The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Lockheed C-130 Hercules
The Lockheed C-130 Hercules is an American four-engine turboprop military transport aircraft designed and built by Lockheed. Capable of using unprepared runways for takeoffs and landings, the C-130 was designed as a troop and cargo transport aircraft; the versatile airframe has found uses in a variety of other roles, including as a gunship, for airborne assault and rescue, scientific research support, weather reconnaissance, aerial refueling, maritime patrol, aerial firefighting. It is now the main tactical airlifter for many military forces worldwide. More than 40 variants of the Hercules, including civilian versions marketed as the Lockheed L-100, operate in more than 60 nations; the C-130 entered service with the U. S. in 1956, followed by many other nations. During its years of service, the Hercules family has participated in numerous military and humanitarian aid operations. In 2007, the C-130 became the fifth aircraft to mark 50 years of continuous service with its original primary customer, which for the C-130 is the United States Air Force.
The C-130 Hercules is the longest continuously produced military aircraft at over 60 years, with the updated Lockheed Martin C-130J Super Hercules being produced. The Korean War showed that World War II-era piston-engine transports—Fairchild C-119 Flying Boxcars, Douglas C-47 Skytrains and Curtiss C-46 Commandos—were no longer adequate. Thus, on 2 February 1951, the United States Air Force issued a General Operating Requirement for a new transport to Boeing, Fairchild, Martin, Chase Aircraft, North American and Airlifts Inc; the new transport would have a capacity of 92 passengers, 72 combat troops or 64 paratroopers in a cargo compartment, 41 feet long, 9 feet high, 10 feet wide. Unlike transports derived from passenger airliners, it was to be designed as a combat transport with loading from a hinged loading ramp at the rear of the fuselage. A key feature was the introduction of the Allison T56 turboprop powerplant, developed for the C-130. At the time, the turboprop was a new application of gas turbines, which offered greater range at propeller-driven speeds compared to pure turbojets, which were faster but consumed more fuel.
They produced much more power for their weight than piston engines. The Hercules resembled a larger four-engine brother to the C-123 Provider with a similar wing and cargo ramp layout that evolved from the Chase XCG-20 Avitruc, which in turn, was first designed and flown as a cargo glider in 1947; the Boeing C-97 Stratofreighter had a rear ramp, which made it possible to drive vehicles onto the plane. The ramp on the Hercules was used to airdrop cargo, which included low-altitude extraction for Sheridan tanks and dropping large improvised "daisy cutter" bombs; the new Lockheed cargo plane design possessed a range of 1,100 nmi, takeoff capability from short and unprepared strips, the ability to fly with one engine shut down. Fairchild, North American and Northrop declined to participate; the remaining five companies tendered a total of ten designs: Lockheed two, Boeing one, Chase three, Douglas three, Airlifts Inc. one. The contest was a close affair between the lighter of the two Lockheed proposals and a four-turboprop Douglas design.
The Lockheed design team was led by Willis Hawkins, starting with a 130-page proposal for the Lockheed L-206. Hall Hibbard, Lockheed vice president and chief engineer, saw the proposal and directed it to Kelly Johnson, who did not care for the low-speed, unarmed aircraft, remarked, "If you sign that letter, you will destroy the Lockheed Company." Both Hibbard and Johnson signed the proposal and the company won the contract for the now-designated Model 82 on 2 July 1951. The first flight of the YC-130 prototype was made on 23 August 1954 from the Lockheed plant in Burbank, California; the aircraft, serial number 53-3397, was the second prototype. The YC-130 was piloted by Stanley Beltz and Roy Wimmer on its 61-minute flight to Edwards Air Force Base. Kelly Johnson flew chase in a Lockheed P2V Neptune. After the two prototypes were completed, production began in Marietta, where over 2,300 C-130s have been built through 2009; the initial production model, the C-130A, was powered by Allison T56-A-9 turboprops with three-blade propellers and equipped with the blunt nose of the prototypes.
Deliveries began in December 1956, continuing until the introduction of the C-130B model in 1959. Some A-models were equipped with skis and re-designated C-130D; as the C-130A became operational with Tactical Air Command, the C-130's lack of range became apparent and additional fuel capacity was added with wing pylon-mounted tanks outboard of the engines. The C-130B model was developed to complement the A-models, delivered, incorporated new features increased fuel capacity in the form of auxiliary tanks built into the center wing section and an AC electrical system. Four-bladed Hamilton Standard propellers replaced the Aeroproducts three-blade propellers that distinguished the earlier A-models; the C-130B had ailerons with boost increased from 2,050 psi to 3,000 psi, as well as uprated engines and four-blade propellers that were standard until the J-model's introduction. An electronic reconnaissance variant of the C-130B was designated C-130B-II. A total of 13 aircraft were converted. T
Kegworth air disaster
The Kegworth air disaster occurred when British Midland Flight 92, a Boeing 737-400, crashed onto the motorway embankment between the M1 motorway and A453 road near Kegworth, England, while attempting to make an emergency landing at East Midlands Airport on 8 January 1989. The aircraft was on a scheduled flight from London Heathrow Airport to Belfast International Airport, when a fan-blade broke in the left engine, disrupting the air conditioning and filling the flight deck with smoke; the pilots believed that this indicated a fault in the right engine, since earlier models of the 737 ventilated the flight-deck from the right, they were unaware that the 400 used a different system. The crew mistakenly shut down the functioning engine, pumped more fuel into the malfunctioning one, which burst into flames. Of the 126 people aboard, 47 died and 74 sustained serious injuries; the inquiry attributed the blade fracture to metal fatigue, caused by heavy vibration in the newly upgraded engines, tested only in the laboratory and not under representative flight conditions.
The aircraft was a British Midland-operated Boeing 737-4Y0, registration G-OBME, on a scheduled flight from London Heathrow Airport to Belfast International Airport, Northern Ireland, having flown from Heathrow to Belfast and back that day. The 737-400 was the newest design from Boeing, with the first unit entering service less than four months earlier, in September 1988. G-OBME itself had been in service for 85 days, since 15 October 1988, had accumulated 521 airframe hours. Initial breaking news reports from the BBC erroneously reported that the aircraft involved was a Douglas DC-9, another type of aircraft used on that route; the flight was crewed by 43-year-old Captain Kevin Hunt and 39-year-old First Officer David McClelland. Captain Hunt was a veteran British Midland pilot, with the airline since 1966 and had 13,200 hours of flying experience. First Officer McClelland joined British Midland in 1988 and had accrued 3,300 total flight hours. Between them, the pilots had close to 1,000 hours in the Boeing 737 cockpit, only 76 of which were logged in Boeing 737-400 series aircraft.
After taking off from Heathrow at 19:52, Flight BD 092 was climbing through 28,300 feet to reach its cruising altitude of 35,000 feet when a blade detached from the fan of the port CFM International CFM56 engine. While the pilots did not know the source of the problem, a pounding noise was heard, accompanied by severe vibrations. In addition, smoke poured into the cabin through the ventilation system and a burning smell entered the plane. Several passengers sitting near the rear of the plane noticed smoke and sparks coming from the left engine; the flight was diverted to nearby East Midlands Airport at the suggestion of British Midland Airways Operations. After the initial blade fracture, Captain Kevin Hunt had disengaged the plane's autopilot; when Hunt asked First Officer David McClelland which engine was malfunctioning, McClelland replied: "It's the left.... It's the right one". In previous versions of the 737, the left air conditioning pack, fed with compressor bleed air from the left engine, supplied air to the flight deck, while the right air conditioning pack, fed from the right engine supplied air to the cabin.
On the 737-400 this division of air is blurred. The pilots had been used to the older version of the aircraft and did not realise that this aircraft was different; the captain claimed that his perception of smoke as coming forward from the cabin led them to assume the fault was in the right engine. The pilots throttled back the working right engine instead of the malfunctioning left engine, they had no way of visually checking the engines from the cockpit, the cabin crew — who did not hear the commander refer to the right hand engine in his cabin address — did not inform them that smoke and flames had been seen from the left engine. When the pilots shut down the right engine, they could no longer smell the smoke, which led them to believe that they had dealt with the problem; as it turned out, this was a coincidence: when the autothrottle was disengaged to shut down the right engine, the fuel flow to the left engine was reduced, the excess fuel, igniting in the jet exhaust disappeared. During the final approach to the East Midlands Airport, more fuel was pumped into the damaged engine to maintain speed, which caused it to cease operating and burst into flames.
The flight crew attempted to restart the right engine by windmilling, using the air flowing through the engine to rotate the turbine blades and start the engine, but the aircraft was by now flying at 185 km/h, too slow for this. Just before crossing the M1 motorway at 20:24:43, the tail struck the ground and the aircraft bounced back into the air and over the motorway, knocking down trees and a lamp post before crashing on the far embankment and breaking into three sections 475 metres short of the active runway's paved surface and 630 metres from its threshold. Remarkably, there were no vehicles travelling on that part of the motorway at the moment of the crash. Of the 118 passengers on board, 39 were killed outright in the crash and eight died of their injuries
A water landing is, in the broadest sense, a landing on a body of water. Some aircraft such as floatplanes land on water as a matter of course; the phrase "water landing" is used as a euphemism for crash-landing into water an aircraft not designed for the purpose, an event formally termed ditching. In this case, the flight crew knowingly make a controlled emergency landing on water. Ditching of commercial aircraft is a rare occurrence. Seaplanes, flying boats, amphibious aircraft are designed to take off and alight on water. Alighting pontoons; the availability of a long effective runway was important on lifting size restrictions on aircraft, their freedom from constructed strips remains useful for transportation to lakes and other remote areas. The ability to loiter on water is important for marine rescue operations and fire fighting. One disadvantage of water alighting is. Furthermore, the necessary equipment compromises speed. Early manned spacecraft launched by the United States were designed to alight on water by the splashdown method.
The craft would parachute into the water. Alighting over water rather than land made braking rockets unnecessary, but its disadvantages included difficult retrieval and the danger of drowning; the NASA Space Shuttle design was intended to land on a runway instead. Some future spacecraft are planning to permit water alightings While ditching is uncommon in commercial passenger travel, small aircraft tend to ditch more because they have only one engine and their systems have fewer redundancies. According to the National Transportation Safety Board, there are about a dozen ditchings per year. General aviation includes all fields of aviation outside of scheduled flights; this classification includes small aircraft, e.g. training aircraft, gliders and corporate aircraft, including business jets and other for-hire operations. General aviation has the highest accident and incident rate in aviation, with 16 deaths per million flight hours, compared to 0.74 deaths per million flight hours for commercial flights.
The FAA does not require commercial pilots to train to ditch but airline cabin personnel must train on the evacuation process. In addition, the FAA implemented rules under which circumstances an aircraft has to carry emergency equipment including floating devices such as life jackets and life rafts; some aircraft are designed with the possibility of a water landing in mind. Airbus aircraft, for example, feature a "ditching button" which, if pressed, closes valves and openings underneath the aircraft, including the outflow valve, the air inlet for the emergency RAT, the avionics inlet, the extract valve, the flow control valve, it is meant to slow flooding in a water landing. On 11 April 1952, Pan Am Flight 526A ditched 11.3 miles northwest of Puerto Rico due to engine failure after take off. Many survived the initial ditching but panicking passengers refused to leave the sinking wreck and drowned. 52 passengers were killed, 17 passengers and crew members were rescued by the USCG. After this accident it was recommended to implement pre-flight safety demonstrations for over-water flights.
On 16 April 1952, the de Havilland Australia DHA-3 Drover VH-DHA operated by the Australian Department of Civil Aviation with 3 occupants was ditched in the Bismarck Sea between Wewak and Manus Island. The port propeller failed, a propeller blade penetrated the fuselage and the single pilot was rendered unconscious. On 3 August 1953, Air France Flight 152, a Lockheed L-749A Constellation ditched 6 miles from Fethiye Point, Turkey 1.5 miles offshore into the Mediterranean Sea on a flight between Rome and Beirut, Lebanon. The propeller had failed due to blade fracture. Due to violent vibrations, engine number three broke away and control of engine number four was lost; the crew of eight and all but four of the 34 passengers were rescued. On 19 June 1954, Swissair Convair CV-240 HB-IRW ditched into the English Channel because of fuel starvation, attributed to pilot error. All three crew and five passengers could escape the plane. However, three of the passengers could not swim and drowned, because there were no life jackets on board, not prescribed at the time.
On 26 March 1955, Pan Am Flight 845/26 ditched 35 miles from the Oregon coast after an engine tore loose. Despite the tail section breaking off during the impact the aircraft floated for twenty minutes before sinking. 4 died. On 2 April 1956, Northwest Orient Airlines Flight 2 ditched into Puget Sound after severe buffeting and altitude loss, determined to have been caused by the failure of the crew to close the cowl flaps on the plane's engines. All aboard escaped the aircraft after a textbook landing, but four passengers and one flight attendant succumbed either to drowning or to hypothermia before being rescued. On 16 October 1956, Pan Am Flight 6 ditched northeast of Hawaii, after losing two of its four engines; the aircraft circled around USCGC Pontchartrain until daybreak. On 23 September 1962, Flying Tiger Line Flight 923, a Lockheed 1049H-82 Super Constellation N6923C, passenger aircraft, on a military charter flight, with
Flying Tiger Line Flight 66
On February 19, 1989, a FedEx-owned Boeing 747-249F, operating as Flying Tiger Flight 66, crashed while flying an international cargo flight from Singapore to Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The aircraft impacted terrain 12 miles from the airport; the aircraft was assigned a non-directional beacon approach to Runway 33 at Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah Airport, Kuala Lumpur, after having flown 30 minutes from Singapore Changi Airport. In descent, the flight was cleared to "Kayell" with a morse code of "KL" of which four separate points on the ground were called by Malaysian ATC albeit with different frequencies. Two separate radio beacons were identically coded "KL" as well as the VOR abbreviation and the airport was sometimes referred to as "KL" by local ATC; the crew was unsure to which point they were cleared, the cockpit voice recorder revealed that the crew argued about which radios should be set to which frequencies and which approach was going to be conducted. ATC radioed to the flight, "Tiger 66, descend two four zero zero.
Cleared for NDB approach runway three three." The captain of Tiger 66, who heard "descend to four zero zero" replied with, "Okay, four zero zero". The proper radio call from ATC, instead of "descend two four zero zero", should have been "descend and maintain two thousand four hundred feet"; the captain read back "okay, four zero zero" where the proper read back should have been "Roger and maintain four-hundred feet". The Cockpit voice recorder revealed several communication errors made by the flight crew prior to this miscommunication and a general casual nature of the Captain, the pilot-not-flying on this particular leg of the trip. Numerous clear warnings were given by the on-board Ground Proximity Warning System which were all ignored by the crew, the aircraft impacted a hillside 437 ft above sea level, killing all four people on board; the subsequent fire burned for two days. The First Officer had complained that he did not have an approach plate in front of him and hadn't seen the approach.
From a pilot's perspective, this alone would be considered the cause of the crash because the approach plate provides the pilot with the courses and minimum altitudes necessary to execute the approach without impacting terrain. The chart would have indicated the minimum descent altitude of 2,400 feet. Flying an approach without referring to the approach plate is gross negligence. Additionally, the First Officer, the pilot flying at the time, expressed concern about conducting the NDB approach and indicated a preference for the ILS for runway 15. However, the FO was not assertive and no further action was taken; the Captain dismissed his concern saying he was familiar with the approaches. The second officer was 70 years old and used a magnifying glass to see. A contributing factor to this accident was the non-ICAO phraseology used by Kuala Lumpur air traffic control and the Captain of the aircraft; this breakdown of communication contributed to the crew misinterpreting the instructions given. However, this particular controlled-flight-into-terrain accident resulted from a crew failure to adhere to the instrument approach procedure, poor crew resource management and poor situational awareness.
This accident caused the creation of the GPWS escape maneuver. It further stressed the need for increased awareness and training of crew resource management techniques and standard operating procedures; this accident is used as an example of'what not to do' by flight training organizations such as FlightSafety International. The FAA video production using the original CVR transcript is still used to study the events and how to improve current techniques. Much of this information is derived from that video. Aviation Week & Space Technology 27.02.89 Flight Int. 17-12.01.1990 ICAO Adrep Summary
LaGuardia Airport is an airport in the northern part of the New York City borough of Queens in the United States. It is on the waterfront of Flushing and Bowery Bays in East Elmhurst and borders the neighborhoods of Astoria and Jackson Heights; the airport is the third busiest airport serving New York City, the twentieth busiest in the United States. LaGuardia Airport covers 680 acres. In 2016, LaGuardia Airport had a strong growth in passenger traffic. LaGuardia is the busiest airport in the United States without any international services. A perimeter rule prohibits nonstop flights to or from points beyond 1,500 miles, but exceptions to the perimeter rule are flights on Saturdays and flights to Denver. International flights without border preclearance must use the nearby JFK or Newark airports, as there is no border control facility at the airport. Glenn H. Curtiss Airport renamed North Beach Airport, was the earlier airport at this location; the name was changed after New York City's takeover and reconstruction to New York Municipal Airport–LaGuardia Field, in 1953 became "LaGuardia Airport", named for Fiorello La Guardia, the mayor of New York when the airport was built.
LaGuardia has been criticized for some of its outdated facilities. Former Vice President Joe Biden compared LaGuardia to a "third world country" and the airport has been ranked in numerous customer surveys as the worst in the United States. Among pilots, it is referred to as "USS LaGuardia", because the runways are short and surrounded by water, thus giving the feel of landing on an aircraft carrier. On July 27, 2015, New York Governor Andrew Cuomo announced a reconstruction plan that would replace the existing airport; the reconstruction project broke ground in 2016 and is set to be complete by May, 2026. The LGA Airport Redevelopment Program is being constructed by Skanska–Walsh joint venture for the Terminal B Replacement Project and the Construction Manager is STV Group–Tishman Realty & Construction joint venture; the site of the airport was used by the Gala Amusement Park, owned by the Steinway family. It was razed and transformed in 1929 into a 105-acre private flying field named Glenn H. Curtiss Airport after the pioneer Long Island aviator called North Beach Airport.
The initiative to develop the airport for commercial flights began with an outburst by New York mayor Fiorello La Guardia upon the arrival of his TWA flight at Newark Airport – the only commercial airport serving the New York City region at the time – as his ticket said "New York". He demanded to be taken to New York, ordered the plane to be flown to Brooklyn's Floyd Bennett Field, giving an impromptu press conference to reporters along the way, he urged New Yorkers to support a new airport within their city. American Airlines accepted La Guardia's offer to start a trial program of scheduled flights to Floyd Bennett, although the program failed after several months because Newark's airport was closer to Manhattan. La Guardia went as far as to offer police escorts to airport limousines in an attempt to get American Airlines to continue operating the trial program. During the Floyd Bennett experiment, La Guardia and American executives began an alternative plan to build a new airport in Queens, where it could take advantage of the new Queens–Midtown Tunnel to Manhattan.
The existing North Beach Airport was an obvious location, but much too small for the sort of airport, being planned. With backing and assistance from the Works Progress Administration, construction began in 1937. Building on the site required moving landfill from Rikers Island a garbage dump, onto a metal reinforcing framework; the framework below the airport still causes magnetic interference on the compasses of outgoing aircraft: signs on the airfield warn pilots about the problem. Because of American's pivotal role in the development of the airport, LaGuardia gave the airline extra real estate during the airport's first year of operation, including four hangars, an unprecedented amount of space at the time. American opened its first Admirals Club at the airport in 1939; the club took over a large office space, reserved for the mayor, but he offered it for lease following criticism from the press, American vice president Red Mosier accepted the offer. The airport was dedicated on October 15, 1939, as the New York Municipal Airport, opened for business on December 2 of that year.
It cost New York City $23 million to turn the tiny North Beach Airport into a 550-acre modern facility. Not everyone was as enthusiastic as La Guardia about the project, but the public was fascinated by the idea of air travel, thousands traveled to the airport, paid the dime fee, watched the airliners take off and land. Two years these fees and their associated parking had provided $285,000, other non-travel related incomes were another $650,000 a year; the airport was soon a financial success. A smaller airport in nearby Jackson Heights, Holmes Airport, was unable to prevent the expansion of the larger airport and closed in 1940. Newark Airport began renovations, but could not keep up with the new Queens airport, which TIME called "the most pretentious land and seaplane base in the world". Before the project was completed LaGuardia had won commitments from the five largest airlines (Pan American Airways, United, Eastern Air Line