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UNIX System V

Unix System V is one of the first commercial versions of the Unix operating system. It was developed by AT&T and first released in 1983. Four major versions of System V were released, numbered 1, 2, 3, 4. System V Release 4 was commercially the most successful version, being the result of an effort, marketed as Unix System Unification, which solicited the collaboration of the major Unix vendors, it was the source of several common commercial Unix features. System V is sometimes abbreviated to SysV; as of 2020, the AT&T-derived Unix market is divided between three System V variants: IBM's AIX, Hewlett-Packard's HP-UX and Oracle's Solaris. System V was the successor to 1982's UNIX System III. While AT&T developed and sold hardware that ran System V, most customers ran a version from a reseller, based on AT&T's reference implementation. A standards document called the System V Interface Definition outlined the default features and behavior of implementations. During the formative years of AT&T's computer business, the division went through several phases of System V software groups, beginning with the Unix Support Group, followed by Unix System Development Laboratory, followed by AT&T Information Systems, Unix System Laboratories.

In the 1980s and early-1990s, UNIX System V and the Berkeley Software Distribution were the two major version of UNIX. BSD was commonly called "BSD Unix" or "Berkeley Unix". Eric S. Raymond summarizes the longstanding relationship and rivalry between System V and BSD during the early period: In fact, for years after divestiture the Unix community was preoccupied with the first phase of the Unix wars – an internal dispute, the rivalry between System V Unix and BSD Unix; the dispute had several levels, some technical and some cultural. The divide was between longhairs and shorthairs. While HP, IBM and others chose System V as the basis for their Unix offerings, other vendors such as Sun Microsystems and DEC extended BSD. Throughout its development, System V was infused with features from BSD, while BSD variants such as DEC's Ultrix received System V features. AT&T and Sun Microsystems worked together to merge System V with BSD-based SunOS to produce Solaris, one of the primary System V descendants still in use today.

Since the early 1990s, due to standardization efforts such as POSIX and the commercial success of Linux, the division between System V and BSD has become less important. System V, known inside Bell Labs as Unix 5.0, succeeded AT&T's previous commercial Unix called System III in January, 1983. Unix 4.0 was never released externally, which would have been designated as System IV. This first release of System V was developed by AT&T's UNIX Support Group and based on the Bell Labs internal USG UNIX 5.0. System V included features such as the vi editor and curses from 4.1 BSD, developed at the University of California, Berkeley. It added support for inter-process communication using messages and shared memory, developed earlier for the Bell-internal CB UNIX. SVR1 ran on DEC VAX minicomputers. AT&T's UNIX Support Group transformed into the UNIX System Development Laboratory, which released System V Release 2 in 1984. SVR2 added shell functions and the SVID. SVR2.4 added demand paging, copy-on-write, shared memory, record and file locking.

The concept of the "porting base" was formalized, the DEC VAX-11/780 was chosen for this release. The "porting base" is the so-called original version of a release, from which all porting efforts for other machines emanate. Educational source licenses for SVR2 were offered by AT&T for US$800 for the first CPU, $400 for each additional CPU. A commercial source license was offered for $43,000, with three months of support, a $16,000 price per additional CPU. Apple Computer's A/UX operating system was based on this release. SCO XENIX used SVR2 as its basis; the first release of HP-UX was an SVR2 derivative. Maurice J. Bach's book, The Design of the UNIX Operating System, is the definitive description of the SVR2 kernel. AT&T's UNIX System Development Laboratory was succeeded by AT&T Information Systems, which distributed UNIX System V, Release 3, in 1987. SVR3 included STREAMS, Remote File Sharing, the File System Switch virtual file system mechanism, a restricted form of shared libraries, the Transport Layer Interface network API.

The final version was Release 3.2 in 1988, which added binary compatibility to Xenix on Intel platforms. User interface improvements included the "layers" windowing system for the DMD 5620 graphics terminal, the SVR3.2 curses libraries that offered eight or more color pairs and other at this time important features. The AT&T 3B2 became the official "porting base." SCO UNIX was based upon SVR3.2. Among the more obscure distributions of SVR3.2 for the 386 were ESIX 3.2 by Everex and "System V, Release 3.2" sold by Intel themselves. IBM's AIX operating system is an SVR3 derivative. System V Release 4.0 was announced on October 18, 1988 and was incorporated into a variety of commercial Unix products from early 1989 onwards. A joint project of AT&T Unix System Laboratories and Sun Microsystems, it combined technology from: SVR3 4.3BSD Xenix SunOSNew features included: From BSD: TCP/IP support, sockets, UFS, support for multiple

Takashi Kosugi

Takashi Kosugi is a Japanese politician of the Liberal Democratic Party, a member of the House of Representatives in the Diet. A native of Meguro and graduate of the University of Tokyo, he had served in the assembly of Tokyo for four terms since 1965, he was elected to the House of Representatives for the first time in 1980 as a member of the New Liberal Club in 1980 after an unsuccessful run in 1979. 政治家情報 〜小杉 隆〜. ザ・選挙. JANJAN. Archived from the original on 2007-12-03. Retrieved 2007-10-20. Official website in Japanese

The Eternal Jew (1940 film)

The Eternal Jew is a 1940 Nazi German antisemitic propaganda film, presented as a documentary. The film's initial German title is Der ewige Jude, the German term for the character of the "Wandering Jew" in medieval folklore. At the insistence of Nazi Germany's Minister of Propaganda, Joseph Goebbels, the film was directed by Fritz Hippler. With a screenplay credited to Eberhard Taubert, the film consists of feature and documentary footage combined with materials filmed shortly after the Nazi occupation of Poland. At this time, Poland's Jewish population was about three million ten percent of the total population. Actor Harry Giese narrated. Hitler and Goebbels believed; the Nazis first established a film department in 1930 and Goebbels had taken a personal interest in the use of film to promote the Nazi philosophy and agenda. Soon after the Nazi takeover, Goebbels insisted in speeches that the role of the German cinema was to serve as the "vanguard of the Nazi military"; the Goebbels film appears to have been intended as a violently antisemitic version of the British film The Wandering Jew, which argued that Jews were victims of relentless persecution throughout history.

Saul Friedländer suggests that Goebbels' intent was to counter three films: Jew Süss, The House of Rothschild, The Wandering Jew. These three films, all released in 1933 -- 34, showed. In 1937, a special wing of the Propaganda Ministry put on an art exhibition in Munich titled Der ewige Jude, it followed this up with the publication of a book of the same title, consisting of 265 photographs, each with a derogatory caption asserting the degeneracy of the Jewish race. In November 1938, Goebbels made a series of attacks against the Jews in the German media that were a factor which resulted in the pogrom known as Kristallnacht. Despite the emotional satisfaction afforded the Nazis by carrying out their antisemitism with direct violence, Kristallnacht was considered by Hitler to have been a political disaster both within Germany and internationally. Not only did the brutality indirectly caused by Goebbels evoke harsh criticism internationally, the mixed reaction in the German media showed a lack of broad-based support among Germans for antisemitism and violence.

Hitler expressed his frustration and anger at the mixed response from the German media and insisted that, instead of calling for violence against the Jews as Goebbels had in instigating the pogrom, Nazi propaganda should "elucidate events of foreign policy" in such a way that the German people themselves would call for violence against the Jews. In response to Hitler's harsh reprimand, Goebbels launched a campaign to promote the antisemitic views of the Nazis to the German populace, he ordered each film studio to make an antisemitic film. In the case of The Eternal Jew, Goebbels conceived of a film that would communicate to the German people the same antisemitic message, the theme of the 1937 Munich exhibition. Hitler preferred films such as The Eternal Jew which presented the Nazi antisemitic agenda and directly; the film Jud Süß is an example of Goebbels' preferred approach. Although Goebbels did not take an active role in the production of particular films, he elected to do so in the case of major propaganda films such as The Eternal Jew.

The film was in production for over a year. Throughout the end of 1939 and the beginning of 1940, Goebbels devoted "constant attention" to the production of what he referred to as "the Jew film"; as early as 1938, Goebbels had wanted to have a film crew travel to Poland to shoot the ghetto scenes. In October and November 1939 immediately after the German/Soviet invasion of Poland, he instructed Hippler to send camera crews to Łódź, Warsaw and Lublin to shoot footage of Polish Jews; the footage that Hippler shot in the Jewish ghettos of those cities in German occupied Poland was the only footage shot for the purpose of the film. At the beginning of the film, animated text informs the audience that this "documentary footage" shows Jews in their original state "before they put on the mask of civilized Europeans." In the Nazi press, Hippler expanded on this claim, asserting that his filming techniques captured Jews "in an unprejudiced manner, real to life as they live and as they react in their own surroundings."Although Hippler advertised the film as being a factual documentary consisting of pictures of real Jews with nothing faked or simulated, his claims were complete falsehoods.

In reality, the film was an exercise in manipulation for the purposes of propaganda. In shooting his footage, Hippler did in fact simulate scenes and use actors who were performing under duress and without knowledge of how the footage would be employed. For example, in order to get shots of Jewish worship services and Goebbels assembled the congregation of the Vilker synagogue, ordered them to wear the tallithim and tefillin and hold a full-scale service; when the Germans ordered the Torah reader to read from the Torah, he started by saying on camera "Today is Tuesday" signalling that his reading of the Torah was coerced since it was not customary to read the Torah on Tuesdays. Aside from the footage shot in Poland, the rest of the film consisted of stills and archival footage from feature films that the film presented as if they were documentary footage; the movie was produced in a documentary format and, like other Hippler films, relied on

Janne Tolsa

Janne Tolsa is a Finnish heavy metal musician. Known for his keyboard work in Tarot from the late 1980s, Tolsa takes part in the melodic death metal band Eternal Tears of Sorrow, which he joined in 2005 for their album Before the Bleeding Sun, as well as the industrial metal band Turmion Kätilöt. Tolsa is known to work as a composer for television. Janne Tolsa plays keyboards in Marenne Band and is one of the composers in the band's debut album The Past Prelude, his main keyboards are a KORG Triton Extreme and a KORG CX-3, but he uses Ensoniq and Proteus keyboards and a Hammond B-100. In addition, he Note On Studio. Turmion Kätilöt, Tarot and Eternal Tears of Sorrow have been or recorded many of their albums. Janne Tolsa began to play the piano in 1977. After studying music for three years in Helsinki, his family moved to Vuolijoki, where he continued to study piano through private lessons, his first band experience was with his older brother in 1983. A few years during the Follow Me Into Madness Tour, Tarot played a few shows near Tolsa's hometown.

At the time, they were playing as a trio, having fired Mako H. from the band. Tolsa attended every show and continuously found his way backstage after shows to convince the members of the band that he could play keys for them, he was drunk and the band turned him away, not believing him. Tarot played a show with a keyboard backstage, which Tolsa used to play Rose on the Grave. Impressed, the band exchanged phone numbers with Tolsa, invited him to one of their rehearsals. On 26 June 1988, he played his first show as a member of Tarot in Kalajoki, he joined Tarot for the writing and recording of their third studio album, To Live Forever, released in 1993. In addition to playing the keys for Tarot, Tolsa writes and co-writes music for Tarot albums. In 2003, Tolsa joined Turmion Kätilöt as part of the band's original lineup under the alias "RunQ." In 2004, Tolsa was invited to join the reformation of Eternal Tears of Sorrow, a melodic death metal band from Finland that had disbanded in 2003. He accepted, joined the band for the making of its fifth studio album, Before the Bleeding Sun.

His first performance with the band was on New Year's Eve in 2006. In 2007, Tolsa joined the Marenne band with Zachary Hietala as part of the band's original lineup, he helped to mixed their debut album, The Past Prelude. As part of his "day job," Tolsa is the owner of Note On studio in Finland; that composing and produce commercial music, sound effects, background music. Has been used by Tolsa's bands to record parts of their albums. Janne Tolsa has mixed and produced countless other bands. In 2017 Janne Tolsa made Epik Pike. Epik Pike paints a brand new atmosphere for domestic pop-scene. Janne Tolsa, known as one of the composers and the man behind the synthesizers on bands like Turmion Kätilöt and Tarot, has now released a bunch of pop songs from his drawer. Lyrics for Tolsa's songs we written by his good friend and songwriter Pekka Tegelman, known from the 70's popular band Finnforest; the whole project came together as two interpreters from Kuopio were found: young and talented Pinja Pitkänen and guitar hero Joonas Pulkkinen from the band Black Light Discipline.

"Now as some extra time came up and professionals for the help were found, I was able to bring this project to another level. These songs are so much slower and more kind of pop songs that I felt like they are not necessary Turmion Kätilöt's style so I decided to make a new project for this; some of the songs are composed on Middle Ages, so they have been waiting for further producing quite a while. Thank you fate, zaludo!" - Janne Tolsa "I hope that all the listeners will enjoy these songs as much as I did with this experience. Although the future is open, I'm looking forward to it." - Pinja Pitkänen The cover for the EP, which will be released on all significant digital services on May 18th 2018, is made by Tuomas Rytkönen. To Live Forever To Live Again Stigmata For the Glory of Nothing Shining Black Best of Suffer Our Pleasures Crows Fly Black Undead Indeed Live DVD/CD Gravity of Light The Spell of Iron MMXI Before the Bleeding Sun Children of the Dark Waters Saivon Lapsi The Past Prelude Niuva 20 EP U.

S. C. H! Perstechnique Technodiktator Kiitos 2004-2014 Live DVD Diskovibrator Dance Panique Universal Satan Vihreät Niityt Single Vol.1 Alive Kiss of the night Secret Visions Muanpiällinen helevetti Aamut Joella The Big Picture Note On Studio Tarot Turmion Kätilöt Eternal Tears of Sorrow

Samuel Clark (minister)

Samuel Clark was an English nonconformist minister at the Old Meeting, Birmingham. Samuel Clark was born in the son of Dr Samuel Clarke, he attended Northampton Academy, under Dr Doddridge. When, in 1750, Dr Doddridge left England, he left the young Clark in charge of both his Castle Hill congregation and his academy. On Doddridge's death, the trustees placed Caleb Ashworth, minister of a Presbyterian congregation in Daventry, in charge of the academy, which Ashworth transferred to Daventry. Although Dr Doddridge's congregation ‘highly respected Mr Clark, thought themselves obliged to him for his services during their pastor’s absence, he was not sufficiently popular and Calvinistical to satisfy the generality of them, so as to be chosen assistant to the Doctor’s successor in the ministerial part of his office.’ As a consequence, Clark moved to Daventry and continued as assistant tutor at the new academy, where he preached once a month. Joseph Priestley was one of the college's first students, Clark is remembered for his comments on the freshman: Priestley seems to be a good, sensible fellow, though he has got a bad name, Priestley: those who gave him it I hope were no prophets.

The academy had a good library, a varied stock of scientific equipment, which included an air pump for producing a vacuum. Clark gave lectures in Anatomy, supervised dissection classes, a rat, a dog being dissected by Joseph Priestley and his class. Clark's Saturday morning lectures were a little more general, with topics such as'the doctrine of the brain', he gave tutorials,'took tea' Priestley calls it, with Priestley's class. Here, topics ranged from the methods for composing sermons, the writings of Jonathan Swift and the writings of Lord Bolingbroke, who had sought the repeal of the Act of Settlement 1701, had published in 1752 an influential series of letters on the study of history. Contentious theology was not neglected, Clark attended the students’ debating society, where topics included the issues of original sin, the sleep of the soul and liberty versus necessity. Both tutors were young and ready to indulge their students in the greatest freedom of thought,'so that our lectures had the air of friendly conversations on the subject to which they related,' Clark's views being somewhat less orthodox.

In summer 1757, Clark quit Daventry. At that time, the ministers of the Old Meeting served the Presbyterian congregation at Oldbury. On 3 December 1769, whilst setting out for Oldbury, Clark was thrown from his horse in New Street, Birmingham.

Guangzhou–Qingyuan intercity railway

Guangzhou–Qingyuan intercity railway known as the Guangqing intercity railway, is a regional rail within Guangdong province, China. It will connect the provincial capital Guangzhou with Qingyuan, it is a part of the Pearl River Delta Metropolitan Region intercity railway system. It will be built with an operating top speed of 200 km/h. Starting at Guangzhou railway station, a high-speed railway will be built alongside the Beijing–Guangzhou Railway within the city to Guangzhou North railway station. From there to Qingyuan railway station, this railway will run alongside the Wuhan–Guangzhou High-Speed Railway with separate platforms for each railway and 3 new regional stations being built in between these stations. After crossing the Bei River this railway will branch off to the west, serving two new stations in Qingyuan