The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Advanced Micro Devices
Advanced Micro Devices, Inc. is an American multinational semiconductor company based in Santa Clara and Austin, Texas that develops computer processors and related technologies for business and consumer markets. While it manufactured its own processors, the company outsourced its manufacturing, a practice known as fabless, after GlobalFoundries was spun off in 2009. AMD's main products include microprocessors, motherboard chipsets, embedded processors and graphics processors for servers and personal computers, embedded systems applications. AMD is the second-largest supplier and only significant rival to Intel in the market for x86-based microprocessors. Since acquiring ATI in 2006, AMD and its competitor Nvidia have maintained a duopoly in the discrete Graphics Processing Unit market. Advanced Micro Devices was formally incorporated on May 1, 1969, by Jerry Sanders, along with seven of his colleagues from Fairchild Semiconductor. Sanders, an electrical engineer, the director of marketing at Fairchild, like many Fairchild executives, grown frustrated with the increasing lack of support and flexibility within the company, decided to leave to start his own semiconductor company.
The previous year Robert Noyce, who had invented the first practical integrated circuit or the microchip in 1959 at Fairchild, had left Fairchild together with Gordon Moore and founded the semiconductor company Intel in July 1968. In September 1969, AMD moved from its temporary location in Santa Clara to California. To secure a customer base, AMD became a second source supplier of microchips designed by Fairchild and National Semiconductor. AMD first focused on producing logic chips; the company guaranteed quality control to United States Military Standard, an advantage in the early computer industry since unreliability in microchips was a distinct problem that customers – including computer manufacturers, the telecommunications industry, instrument manufacturers – wanted to avoid. In November 1969, the company manufactured its first product, the Am9300, a 4-bit MSI shift register, which began selling in 1970. In 1970, AMD produced its first proprietary product, the Am2501 logic counter, successful.
Its best-selling product in 1971 was the Am2505, the fastest multiplier available. In 1971, AMD entered the RAM chip market, beginning with the Am3101, a 64-bit bipolar RAM; that year AMD greatly increased the sales volume of its linear integrated circuits, by year end the company's total annual sales reached $4.6 million. AMD went public in September 1972; the company was a second source for Intel MOS/LSI circuits by 1973, with products such as Am14/1506 and Am14/1507, dual 100-bit dynamic shift registers. By 1975, AMD was producing 212 products – of which 49 were proprietary, including the Am9102 and three low-power Schottky MSI circuits: Am25LS07, Am25LS08, Am25LS09. Intel had created the first microprocessor, its 4-bit 4004, in 1971. By 1975, AMD entered the microprocessor market with the Am9080, a reverse-engineered clone of the Intel 8080, the Am2900 bit-slice microprocessor family; when Intel began installing microcode in its microprocessors in 1976, it entered into a cross-licensing agreement with AMD, granting AMD a copyright license to the microcode in its microprocessors and peripherals, effective October 1976.
In 1977, AMD entered into a joint venture with Siemens, a German engineering conglomerate wishing to enhance its technology expertise and enter the U. S. market. Siemens purchased 20 % of AMD's stock; that year the two companies jointly established Advanced Micro Computers, located in Silicon Valley and in Germany, giving AMD an opportunity to enter the microcomputer development and manufacturing field, in particular based on AMD's second-source Zilog Z8000 microprocessors. When the two companies' vision for Advanced Micro Computers diverged, AMD bought out Siemens' stake in the U. S. division in 1979. AMD closed its Advanced Micro Computers subsidiary in late 1981, after switching focus to manufacturing second-source Intel x86 microprocessors. Total sales in fiscal year 1978 topped $100 million, in 1979, AMD debuted on the New York Stock Exchange. In 1979, production began in AMD's new semiconductor fab in Austin, Texas. In 1980, AMD began supplying semiconductor products for telecommunications, an industry undergoing rapid expansion and innovation.
Intel had introduced the first x86 microprocessors in 1978. In 1981, IBM created its PC, wanted Intel's x86 processors, but only under the condition that Intel provide a second-source manufacturer for its patented x86 microprocessors. Intel and AMD entered into a 10-year technology exchange agreement, first signed in October 1981 and formally executed in February 1982; the terms of the agreement were that each company could acquire the right to become a second-source manufacturer of semiconductor products developed by the other. The technical information and licenses needed to make and sell a part would be exchanged for a royalty to the developing company; the 1982 agreement extended the 1976 AMD–Intel cross-licensing agreement through 1995. The agreement included the right to invoke arbitration of disagreements, after five years the right of either party to end the agreement with one year's notice; the main result of the 1982 agreeme
George W. Bush
George Walker Bush is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd president of the United States from 2001 to 2009. He had served as the 46th governor of Texas from 1995 to 2000. Bush was born in New Haven and grew up in Texas. After graduating from Yale University in 1968 and Harvard Business School in 1975, he worked in the oil industry. Bush married Laura Welch in 1977 and unsuccessfully ran for the U. S. House of Representatives shortly thereafter, he co-owned the Texas Rangers baseball team before defeating Ann Richards in the 1994 Texas gubernatorial election. Bush was elected President of the United States in 2000 when he defeated Democratic incumbent Vice President Al Gore after a close and controversial win that involved a stopped recount in Florida, he became the fourth person to be elected president while receiving fewer popular votes than his opponent. Bush is a member of a prominent political family and is the eldest son of Barbara and George H. W. Bush, the 41st president of the United States.
He is only the second president to assume the nation's highest office after his father, following the footsteps of John Adams and his son, John Quincy Adams. His brother Jeb Bush, a former Governor of Florida, was a candidate for the Republican presidential nomination in the 2016 presidential election, his paternal grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U. S. Senator from Connecticut; the September 11 terrorist attacks occurred eight months into Bush's first term. Bush responded with what became known as the Bush Doctrine: launching a "War on Terror", an international military campaign that included the war in Afghanistan in 2001 and the Iraq War in 2003, he signed into law broad tax cuts, the Patriot Act, the No Child Left Behind Act, the Partial-Birth Abortion Ban Act, Medicare prescription drug benefits for seniors, funding for the AIDS relief program known as PEPFAR. His tenure included national debates on immigration, Social Security, electronic surveillance, torture. In the 2004 presidential race, Bush defeated Democratic Senator John Kerry in another close election.
After his re-election, Bush received heated criticism from across the political spectrum for his handling of the Iraq War, Hurricane Katrina, other challenges. Amid this criticism, the Democratic Party regained control of Congress in the 2006 elections. In December 2007, the United States entered its longest post-World War II recession referred to as the "Great Recession", prompting the Bush administration to obtain congressional passage of multiple economic programs intended to preserve the country's financial system. Nationally, Bush was both one of the most popular and unpopular U. S. presidents in history, having received the highest recorded presidential approval ratings in the wake of the 9/11 attacks, as well as one of the lowest approval ratings during the 2008 financial crisis. Bush finished his term in office in 2009 and returned to Texas, where he had purchased a home in Dallas. In 2010, he published Decision Points, his presidential library was opened in 2013. His presidency has been ranked among the worst in historians' polls that were published in the late 2000s and 2010s.
However, his favorability ratings with the public have improved after leaving office. George Walker Bush was born on July 6, 1946, at Yale–New Haven Hospital in New Haven, while his father was a student at Yale, he was his wife, Barbara Pierce. He was raised in Midland and Houston, with four siblings, Neil and Dorothy. Another younger sister, died from leukemia at the age of three in 1953, his grandfather, Prescott Bush, was a U. S. Senator from Connecticut, his father was Ronald Reagan's vice president from 1981 to 1989 and the 41st U. S. president from 1989 to 1993. Bush has English and some German ancestry, along with more distant Dutch, Irish and Scottish roots. Bush attended public schools in Midland, until the family moved to Houston after he had completed seventh grade, he spent two years at The Kinkaid School, a prep school in Piney Point Village in the Houston area. Bush attended high school at Phillips Academy, a boarding school in Andover, where he played baseball and was the head cheerleader during his senior year.
He attended Yale University from 1964 to 1968. During this time, he was a cheerleader and a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon, serving as the president of the fraternity during his senior year. Bush became a member of the Skull and Bones society as a senior. Bush was a rugby union player and was on Yale's 1st XV, he characterized himself as an average student. His GPA during his first three years at Yale was 77, he had a similar average under a nonnumeric rating system in his final year. In the fall of 1973, Bush entered Harvard Business School, he graduated in 1975 with an MBA degree. He is the only U. S. president to have earned an MBA. Bush was engaged to Cathryn Lee Wolfman in 1967, but the engagement fizzled out. Bush and Wolfman remained on good terms after the end of the relationship. While Bush was at a backyard barbecue in 1977, friends introduced him to Laura Welch, a schoolteacher and librarian. After a three-month courtship, she accepted his marriage proposal and they wed on November 5 of that year.
The couple settled in Texas. Bush left his family's Episcopal Church to join his wife's United Methodist Church. On November 25, 1981, Laura Bush gave birth to fraternal twin daughters and Jenna. Prior to getting married, Bush struggled with multiple episodes of alcohol abuse. In one instance on September 4, 1976, he was pulled over near his fami
Asad Ali Abidi is a Pakistani-American electrical engineer who serves as a tenured professor at University of California, Los Angeles and is the inaugural holder of the Abdus Salam Chair at LUMS. Born and raised in Pakistan, Abidi received his B. S. from the Imperial College London followed by a M. S. and PhD from the University of California, Berkeley in 1981. He worked as an electrical engineer with Bell Labs and in January 1985 joined UCLA as a tenured academic. In 2007, he left for a three-year sabbatical to work as a founding dean of the engineering school at Lahore University of Management Sciences and returned to Los Angeles in 2009. In 2017, he was named as the inaugural holder of the Abdus Salam Chair at LUMS. Abidi is a prominent academic and is a member of the National Academy of Engineering and The World Academy of Sciences, he received the IEEE Donald O. Pederson Award in Solid-State Circuits in 2008 In 2015, UC, Berkeley recognised him as a distinguished alumnus for his contributions to the theory and practice of analog and RF circuits.
Abidi was educated till matriculation at Cadet College Hasan Abdal, completed his high school from Dudley College of Technology, UK, gained a B. Sc. degree in electrical engineering at Imperial College, London, in 1976. He attended University of California, Berkeley. Sc. degrees in electrical engineering in 1978 and a Ph. D in 1981 under the supervision of Robert Meyer. Abidi is a member of the United States National Academy of Engineering, he joined LUMS School of Engineering as its first dean. Since 1985, Abidi worked at UCLA, where he is a Distinguished Chancellor's Professor. From 1981 to 1984, he worked for Bell Laboratories as a Member of Technical Staff at the Advanced LSI Development Laboratory, he was a Visiting Faculty Researcher at Hewlett Packard Laboratories in 1989. He is one of only a few Pakistani-origin members of the NAE. and was recognized as an ISSCC top-ten author. Abidi served as the Program Secretary for the IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference from 1984 to 1990, was the General Chairman of the Symposium on VLSI Circuits in 1992.
He was the Secretary of the IEEE Solid-State Circuits Council from 1990 to 1991. From 1992 to 1995, he was the Editor-in-Chief of the IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits. 2013 Armstrong Memorial Lecturer, Columbia University 2013 ISSCC Outstanding Contributor over its 60 years 2012 Best Paper Award, IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits 2012 ISSCC Distinguished Technical Paper Award 2009 The World Academy of Sciences-TWAS 2008 UCLA HSSEAS Lockheed Martin Award for Excellence in Teaching 2008 IEEE Donald O. Pederson Award in Solid-State Circuits"For pioneering and sustained contributions in the development of RF-CMOS" 2007 National Academy of Engineering"For contributions to the development of integrated circuits for MOS RF communications" Top 10 contributors to the ISSCC in its 50-year history 2000 IEEE Third Millennium Medal 1998 Design Contest Award at the Design Automation Conference 1997 ISSCC Jack Raper Outstanding Technology Directions Paper Award 1997 IEEE Donald G. Fink Prize Paper Award 1996 Best Paper Award of the 21st European Solid State Circuits Conference 1988 TRW Award for Innovative Teaching Postdoctoral Research Associate An IEEE Fellow Member, United States National Academy of Engineering Fellow, The World Academy of Sciences Ahmad Mirzaei, Asad Abidi and Design of IF and RF Circuits for SDR Receivers: Anti-aliasing Pre-filters and Low-noise Quadrature LO Generation and Injection-locked Dividers, VDM Verlag, 2008 Emad Hegazi, Jacob Rael, Asad Abidi, The Designer's Guide to High-Purity Oscillators, Springer, 2005.
ISBN 1-4020-7666-5 Asad A. Abidi, P. R. Gray, R. G. Meyer, Integrated Circuits for Wireless Communications, IEEE Press, NY, 1998
University of California, Davis
The University of California, Davis, is a public research university and land-grant university adjacent to Davis, California. It is part of the University of California system and has the third-largest enrollment in the UC System after UCLA and UC Berkeley; the institution was founded as a branch in 1909 and became its own separate entity in 1959. It has been labeled one of the "Public Ivies", a publicly funded university considered to provide a quality of education comparable to those of the Ivy League; the Carnegie Foundation classifies UC Davis as a comprehensive doctoral research university with a medical program, high research activity. The UC Davis faculty includes 23 members of the National Academy of Sciences, 30 members of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 17 members of the American Law Institute, 14 members of the Institute of Medicine, 14 members of the National Academy of Engineering. Among other honors, university faculty and researchers have won the Nobel Peace Prize, Presidential Medal of Freedom, Pulitzer Prize, MacArthur Fellowship, National Medal of Science, Blue Planet Prize, Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers.
Founded as an agricultural campus, the university has expanded over the past century to include graduate and professional programs in medicine, veterinary medicine, education and business management, in addition to 90 research programs offered by UC Davis Graduate Studies. The UC Davis School of Veterinary Medicine is the largest in the United States and has been ranked first in the world for four consecutive years, 2015, 2016, 2017, 2018; the UC Davis Aggies athletic teams compete in the NCAA Division I level in the Big West Conference as well as the Big Sky Conference and the Mountain Pacific Sports Federation. In its first year of full Division I status, 11 UC Davis teams qualified for NCAA post-season competition. UC Davis was ranked as the 29th best national university, as the 42nd best world university according to the 2018-2019 CWUR rankings. UC Davis was named the 5th best public university in the nation according to Times/WSJ in the 2019 version. In 1905, the California legislature passed the University Farm Bill, which called for the establishment of a farm school for the University of California.
The commission took a year to select a site for the campus, a tiny town known as Davisville. UC Davis opened its doors as the "University Farm" to 40 degree students from UC Berkeley in January 1909; the Farm was established the result of the vision and perseverance of Peter J. Shields, secretary of the State Agricultural Society; the Peter J. Shields Library at UC Davis was named in his honor. Shields began to champion the cause of a University Farm to teach agriculture after learning that California students were going to out-of-state universities to pursue such education. After two failed bills, a law authorizing the creation of a University Farm was passed on March 18, 1905. Yolo County, home to some of California's prime farmland, was chosen as the site. A committee appointed by the Regents purchased land near Davisville in 1906; the Regents took control of the property in September 1906 and constructed four buildings in 1907. Short courses were first offered in 1908 and a three-year non-degree program set up in 1909.
In 1911, the first class graduated from the University Farm. The Farm accepted its first female students in 1914 from Berkeley; the three-year non-degree program continued until 1923. At that time, a two-year non-degree program began, continuing until 1958. In 1922, a four-year undergraduate general academic program was established, with the first class graduating in 1926. Renamed in 1922 as the Northern Branch of the College of Agriculture, the institution continued growing at a breakneck pace: in 1916 the Farm's 314 students occupied the original 778 acres campus. By 1951 it had expanded to a size of 3,000 acres. In 1959, the campus was declared by the Regents of the University of California as the seventh general campus in the University of California system. Davis' Graduate Division was established in 1961 followed by the College of Engineering in 1962; the law school opened for classes in fall 1966, the School of Medicine began instruction in fall 1968. In a period of increasing activism, a Native American studies program was started in 1969, one of the first at a major university.
During a protest against tuition hikes on November 18, 2011, a campus police officer, Lieutenant John Pike, used pepper spray on a group of seated demonstrators when they refused to disperse, another officer pepper sprayed demonstrators at Pike's direction. The incident drew international attention and led to further demonstrations, a formal investigation, Pike's departure in July 2012. Documents released in 2016 through a public records request showed that the university had spent at least $175,000 to attempt to "scrub the Internet of negative postings" about the incident, in efforts that started in 2013. California newspaper The Sacramento Bee obtained a document outlining the public relations strategy, which stated: "Nevins and Associates is prepared to create and execute an online branding campaign designed to clean up the negative attention the University of California and Chancellor Katehi have received related to the events that transpired in November 2011"; the strategy included an "aggressive and comprehensive on
National Medal of Science
The National Medal of Science is an honor bestowed by the President of the United States to individuals in science and engineering who have made important contributions to the advancement of knowledge in the fields of behavioral and social sciences, chemistry, engineering and physics. The twelve member presidential Committee on the National Medal of Science is responsible for selecting award recipients and is administered by the National Science Foundation; the National Medal of Science was established on August 25, 1959, by an act of the Congress of the United States under Pub. L. 86–209. The medal was to honor scientists in the fields of the "physical, mathematical, or engineering sciences"; the Committee on the National Medal of Science was established on August 23, 1961, by executive order 10961 of President John F. Kennedy. On January 7, 1979, the American Association for the Advancement of Science passed a resolution proposing that the medal be expanded to include the social and behavioral sciences.
In response, Senator Ted Kennedy introduced the Science and Technology Equal Opportunities Act into the Senate on March 7, 1979, expanding the medal to include these scientific disciplines as well. President Jimmy Carter's signature enacted this change as Public Law 96-516 on December 12, 1980. In 1992, the National Science Foundation signed a letter of agreement with the National Science and Technology Medals Foundation that made the National Science and Technology Medals Foundation the metaorganization over both the National Medal of Science and the similar National Medal of Technology; the first National Medal of Science was awarded on February 18, 1963, for the year 1962 by President John F. Kennedy to Theodore von Kármán for his work at the Caltech Jet Propulsion Laboratory; the citation accompanying von Kármán's award reads: For his leadership in the science and engineering basic to aeronautics. The first woman to receive a National Medal of Science was Barbara McClintock, awarded for her work on plant genetics in 1970.
Although Public Law 86-209 provides for 20 recipients of the medal per year, it is typical for 8–15 accomplished scientists and engineers to receive this distinction each year. There have been a number of years; those years include: 1985, 1984, 1980, 1978, 1977, 1972 and 1971. The awards ceremony is organized by the Office of Technology Policy, it is presided by the sitting United States president. Each year the National Science Foundation sends out a call to the scientific community for the nomination of new candidates for the National Medal of Science. Individuals are nominated by their peers with each nomination requiring three letters of support from individuals in science and technology. Nominations are sent to the Committee of the National Medal of Science, a board composed of fourteen presidential appointees comprising twelve scientists, two ex officio members—the director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy and the president of the National Academy of Sciences. According to the Committee, successful candidates must be U.
S. citizens or permanent residents who are applying for U. S. citizenship, who have done work of outstanding merit or that has had a major impact on scientific thought in their field. The Committee values those who promote the general advancement of science and individuals who have influenced science education, although these traits are less important than groundbreaking or thought-provoking research; the nomination of a candidate is effective for three years. The Committee makes their recommendations to the President for the final awarding decision; the National Medal of Science depicts Man, surrounded by earth and sky, contemplating and struggling to understand Nature. The crystal in his hand represents the universal order and suggests the basic unit of living things; the formula being outlined in the sand symbolizes scientific abstraction. National Medal of Arts National Medal of Technology and Innovation National Science Foundation Searchable Database of National Medal of Science Recipients National Science & Technology Medals Foundation Using the National Medal of Science to recognize advances in psychology
Engineering education is the activity of teaching knowledge and principles to the professional practice of engineering. It includes an initial education, any advanced education and specializations that follow. Engineering education is accompanied by additional postgraduate examinations and supervised training as the requirements for a professional engineering license; the length of education, training to qualify as a basic professional engineer, is 8–12 years, with 15–20 years for an engineer who takes responsibility for major projects. Science, technology and mathematics education in primary and secondary schools serves as the foundation for engineering education at the university level. In the United States, engineering education is a part of the STEM initiative in public schools. Service-learning in engineering education is gaining popularity within the variety of disciplinary focuses within engineering education including chemical engineering, mechanical engineering, industrial engineering, computer engineering, electrical engineering, other engineering education.
Engineering training in Kenya is provided by the universities. Registration of engineers is governed by the Engineers Registration Act. A candidate stands to qualify as a registered engineer, R. Eng, if he/she is a holder of a minimum four years post-secondary Engineering Education and a minimum of three years of postgraduate work experience. All registrations are undertaken by the Engineers Registration Board, a statutory body established through an Act of the Kenyan Parliament in 1969. A minor revision was done in 1992 to accommodate Technician Engineer grade; the Board has been given the responsibility of regulating the activities and conduct of Practicing Engineers in the Republic of Kenya in accordance with the functions and powers conferred upon it by the Act. Under CAP 530 of the Laws of Kenya, it is illegal for an engineer to practice or call himself an engineer if not registered with the Board. Registration with the Board is thus a license to practice engineering in Kenya. Engineering training in South Africa is provided by the universities, universities of technology and colleges for Technical and Vocational Education and Training.
The qualifications provided by these institutions must have an Engineering Council of South Africa accreditation for the qualification for graduates and diplomats of these institutions to be registered as Candidate Certificated Engineers,Candidate Engineers, Candidate Engineering Technologists and Candidate Engineering Technicians. The academic training performed by the universities is in the form of a four-year BSc, BIng or BEng degree. For the degree to be accredited, the course material must conform to the ECSA Exit Level Outcomes. Professional Engineers are persons. A Professional Engineer's sign off is required for any major project to be implemented, in order to ensure the safety and standards of the project. Professional Engineering Technologists and Professional Engineering Technicians are other members of the engineering team. Professional Certificated Engineers are people who hold one of seven Government Certificates of Competency and who have been registered by ECSA as engineering professionals.
The categories of professionals are differentiated by the degree of complexity of work carried out, where Professional Engineers are expected to solve complex engineering problems, Professional Engineering Technologists and Professional Certificated Engineers, broadly defined engineering problems and Professional Engineering Technicians, well-defined engineering problems. Engineering training in Tanzania is provided by various universities and technical institutions in the country. Graduate engineers are registered by the Engineers Registration Board after undergoing three years of practical training. A candidate stands to qualify as a professional engineer, P. Eng, if he/she is a holder of a minimum four years post-secondary Engineering Education and a minimum of three years of postgraduate work experience. Engineers Registration Board is a statutory body established through an Act of the Tanzanian Parliament in 1968. Minor revision was done in 1997 to address the issue of engineering professional excellence in the country.
The Board has been given the responsibility of regulating the activities and conduct of Practicing Engineers in the United Republic of Tanzania in accordance with the functions and powers conferred upon it by the Act. According to Tanzania Laws, it is illegal for an engineer to practice or call himself an engineer if not registered with the Board. Registration with the Board is thus a license to practice engineering in United Republic of Tanzania. Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology Dhaka University of Engineering & Technology Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology Chittagong University of Engineering & Technology Khulna University of Engineering & Technology Sylhet Engineering College Mymensingh Engineering College TARLAC STATE UNIVERSITY Jashore University of Science & Technology In Hong Kong, engineering degree programmes are offered by public universities funded by the University Grant Committee. There are 94 UGC-funded programmes in engineering and technology offered by City University of Hong Kong, the Chinese University of Hong Kong, the Hong Kong Polytechnic University, the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, the University of Hong Kong.
For example, the Faculty of Engineering of the University of Hong Kong (H