national broadcast television. In addit