UEFA Euro 2000

The 2000 UEFA European Football Championship known as Euro 2000, was the 11th UEFA European Championship, held every four years and organised by UEFA, association football's governing body in Europe. The finals of Euro 2000 were co-hosted by Belgium and the Netherlands, between 10 June and 2 July 2000. Spain and Austria bid to host the event; the final tournament was contested by 16 nations. With the exception of the national teams of the hosts and the Netherlands, the finalists had to go through a qualifying round to reach the final stage. France won the tournament, by defeating Italy 2–1 in the final, via a golden goal; the finals saw the first major UEFA competition contested in the King Baudouin Stadium since the events of the 1985 European Cup Final and the Heysel Stadium disaster, with the opening game being played in the rebuilt stadium. A high-scoring tournament with many exciting matches and a high standard of play, Euro 2000 is named by football writers as one of the greatest international tournaments ever.

Belgium and the Netherlands were selected as co-hosts on 14 July 1995 by the UEFA Executive Committee at a meeting in Geneva, Switzerland. Football hooliganism was a significant problem in the Netherlands in the 1990s the fierce rivalry between AFC Ajax and Feyenoord. There were concerns. Many instances of violence occurred, including several football riots in Rotterdam between 1995 and 1999, which would host the Euro 2000 final. One of the most infamous incidents was the Battle of Beverwijk in 1997. Although the violence is associated with domestic clubs, there were concerns that it could attach to the Dutch national team. Violence did occur during the Euro 2000 finals, albeit not involving the Dutch team. On 17 June, 174 England fans were arrested in Brussels, following violence with Germans ahead of an England v Germany match. One of the biggest surprises of the tournament was Portugal, winning Group A with three wins, including a 3–0 win against Germany, with Sérgio Conceição scoring a hat-trick, a 3–2 win over England, in which they came back from 2–0 down.

Romania was the other qualifier from the group, beating England with a late penalty in their last group game. Belgium had a surprise exit in the group stage, winning the tournament's first game against Sweden, but losing to Turkey and Italy, they finished third behind Italy and Turkey. The other co-host and favourite, the Netherlands, progressed as expected from Group D, along with World Cup winners France; the Netherlands won the group, by beating France in their last group match. In Group D, Denmark's three losses with eight goals conceded and none scored set a new record for the worst team performance in the group stages of a Euros. Group C was memorable for the match between FR Spain. Spain needed a win to ensure progression, but found themselves trailing 3–2, after Slobodan Komljenović scored in the 75th minute; the Spanish side rescued their tournament by scoring twice in injury time to record a 4–3 victory. FR Yugoslavia managed to go through as well, despite losing because Norway and Slovenia played to a draw.

Italy and Portugal maintained their perfect records in the quarter-finals, beating Romania and Turkey and the Netherlands started a goal-avalanche against FR Yugoslavia, winning 6–1. Spain fell 2–1 to France. Italy eliminated the Netherlands in the semi-finals, despite going down to ten men and facing two penalty kicks. Italian goalkeeper Francesco Toldo, drafted into the starting XI as Gianluigi Buffon missed the tournament through injury, made two saves in the penalty shootout to carry the Italians to the final. In the other semi-final, Portugal lost in extra time to France after Zinedine Zidane converted a controversial penalty kick. Several Portuguese players challenged the awarding of the penalty for a handball and were given lengthy suspensions for shoving the referee. France won the tournament, defeating Italy 2–1 in the final with a golden goal by David Trezeguet after equalising with a last-minute goal, became the first team to win the European championship while being world champion.

In Britain, Match of the Day named Stefano Fiore's goal against Belgium the Goal of the Tournament, ahead of Patrick Kluivert's against France and Zinedine Zidane's against Spain. Qualification for the tournament took place throughout 1998 and 1999. Forty-nine teams were divided into nine groups and each played the others in their group, on a home-and-away basis; the winner of each group and the best runner-up qualified automatically for the final tournament. The eight other runners-up played an additional set of play-off matches to determine the last four qualifiers. Belgium and the Netherlands automatically qualified for the tournament as co-hosts; the composition of pots 1 to 3 was based on the teams' UEFA coefficient at the end of 1999. The finals draw took place on 12 December 1999, 15:00 CET, at the Exhibition Centre in Brussels, Belgium. Prior to the draw, the seeded teams in Pot 1 were assigned positions: Germany to A1, Belgium to B1, Spain to C1, the Netherlands to D1. Teams were drawn consecutively from Pots 2 to 4 into a group, with each team being assigned a specific position.

The draw resulted in the following groups: Capacity figures are those for matches at UEFA Euro 2000 and are not the total capacity that the stadium is capable of holding. The 16 national teams each stayed in their own "team base camp" d

Kanthkot Fort

Kanthkot fort is located near Kanthkot village, Bhachau Taluka of Vagad area, Gujarat. Kanthkot is an old fort on the top of an isolated rocky hill about three miles in circumference, has walls built of massive blocks repaired in many places by smaller stones, it is said, in the eighth century, to have been the capital of the Kathis and to have been taken from them by the Chavdas. According to the local story the present fort was begun about 843. A part of the wall crossed the fireplace of the great ascetic Kanthadnath, who in anger destroyed it; the builders appeasing the ascetic called the fort after his name, were allowed to finish it. About the middle of the tenth century, under the name Kanthadurg, it appears as the place to which the Chaulukya king Mularaja fled, when pressed by Tailapa II of Kalyani. In the eleventh century it is believed to be the fort Khandaba, forty parasangas from Somnath and between that place and the desert, where Bhima I sought shelter from Mahmud Ghazni. About the middle of the twelfth century the Raja of Kanthagam Kanthkot, from the west is mentioned as joining the Nagor chief against Kumarapala of Anhilwad Patan.

In the thirteenth century, it was the capital of the Vaghelas from whom, about the close of the century, it was taken by Mod and Manai Samma. Mod befriended Vaghela who not only gave Kanthkot but his daughter in marriage to Mod’s son Sad. Sad made it his capital. Sad’s son Ful named the fort Kanthadurg. In the beginning of the fifteenth century it was besieged by Muzaffar Shah, it afterwards passed to the Deda branch of the Jadejas. During the reign of Jadejas, Kanthkot was given as an estate to Dedaji, the second son of Rao Raydhan Ratna. At the close of the sixteenth century is mentioned by Mughal vizier Abu'l-Fazl ibn Mubarak as one of the chief Kutch forts. In 1816, it surrendered to a British detachment under Colonel East, when the fortifications were razed to the ground before the Cutch State accepted the suzerainty of British in 1819. Although, the Kanthkot remained under Jadeja rulers till independence of India in 1947. In the west of the hill in a ravine are two large deep wells and one ruined stepwell built of blocks of sandstone.

Of these wells one called Bhamario is 12 feet in diameter and 76 deep, the other the Nogan well is 18 feet round and 63 deep. On the hill are the remains of three temples, one to the ascetic Kanthadnath, the second an old Jain temple to Mahavir, the third a temple to the Sun. Kanthadnath's shrine on the west point of the hill was, about 1820, built by Deda Jadejas in the place of a much larger temple the work of Mod Samma, ruined by the 1819 Rann of Kutch earthquake; the present shrine, built on a high platform, measures 28 feet by 14 and 28 high. It has a fine domed porch supported on four pillars, inside a white marble image of Kanthadnath sitting cross-legged; the much ruined Jain temple of Mahavir has had mandap. A writing on a pillar in the entrance hall dated 1283 states that the builders were Atmadevnath's sons and Sohi. On a pilaster in the screen on the outside, Atmadev's son Pasil is said to be the builder; the family who built the temple are believed to be relatives of Jagdusha of Bhadresar.

Close to the Jain temple, the ruin is an old temple to the Sun, the Kathis' favourite god. There is a writing, described as an incorrect stringing together of the praises of Shiv under the incarnation of Rudra; the temple still contains the image of the Sun god, represented with a male and female attendant on each side. The figure is much like that of Vishnu. Near a more modern shrine on the wall are a number of graves of Shaiv Atits, some of unusual form, a ling mounted on a series of round or square plinths laid one over the other. Kanthkot fort is now a tourist attraction of Kutch; this article incorporates Public Domain text from Gazetteer of the Bombay Presidency: Cutch and Mahi Kantha. Printed at the Government Central Press. 1880. Pp. 224–225

Sphictostethus nitidus

Sphictostethus nitidus, the golden hunter wasp or red spider wasp, is a species of pepsid spider wasp endemic to New Zealand. Females are reddish brown with sooty spots. Females are 8.5-22.0 mm in length, males 7.5-15.0 mm. They have a bold, jerky gait, their vivid colour is aposematic to warn off visual predators such as birds and lizards, it is the only New Zealand Sphictostethus species that does not change from red to black when altitude or latitude increases. Its body stays red at the most southern latitudes of its range. S. nitidus hunts terrestrially in a variety of situations such as underneath and within logs and rotting wood, arboreally in shrubs and bushes, on shingles and under boulders. The prey is detected by sight and pursued into the open. S. nitidus varies the attack depending on the size of spider. When Uliodon frenatus of any size is the prey, the wasp springs on to the back of the spider and stings the abdomen first before curving its abdomen and stinging the midventral region of the prosoma.

Porrhothele antipodiana is attacked when it stands and faces the wasp with the first two pairs of legs held towards its attacker and upwards. The wasp moves forward until it is about 22 cm in front the spider it makes a sudden leap towards it; the wasp and the spider grapple with each other, rolling over. The wasp stings the spider indiscriminately in the abdomen until the spider ceases to struggle; the wasp stings the spider in the midventer of the prosoma, between the chelicerae. The wasp examines the spider's mouthparts before stinging it again at the base of the chelicerae, it finishes by brushing the tip of its own abdomen with alternate strokes of the entire hind tibia and tarsus for 3–8 minutes. The spider's paralysis is permanent. S. nitidus is kleptoparasitic on other members of its own species, on other spider wasps, including Priocnemis monachus. Introduced house sparrows Passer domesticus have been observed stealing the paralysed spider prey from S. nitidus. S. Nitidus prefers to use pre-existing cavities for nesting.

After capturing and immobilising a spider, the wasp either takes it to a temporary storage site or leaves it exposed on its back. It either returns to its nest site or locates a suitable cavity for nesting after examining several potential cavities, it returns to the prey at intervals before dragging it to the nest and leaving it 25 mm from the entrance to the nest, going inside before reappearing to drag the spider into the nest by its spinnerets. The wasp waits in the cell, under the spider, for 2–26 hours before laying an egg. After laying, it pauses between 15 minutes and 2 hours before filling the burrow with fragments of vegetation varying from 5 to 56 mm in length which are rammed into place with the wasp's abdomen; when the nest is closed, the wasp camouflages the entrance with twigs and bark, dragged across it. The wasp examines the nest. Males emerge 3–8 days prior to the females. Prey recorded include Uliodon frenatus, Porrhothele antipodiana and Neoramia otagoa. S. nitidus tolerates a wide range of habitats.

It has shown itself to be adaptable and is common in suburban back yards, dry riverbeds, forest clearings and clay banks. Nests can be found from sea level up to at least 1370 m, in various substrates, but among boulders, beneath flat stones and concrete, where it can gain access to cavities through cracks; this species is endemic to New Zealand on both the North and South Islands and some offshore islands. Observations of Sphictostethus nitidus in New Zealand