click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

UNIVAC

UNIVAC is a line of electronic digital stored-program computers starting with the products of the Eckert–Mauchly Computer Corporation. The name was applied to a division of the Remington Rand company and successor organizations; the BINAC, built by the Eckert–Mauchly Computer Corporation, was the first general-purpose computer for commercial use. The descendants of the UNIVAC 1107 continue today as products of the Unisys company. J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly built the ENIAC at the University of Pennsylvania's Moore School of Electrical Engineering between 1943 and 1946. A 1946 patent rights dispute with the university led Eckert and Mauchly to depart the Moore School to form the Electronic Control Company renamed Eckert-Mauchly Computer Corporation, based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; that company first built. Afterwards began the development of UNIVAC. UNIVAC was first intended for the Bureau of the Census, which paid for much of the development, was put in production. With the death of EMCC's chairman and chief financial backer Harry L. Straus in a plane crash on October 25, 1949, EMCC was sold to typewriter maker Remington Rand on February 15, 1950.

Eckert and Mauchly now reported to Leslie Groves, the retired army general who had managed the Manhattan Project. The most famous UNIVAC product was the UNIVAC I mainframe computer of 1951, which became known for predicting the outcome of the U. S. presidential election the following year. This incident is noteworthy because the computer predicted an Eisenhower landslide when traditional pollsters all called it for Adlai Stevenson; the numbers were so skewed that CBS's news boss in New York, decided the computer was in error and refused to allow the prediction to be read. Instead they showed some staged theatrics that suggested the computer was not responsive, announced it was predicting 8-7 odds for an Eisenhower win; when the predictions proved true and Eisenhower won a landslide within 1% of the initial prediction, Charles Collingwood, the on-air announcer, embarrassingly announced that they had covered up the earlier prediction. The United States Army requested a UNIVAC computer from Congress in 1951.

Colonel Wade Heavey explained to the Senate subcommittee that the national mobilization planning involved multiple industries and agencies: "This is a tremendous calculating process...there are equations that can not be solved by hand or by electrically operated computing machines because they involve millions of relationships that would take a lifetime to figure out." Heavey told the subcommittee it was needed to help with mobilization and other issues similar to the invasion of Normandy that were based on the relationships of various groups. Remington Rand had its own calculating machine lab in Norwalk and bought Engineering Research Associates in St. Paul, Minnesota. In 1953 or 1954 Remington Rand merged their Norwalk tabulating machine division, the ERA "scientific" computer division, the UNIVAC "business" computer division into a single division under the UNIVAC name; this annoyed those, with ERA and with the Norwalk laboratory. In 1955 Remington Rand merged with Sperry Corporation to become Sperry Rand.

The UNIVAC division of Remington Rand was renamed the Univac division of Sperry Rand. General Douglas MacArthur was chosen to head the company. In the 1960s, UNIVAC was one of the eight major American computer companies in an industry referred to as "IBM and the seven dwarfs" — a play on Snow White and the seven dwarfs, with IBM, by far the largest, being cast as Snow White and the other seven as being dwarfs: Burroughs, Univac, NCR, CDC, GE, RCA and Honeywell. In the 1970s, after GE sold its computer business to Honeywell and RCA sold its to Univac, the analogy to the seven dwarfs became less apt and the remaining small firms became known as the "BUNCH". To assist "corporate identity" the name was changed to Sperry Univac, along with Sperry Remington, Sperry New Holland, etc. In 1978, Sperry Rand, a conglomerate of various divisions, decided to concentrate on its computing interests and all of the unrelated divisions were sold; the company reverted to Sperry Corporation. In 1986, Sperry Corporation merged with Burroughs Corporation to become Unisys.

Since the 1986 merger of Burroughs and Sperry, Unisys has evolved from a computer manufacturer to a computer services and outsourcing firm, competing in the same marketplace as IBM, Electronic Data Systems, Computer Sciences Corporation. Unisys continues to design and manufacture enterprise class computers with the ClearPath and ES7000 server lines. In the course of its history, UNIVAC produced a number of separate model ranges. Early UNIVAC 1100 series models were vacuum tube computers; the original model range was the second commercial computer made in the United States. The main memory consisted of tanks of liquid mercury implementing delay line memory, arranged in 1000 words of 12 alphanumeric characters each; the first machine was delivered on 31 March 1951. The UNIVAC II was an improvement to the UNIVAC I that UNIVAC first delivered in 1958; the improvements included magnetic core memory of 2000 to 10000 words, UNISERVO II tape drives which could use either the old UNIVAC I metal tapes or the new PET film tapes, some circuits that were transistorized (

Jack Bancroft

Jack Bancroft, born John Bancroft, was a Welsh cricketer, rugby union international. He was a wicket-keeper who played for Glamorgan. Bancroft played rugby for Swansea RFC, he was died in Swansea. Bancroft's brother, was a Welsh rugby international and the first paid professional for the Glamorgan cricketing side, his father William was groundsman at St. Helen's rugby and cricket ground, Jack showed great interest and skill in both cricket and rugby from an early age; as well as playing for Swansea at club level, Bancroft was capped eighteen times for the Welsh national team. He gained his first international cap in 1909 replacing the injured Bert Winfield. Against England. During Bancroft's career he scored 19 points against France in the 1910 international, at the time a record for a Welsh player in a single match, his final game for Wales was against France in 1914. Wales England 1909, 1910, 1911, 1912, 1914 France 1909, 1910, 1911, 1914 Ireland 1909, 190, 1911, 1912, 1913 Scotland 1909, 1910, 1912, 1914 Jack Bancroft was wicket-keeper for Swansea, played Minor Counties Cricket for Glamorgan as early as 1908.

Bancroft was called up to the Glamorgan first team on nine occasions during the 1922 season before hanging up his gloves. Bancroft was a tailend batsman alongside teammate Jack Nash. Jack Bancroft at Cricket Archive Smith, David. Fields of Praise: The Official History of The Welsh Rugby Union. Cardiff: University of Wales Press. ISBN 0-7083-0766-3

Nilakal Orthodox Diocese

Nilakal Diocese is one of the 30 dioceses of the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church. The diocese was created in 15 August 2010. Now, H. G. Joshua Mar Nichodemos is the Metropoliton of the diocese; the head office is located in Nilackal Orthodox diocesan Centre, St. Thomas Aramana, Ranni, Pathanamthitta Nilakal Diocese was created in 15 August 2010, it was under by the order of Baselios Marthoma Didymos I, the Catholicos of the East and Malankara Metropolitan. H. G. Joshua Mar Nichodemos is the first Metropoliton of this diocese; the diocese was formed with 39 parishes. The name of diocese came from the place Christian community in the place Nilackal, founded by Saint Thomas in first century AD. Now, H. G. Joshua Mar Nichodemos is the Metropoliton of the diocese; the head office is located in Nilackal Orthodox diocesan Centre, St. Thomas Aramana, Ranni, Pathanamthitta; the diocese comprises the parts of Pathanamthitta and Kottayam districts. The diocese consists 39 Parishes with 13 to 200 families. There are 2953 families in diocese.

The diocese made it the headquarters. The diocese made various charitable activities like supporting the poor and the needy of the diocese as well as the society; the diocese consists five ecclesiastical districts. Ayroor Vayalathala Ranni Nilackal Kanakappalam There are somany spirutaual organisations working in this diocese. OSSAE OCYM MOMS MGOCSM Ecology Commission Sushrushaka Sangam Lehari Virudha Sangam Dasamsadayaka Sangam INAMSetc. are some of them Construction of a Convention Centre at Catholicate Centre Ranni, Completion of the Catholicate Centre at Angamoozhi, beginning of St. Gregorios Mission Centre at Vellayil and starting of an Education Institution are some of the major projects under consideration. Saint Thomas Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church Baselios Mar Thoma Paulose II Baselios Mar Thoma Mathews II Website of Malankara Orthodox Church

Taoist philosophy

Taoist philosophy known as Taology refers to the various philosophical currents of Taoism, a tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao. The Tao is a mysterious and deep principle, the source and substance of the entire universe. Throughout its history, Taoist philosophy has emphasized concepts like wu wei, ziran and yang, Ch'i, Wu, personal cultivation through meditation and other spiritual practices. Taoism differs from Confucianism in putting more emphasis on physical and spiritual cultivation and less emphasis on political organization. Since the initial stages of Taoist thought, there have been varying schools of Taoist philosophy and they have drawn from and interacted with other philosophical traditions such as Confucianism and Buddhism. While scholars have sometimes attempted to separate "Taoist philosophy" from "Taoist religion", there was never such a separation. Taoist texts and the literati and Taoist priests that wrote and commented on them never made the distinction between "religious" and "philosophical" ideas those related to metaphysics and ethics.

The major texts of this loose philosophical tradition are traditionally seen as the Tao Te Ching, the Zhuangzi, though it was only during the Han Dynasty that they were grouped together under the label "Taoist". The I Ching was later linked to this tradition by scholars like Wang Bi. Compared to other philosophical traditions, Taoist philosophy is quite heterogeneous. According to Russell Kirkland, "Taoists did not regard themselves as followers of a single religious community that shared a single set of teachings, or practices." Instead of drawing on a single book or the works of one founding teacher, Taoism developed out a diverse set of Chinese beliefs and texts, that over time were gathered together into various synthetic traditions. These texts had some things in common ideas about personal cultivation and integration with what they saw as the deep realities of life; the first group consciously identifying itself as "Taoist" appeared and began to collect texts during the fifth century BCE.

Their collection of Taoist texts did not include classics considered to be "Taoist" like the Tao Te Ching and the Zhuangzi. Only after a expansion of the canon did these texts become included; the legend of the "person" Laozi was developed during the Han dynasty and has no historical validity. The labels Taoism and Confucianism were developed during the Han dynasty by scholars to group together various thinkers, texts of the past and categorize them as "Taoist" though they are quite diverse and their authors may never have known of each other. Thus, while there was never a coherent "school" of "classical Taoism" during the pre-Han eras self identified Taoists were influenced by streams of thought and frameworks inherited from the period of the hundred schools of thought. According to Russell Kirkland, these independent influences include: Mohism, which might have influenced the Taoist idea of "Great Peace" seen in works like the Taipingjing Several divergent Confucian schools and their ideas of personal development and Tao.

Several “Legalist” theorists, such as Shen Pu-hai, who spoke of Tao and wu wei and Han Fei, whose work explicates some parts of the Tao Te Ching The murky groups who produced the ideas of yin and yang and the “Five Forces”. Ideas associated with official practitioners of divination and the I-Ching Early versions of independent texts like the Nei-yeh, the Lüshi Chunqiu, the Zhuangzi, the Tao Te Ching; the Tao Te Ching has traditionally been seen as the central and founding Taoist text, though it is only one of the many different influences on Taoist thought, at times, a marginal one at that. The Laozi changed and developed over time from a tradition of oral sayings, is a loose collection of aphorisms on various topics which seek to give the reader wise advice on how to live and includes some metaphysical speculations; the Laozi mentions the idea of a subtle universal force or cosmic creative power called Tao, using feminine and maternal imagery to describe it. Tao is the natural spontaneous way that things arise and exist, it is the "organic order" of the universe.

The Laozi states. The Laozi mentions the concept of wu wei, illustrated with water analogies and "encompasses shrewd tactics—among them “feminine wiles”— which one may utilize to achieve success". Wu wei is associated with yielding, minimal softness. Wu wei is the activity of the ideal sage, who spontaneously and effortlessly express Te, acting as one with the universal forces of the Tao, resembling children or un-carved wood, they concentrate their internal energies, are humble and content and move without being restricted by the structures of society and culture. The Laozi provides advice for rulers, such as never standing out, keeping weapons but not using them, keeping the people simple and ignorant and working in subtle unseen ways instead of forceful ones, it has been seen as promoting minimal government. Like the Tao Te Ching, the lesser known Nei-yeh (literally

Carol Smith (contralto)

Carol Smith is an American contralto who made an international career in opera and concert, was an academic teacher in Zurich and at the Indiana University Bloomington. Born in Oak Park, she made her debut as a concert singer in Chicago after studies with Lola Fletcher. For twelve years she was a soloist with the Bach Aria Group, recording Bach cantatas and other works, she moved to Italy to study operatic singing with Mario Cordone in Milan. She made her stage debut in 1961 at the Teatro San Carlo in Naples. In 1965, she became a member of the Zurich Opera where she stayed to 1981, her roles there included Geneviève in Debussy's Pelléas et Mélisande, Santuzza in Mascagni's Cavalleria rusticana, Czipra in Der Zigeunerbaron by Johann Strauss, Giulietta in Offenbach's Les Contes d'Hoffmann, the Countess in Tchaikovsky's Pique Dame, Ortrud in Wagner's Lohengrin, Brangäne in his Tristan und Isolde, Maria in Gershwin's Porgy and Bess. Her stage presence served contemporary opera, including the role of Pythia in Reimann's Melusine and the title role in Othmar Schoeck's Penthesilea.

She sang Verdi's leading roles Eboli in Don Carlos, Amneris in Aida, Azucena in Il Trovatore, Maddalena in Rigoletto, Ulrica in Un Ballo in maschera and Mrs. Quickly in Falstaff. Smith appeared at festivals such as the Casals Festival on Puerto Rico, Aix-en-Provence Festival, Salzburg Festival and the Maggio Musicale Fiorentino, in both opera and concert. In 1971 she participated in the premiere of Alberto Ginastera's Beatrix Cenci for the opening of the new opera house in the Kennedy Center), she was a voice teacher at the Musikhochschule Zürich from 1979 to 1984, at the Indiana University Bloomington. Smith recorded both concert music, she sang the role of Lola in Cavalleria rusticana in 1953, alongside Zinka Milanov, Jussi Björling and Robert Merrill, with Renato Cellini conducting the Robert Shaw Chorale and the RCA Victor Symphony Orchestra. Smith was a soloist in a recording of Debussy's cantata La Damoiselle élue alongside Victoria de los Angeles, conducted by Charles Munch in 1955, she recorded Verdi's Messa da Requiem and de Falla's El amor brujo.

She appeared as Mrs. Quickly in Falstaff, a performance in German at the Bavarian State Opera in 1974, conducted by Wolfgang Sawallisch and alongside Dietrich Fischer-Dieskau in the title role, recorded. Carol Smith Bach Cantatas Website

Roger Morris (bishop)

Roger Anthony Brett Morris is the area Bishop of Colchester in the Church of England Diocese of Chelmsford. He was the Archdeacon of Worcester. Morris was consecrated Bishop of Colchester on 25 July 2014 at St Paul's Cathedral. Morris was educated at Imperial College and Trinity College and ordained in 1994. After a curacy in Northleach he was the incumbent at Sevenhampton from 1996 to 2003. Morris is married to Sally, a headteacher in a secondary school and a Minister in Secular Employment, they have two daughters. Morris stage-manages the Canopy Stage at the annual Greenbelt Christian Arts Festival, his interests include popular music, supporting Bristol Rovers and walking the family's two dogs