UC Berkeley School of Law

The University of California, School of Law is one of 14 schools and colleges at the University of California, Berkeley. Berkeley Law is ranked as one of the top public law schools in the United States and one of the top law schools in the world. In 2018, 89% of graduates obtained full-time jobs within ten months; the law school has produced a number of leaders in law and society, including Chief Justice of the United States Earl Warren, United States Secretary of State Dean Rusk, United States Attorney General Edwin Meese, United States Secretary of the Treasury and Chairman of the Federal Reserve G. William Miller, Solicitor General of the United States Theodore Olson, lead litigator of the Korematsu v. United States civil rights case, Dale Minami; the Department of Jurisprudence was founded at Berkeley in 1894. In 1912, the department was renamed the School of Jurisprudence, it was again renamed as the School of Law in 1950; the School was located in the center of the main UC Berkeley campus in Boalt Memorial Hall of Law, built in 1911 with funds from Elizabeth Josselyn Boalt donated in memory of her late husband, John Henry Boalt, an attorney who had resided in Oakland, California until his death in 1901.

In 1951, the School moved to its current location in the new law building, the instructional portion of, named Boalt Hall, at the southeast corner of the campus, the old Boalt Hall was renamed Durant Hall. In April 2008, the law school rebranded itself through a change of name from "Boalt Hall" to "Berkeley Law" to tie the law school's name more with the campus upon which it resides; the administration hoped that this would improve the law school's national and international name recognition since people know of UC Berkeley and that it has a law school but are confused by the use of "Boalt Hall". UC Berkeley removed the name Boalt from the law school building in January 2020; the de-naming was the outcome of a nearly three-year process launched after a Berkeley lecturer discovered writings by John Henry Boalt which the university deemed racist. In an e-mail to the university at the time, UC Berkeley Chancellor Carol Christ wrote, "Boalt made profoundly offensive and racist statements about Chinese and Chinese Americans, suggesting that it would be better to'exterminate' those of Chinese descent than to have them assimilate."

The university found that Boalt had no other historical legacy than his racism, that naming the building after him had not been a condition of his widow's donation. This was the first time in UC Berkeley's history that the name of a building was removed because its namesake's values didn't align with those of the institution. Berkeley Law has 850 J. D. students, 200 students in the LL. M. and J. S. D. Programs, 45 students in the Ph. D. program in Social Policy. The School features specialized curricular programs in Business and Economics, Comparative Legal Studies, Environmental Law, International Legal Studies and Technology, Social Justice; the J. D. program's admissions process is selective. Berkeley Law is known to value high undergraduate GPAs. Berkeley has the 9th highest 75th percentile GPA. According to U. S. News and World Report, Berkeley has the 12th lowest acceptance rate among U. S. law schools, with about 25% of applicants admitted. For the class entering in the fall of 2017, 1,266 out of 5,466 applicants were offered admission, with 303 matriculating.

The 25th and 75th Law School Admission Test percentiles for the 2017 entering class were 164 and 168 with a median of 166. The 25th and 75th undergraduate GPA percentiles were 3.66 and 3.88 with a median of 3.79. Berkeley Law's grading system for the J. D. program is similar to the grading system used at Yale Law School. Students are graded on a High Honors and Pass scale. 60% of the students in each class receive a grade of Pass, 30% receive a grade of Honors, the highest 10% receive a grade of High Honors. The top student in each class or section receives the Jurisprudence Award, while the second-place student receives the Prosser Prize. For a typical class in the J. D. program, the average age of admitted students is 24 years old, over a range of ages from 20 to 48 years old. Berkeley Law's tuition has increased in recent years. Tuition and fees are $49,364 per year and $53,315 per year. Most out-of-state students may claim in-state status in their second year of study; the faculty of Berkeley Law provide academic direction and the bulk of the instruction for the undergraduate program in Legal Studies, organized as a major in Letters and Science.

The Legal Studies program is not intended as a pre-law program, but rather as a liberal arts program "that can encourage sustained reflection on fundamental values."Berkeley Law has a chapter of the Order of the Coif, a national law school honorary society founded for the purposes of encouraging legal scholarship and advancing the ethical standards of the legal profession. It is an American Bar Association approved law school since 1923, it joined the Association of American Law Schools in 1912. Berkeley Law offers combined degree programs with other schools at the University of California, as well as MA degrees from Tufts University and Harvard University. In 2018, QS World Rankings ranked Berkeley Law as the 7th best law school in

Central Indian Ridge

The Central Indian Ridge is a north-south-trending mid-ocean ridge in the western Indian Ocean. The morphology of the CIR is characteristic of slow to intermediate ridges; the axial valley is 500–1000 m deep. Melt supply comes from axial volcanic ridges that are 15 km-long, 1–2 km wide, reaches 100–200 m above the axial floor. With a spreading rate of 30 mm/yr near the Equator and 49 mm/yr near the Rodrigues Triple Junction at its southern end, the CIR is an intermediately fast spreading ridge characterised by moderate obliquity and few large offsets, the obvious exception being the 300 km-long Marie Celeste Fracture Zone at 18°S. Between 21°S and the Marie Celeste Fracture Zone the CIR deviates westward. Along this section the larger offsets switch from right-lateral to left-lateral but return to right-lateral north of 18°S. Otherwise, the southern section of the CIR is near-orthogonal relative to the spreading direction. North of the Argo FZ it is oblique and dominated by numerous small ridge segments.

The northern section of the CIR, including the Carlsberg Ridge, trends lacks fracture zones. The axial depth of the CIR increases from 3200 m at 20°S to 4000 m at the RTJ; the CIR is traditionally said to separate the African Plate from the Indo-Australian Plate. The Owen Fracture Zone in the northern end of the CIR is traditionally said to separate the Indian-Australian plate from the Arabian Plate. Movements in the Owen Fracture Zone are, however and Arabia and India are moving as a single plate; this plate, in turn, is separated from the Australian Plate by a diffuse boundary, the India–Capricorn boundary, which stretches east from the CIR near Chagos Bank to the Ninety East Ridge and north along the Ninety East Ridge to the northern end of the Sunda Trench. This diffuse boundary was initiated in the Late Miocene and is related to opening of Gulf of Aden and the uplift of the Himalayas; the CIR was opened during the separation of the Mascarene Plateau and the Chagos-Laccadive Ridge about 38 Ma, both of which are the products of the Réunion hotspot, the only hotspot known to have interacted with the CIR.

Now located 1100 km from the CIR, hotspot crossed the CIR near 18-20°S, from the Indian to the African plate, at 47 Ma. The Réunion hotspot track includes the Chagos-Laccadive Ridge on the Indian Plate which leads to the Indian west-coast where the newborn hotspot produced the Deccan Traps in north-west India at 66 Ma; the only above-water structure near the CIR is the Rodrigues Island, the top of the enigmatic Rodrigues Ridge between Mauritius and the CIR. The Rodrigues Ridge reaches the CIR at 19°S via a series of en echelon ridges known as the Three Magi. Volcanic rocks from the Rodrigues Island are, similar to 1,58-1,30 Ma-old rocks from Réunion and Mauritius and the Rodrigues Ridge can't therefore have originated on the CIR leaving the Réunion hotspot the most candidate. TAIGA Concept. "Part II Central Indian Ridge". In Ishibashi, J.. Subseafloor Biosphere Linked to Hydrothermal Systems. Springer. Pp. 133–214. Doi:10.1007/978-4-431-54865-2. ISBN 978-4-431-54865-2

The Problem with Popplers

"The Problem with Popplers" is the fifteenth episode in the second season of Futurama. It aired on the Fox network in the United States on May 7, 2000; the title is a reference to the Star Trek: The Original Series episode "The Trouble with Tribbles". The episode focuses on the Planet Express crew discovering what they think is fast food they call "Popplers," but they turn out to be the young of the Omicron aliens, the evil Lrrr seeks revenge; when the Planet Express crew lands on a planet in search for a fast food restaurant, they find that it abounds in a delicious edible life-form, which they call "Popplers". The addictive "Popplers" soon inspire a new business venture for the crew. After Popplers become an popular food item and the organization MEAT begins to protest against them, it is learned that they are the larval stage of the Omicronian race, that the planet where they came from is one of the nursery planets of the Omicronians. Leela, the first to discover this when a Poppler awakens in her hands, leads the charge to stop the eating of Popplers.

This fails due to Bender's subversive actions. The warlike natives of Omicron Persei 8, led by Lrrr, arrive to seek justice for humans devouring billions of their young; the Omicronians demand that they be allowed to eat the same number of Earthlings as "Popplers" which were eaten. Since there are fewer humans on Earth than the number of Popplers that were eaten, since Lrrr filled up on nuts during the negotiations, the Omicronians choose instead to eat the first Earthling to eat their young: Leela. In order to fool the Omicronians, Zapp Brannigan brings a female orangutan dressed and styled as Leela; the Omicronians are fooled because they have difficulty recognizing individual humans. After realizing the trick, after Ndnd eats the orangutan, Lrrr demands the real Leela. With Leela in Lrrr's mouth, the small Omicronian, whom Leela had been nannying since birth, arrives. Jrrr jumps into Leela's mouth and convinces the Omicronians that it is wrong to eat other intelligent life out of revenge; the Omicronians not before Lrrr devours Waterfall Junior.

The amount of drugs in Waterfall's system leads to Lrrr becoming stoned. The episode ends with the Planet Express Crew eating a smorgasbord buffet of unintelligent animals, including a suckling pig and a dolphin who wasted all his money on instant-lottery tickets; the episode was ranked number eleven on IGN's top 25 episode list noting its great premise. In Doug Pratt's DVD Pratt called the episode "original and inspired"; the A. V. Club gave the episode an A. "The Problem with Popplers" at the Infosphere, the Futurama Wiki. "The Problem with Popplers" on IMDb "The Problem with Popplers" at