Hong Kong the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China and abbreviated as HK, is a special administrative region on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in southern China. With over 7.4 million people of various nationalities in a 1,104-square-kilometre territory, Hong Kong is the world's fourth most densely populated region. Hong Kong became a colony of the British Empire after Qing Empire ceded Hong Kong Island at the end of the First Opium War in 1842; the colony expanded to the Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 after the Second Opium War, was further extended when Britain obtained a 99-year lease of the New Territories in 1898. The entire territory was transferred to China in 1997; as a special administrative region, Hong Kong's system of government is separate from that of mainland China and its people identify more as Hongkongers rather than Chinese. A sparsely populated area of farming and fishing villages, the territory has become one of the world's most significant financial centres and commercial ports.
It is the world's seventh-largest trading entity, its legal tender is the world's 13th-most traded currency. Although the city has one of the highest per capita incomes in the world, it has severe income inequality; the territory has the largest number of skyscrapers in most surrounding Victoria Harbour. Hong Kong ranks seventh on the UN Human Development Index, has the sixth-longest life expectancy in the world. Although over 90 per cent of its population uses public transportation, air pollution from neighbouring industrial areas of mainland China has resulted in a high level of atmospheric particulates; the name of the territory, first spelled "He-Ong-Kong" in 1780 referred to a small inlet between Aberdeen Island and the southern coast of Hong Kong Island. Aberdeen was an initial point of contact between local fishermen. Although the source of the romanised name is unknown, it is believed to be an early phonetic rendering of the Cantonese pronunciation hēung góng; the name translates as "fragrant harbour" or "incense harbour".
"Fragrant" may refer to the sweet taste of the harbour's freshwater influx from the Pearl River or to the odor from incense factories lining the coast of northern Kowloon. The incense was stored near Aberdeen Harbour for export. Sir John Davis offered an alternative origin; the simplified name Hong Kong was used by 1810 written as a single word. Hongkong was common until 1926, when the government adopted the two-word name; some corporations founded during the early colonial era still keep this name, including Hongkong Land, Hongkong Electric and Shanghai Hotels and the Hongkong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. The region is first known to have been occupied by humans during the Neolithic period, about 6,000 years ago. Early Hong Kong settlers were a semi-coastal people who migrated from inland and brought knowledge of rice cultivation; the Qin dynasty incorporated the Hong Kong area into China for the first time in 214 BCE, after conquering the indigenous Baiyue. The region was consolidated under the Nanyue kingdom after the Qin collapse, recaptured by China after the Han conquest.
During the Mongol conquest, the Southern Song court was located in modern-day Kowloon City before its final defeat in the 1279 Battle of Yamen. By the end of the Yuan dynasty, seven large families had settled in the region and owned most of the land. Settlers from nearby provinces migrated to Kowloon throughout the Ming dynasty; the earliest European visitor was Portuguese explorer Jorge Álvares, who arrived in 1513. Portuguese merchants established a trading post called in Hong Kong waters, began regular trade with southern China. Although the traders were expelled after military clashes in the 1520s, Portuguese-Chinese trade relations were reestablished by 1549. Portugal acquired a permanent lease for Macau in 1557. After the Qing conquest, maritime trade was banned under the Haijin policies; the Kangxi Emperor lifted the prohibition, allowing foreigners to enter Chinese ports in 1684. Qing authorities established the Canton System in 1757 to regulate trade more restricting non-Russian ships to the port of Canton.
Although European demand for Chinese commodities like tea and porcelain was high, Chinese interest in European manufactured goods was insignificant. To counter the trade imbalance, the British sold large amounts of Indian opium to China. Faced with a drug crisis, Qing officials pursued ever-more-aggressive actions to halt the opium trade; the Daoguang Emperor rejected proposals to legalise and tax opium, ordering imperial commissioner Lin Zexu to eradicate the opium trade in 1839. The commissioner destroyed opium stockpiles and halted all foreign trade, forcing a British military response and triggering the First Opium War; the Qing ceded Hong Kong Island in the Convention of Chuenpi. However, both countries did not ratify the agreement. After over a year of further hostilities, Hong Kong Island was formally ceded to the United Kingdom in the 1842 Treaty of Nanking. Administrative infrastructure was built up by early 1842, but piracy and hostile Qing policies towards Hong Kong prevented the government from attracting merchants.
The Taiping Rebellion, when many wealthy Chinese fled mainland turbulence and settled in the colon
Ellsworth P. Bertholf
Ellsworth Price Bertholf was a Congressional Gold Medal recipient who served as the fourth Captain-Commandant of the United States Revenue Cutter Service and because of the change in the name of the agency, the fourth Commandant of the United States Coast Guard. His leadership during his tenure as Commandant was critical to the U. S. Coast Guard's survival at a time when outside agencies wanted to either take it over or split its missions up among several agencies. Bertholf was born in New York City to John J. Bertholf, an accountant, Annie Frances Price Bertholf; when he was four, his family moved to New Jersey where he spent his school years. When he was sixteen, he received an appointment to the U. S. Naval Academy but was court-martialed and dismissed for participating in a hazing incident at the beginning of his second year. A year after his expulsion from the Naval Academy, he was appointed as a cadet at the Revenue Cutter Service School of Instruction at New Bedford, Massachusetts, he graduated from the School of Instruction on 18 October 1887 and was assigned to USRC Levi Woodbury on 15 December 1887.
He was commissioned as a Third Lieutenant while serving on Woodbury on 12 June 1889. On 15 April 1890, Bertholf was transferred to USRC William H. Seward, an American Civil War-era side-wheeler, homeported in Bay St. Louis, Mississippi. Seward patrolled the mouth of the Mississippi River and Lake Pontchartrain, removing hazards to navigation and watching for smuggling activity. In May 1891, he was assigned to the newer iron-hulled USRC Forward, based in Mobile, Alabama. While serving on Forward, Bertholf was promoted to second lieutenant on 31 October 1892. In June 1893, Bertholf reported aboard USRC Hamilton, undergoing an overhaul at Reeder and Sons Shipyard, Baltimore After overhaul, Hamilton returned to her homeport of Philadelphia for customs duty in the harbor and Delaware Bay. Returning to Forward on 5 May 1894, after only one year of service on Hamilton, he spent just a year assigned to Forward when he received orders to report 1 June 1895 to the Naval War College at Newport, Rhode Island as a student.
He gained valuable experience in naval tactics and interacting with Navy officers and became the first Revenue Cutter Service officer to graduate from the Naval War College He graduated in October 1895 and was temporarily assigned as the executive officer on USRC Manhattan, a harbor tug in New York City. Bertholf reported aboard USRC Salmon P. Chase in late November, 1895 as the executive officer of Chase and the Revenue Cutter Service School of Instruction. Chase was undergoing a major modifications in Baltimore to accommodate twice the cadets that it had in the past. After refit, Chase returned to duty as a training ship and spent most of the training year at sea, with only occasional visits in port for reprovisioning and repairs. In November 1897, Bertholf received orders assigning him to USRC Bear homeported in Seattle, Washington. USRC Bear was tasked with the Bering Sea Patrol and spent several months out of each year patrolling the Alaska coast. At the same time he reported to Bear, word was received that several whaling ships were trapped in the ice at Point Barrow.
The Overland Relief Expedition was planned by the Secretary of the Treasury and Bear left for the Bering Sea facing the Arctic winter, a feat that had not been attempted before. Although Bear was built for working in icy waters, it was not an icebreaker and could not be expected to sail through pack ice to the trapped whalers. Near Nelson Island, the captain of Bear put ashore the executive officer, Lieutenant David H. Jarvis. Call; the distance to Point Barrow overland from Cape Vancouver was 1500 miles. Bear turned back and wintered over in Unalaska awaiting the spring thaw while the rescue party gathered dog sled teams and acquired the necessary number of reindeer; because of a lack of trained dogs, Jarvis instructed Bertholf to continue searching the Inuit villages for sled teams while he and Call went ahead to Cape Prince of Wales where there were large numbers of domesticated reindeer. Bertholf helped re-provision the relief mission; the party reached the whalers in early March, 1898, walking most of the distance and enduring temperatures as low as -45 degrees Fahrenheit.
In 1902, Jarvis and Bertholf were awarded Congressional Gold Medals in recognition of their heroic relief efforts for the 275 American whalers at Point Barrow in what became known as the Overland Relief Expedition. That expedition has been hailed as one of the most perilous rescue missions in maritime history. After a short assignment aboard USRC Thetis undergoing repairs at Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Bertholf was again assigned to Bear in May, 1899, but this time as the executive officer. During this assignment, the crew of Bear delivered more reindeer to Alaska from Russia, enforced Federal law, rescued stranded destitute gold miners from starvation, rescued whalers from a shipwreck and investigated two murders. During this time Bertholf took the examination for First Lieutenant and was promoted in June 1900. In January 1901, he was attached to the Department of Interior and sent to Russia to acquire more reindeer that were of hardier stock, for shipment to Alaska, for the relief of the Inuit.
He was sent to the U. S. Embassy in St. Petersburg, Russia for consultation with Russian officials, was advised to cross Russia by way of the Trans-Siberian Railroad and contact herdsmen near Okhotsk. After purchasing the reindeer and moving them to the port of Vladivostok, he was r
Maritime call sign
Maritime call signs are call signs assigned as unique identifiers to ships and boats. One of the earliest applications of radiotelegraph operation, long predating broadcast radio, were marine radio stations installed aboard ships at sea. In the absence of international standards, early transmitters constructed after Guglielmo Marconi's first trans-Atlantic message in 1901 were issued arbitrary two-letter calls by radio companies, alone or preceded by a one-letter company identifier; these mimicked an earlier railroad telegraph convention where short, two-letter identifiers served as Morse code abbreviations to denote the various individual stations on the line.'N' and two letters would identify US Navy. On April 14, 1912, the RMS Titanic station MGY, busily delivering telegram traffic from ship's passengers to the coastal station at Cape Race, would receive warnings of ice fields from Marconi stations aboard the M. V. Mesaba and the SS Californian, its distress call CQD CQD CQD CQD CQD CQD DE MGY MGY MGY MGY MGY MGY position 41.44N 50.24W would be answered by a station aboard the RMS Carpathia.
That same year, an international conference standardised radio call signs so that the first two letters would uniquely identify a transmitter's country of origin. Merchant and naval vessels are assigned call signs by their national licensing authorities. In the case of states such as Liberia or Panama, which are flags of convenience for ship registration, call signs for larger vessels consist of the national prefix plus three letters. United States merchant vessels are given call signs beginning with the letters "W" or "K" while US naval ships are assigned callsigns beginning with "N". Both ships and broadcast stations were given call signs in this series consisting of three or four letters, but as demand for both marine radio and broadcast call signs grew American-flagged vessels were given longer call signs with mixed letters and numbers; as broadcast stations became commonplace in the 1920s, some original three and four-letter call signs were reassigned as the corresponding ships were removed from U.
S. registry. The WSB call sign had been held by two ships before being assigned to the Atlanta Journal for use by its unsinkable Atlanta, Georgia broadcast radio station in 1922. WEZU, the international radio call sign of the ship SS Lash Atlantico, was assigned in 1997 to a broadcast station. Additional call signs would be reassigned to coastal stations or moved from marine radio to terrestrial broadcast radio when ships were sold for registration to foreign nations, as the new owners would obtain new, local call signs for any existing shipboard radio stations. Leisure craft with VHF radios may not be assigned call signs, in which case the name of the vessel is used instead. Ships in the US wishing to have a radio licence anyway are under F. C. C. Class SA: "Ship recreational or voluntarily equipped." Those calls follow the land mobile format of the initial letter K or W followed by 1 or 2 letters followed by 3 or 4 numbers. U. S. Coast Guard small boats have a number, shown on both bows in which the first two digits indicate the nominal length of the boat in feet.
For example, Coast Guard 47021 refers to the 21st in the series of 47 foot motor lifeboats. The call sign might be abbreviated to the final two or three numbers during operations, for example: Coast Guard zero two one. Maritime Mobile Service Identity Pan-pan
Close-in weapon system
A close-in weapon system, is a point-defense weapon system for detecting and destroying short-range incoming missiles and enemy aircraft which have penetrated the outer defenses mounted shipboard in a naval capacity. Nearly all classes of larger modern warships are equipped with some kind of CIWS device. There are two types of CIWS systems. A gun-based CIWS consists of a combination of radars and multiple-barrel, rotary rapid-fire cannons placed on a rotating gun mount. Missile systems use infra-red, passive radar/ESM or semi-active radar terminal guidance to guide missiles to the targeted enemy aircraft or other threats. In some cases, CIWS are used on land to protect military bases. In this case, the CIWS can protect the base from shell and rocket fire. A gun-based CIWS consists of a combination of radars and rotary or revolver cannon placed on a rotating, automatically-aimed gun mount. Examples of gun-based CIWS products in operation are: AK-630 DARDO Denel 35mm Dual Purpose Gun Goalkeeper CIWS Kashtan CIWS Meroka CIWS Myriad CIWS Rheinmetall Oerlikon Millennium Gun Phalanx CIWS Sea Zenith Type 730 CIWS Pantsir-ME Short range: the maximum effective range of 20 mm gun systems is about 4,500 metres.
The expected real-world kill-distance of an incoming anti-ship missile is about 500 m or less, still close enough to cause damage to the ship's sensor or communication arrays, or to wound or kill exposed personnel. Thus some CIWS are augmented by installing the close range SAMs on the same mount for increased tactical flexibility. Limited kill probability: if the missile is hit and damaged, this may not be enough to destroy it or to alter its course enough to prevent the missile, or fragments from it, from hitting its intended target as the interception distance is short; this is true if the gun fires kinetic-energy-only projectiles. 9M337 Sosna-R Pantsir missile system RIM-116 Rolling Airframe Missile Tor missile system XM501 Non-Line-of-Sight Launch System CIWS are used on land in the form of C-RAM. On a smaller scale, active protection systems are used in some tanks (to destroy rocket propelled grenades, several are in development; the Drozd system was deployed on Soviet Naval Infantry tanks in the early 1980s, but replaced by explosive reactive armour.
Other systems that are available or under development are the Russian, Israeli and the South African-Swedish. Laser based. In August 2014 an operational prototype was deployed to the Persian Gulf aboard USS Ponce; the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey is the second organisation after the US to have developed and tested a High Power Laser CIWS prototype System, intended to be used on the TF-2000 class frigate and on Turkish airborne systems. Active protection system
USCGC Waesche (WMSL-751)
USCGC Waesche is the second Legend-class cutter of the United States Coast Guard. Waesche is named for Coast Guard Admiral Russell R. Waesche. Waesche graduated from the United States Revenue Cutter Service School of Instruction in 1906, was commissioned an ensign, served with distinction in a succession of diverse and responsible Coast Guard assignments at sea and ashore, he served as Commandant of the Coast Guard from 1936 to 1945 during a tumultuous and eventful period in the life of the service, was the first Coast Guardsman to achieve the rank of admiral. Construction began in 2006 by Northrop Grumman's Ship System Ingalls Shipyard in Pascagoula, Mississippi. On November 6, 2009 the Coast Guard took delivery of the Waesche, she arrived at her homeport at Coast Guard Island, California on February 28, 2010 and was commissioned on May 7, 2010. In 2012 Waesche became the 2nd U. S. surface combatant and the first Coast Guard cutter to use the Phalanx CIWS to defeat an unmanned aerial vehicle with a low, slow flying aircraft profile.
Integrated Deepwater System Program Legend-class United States Coast Guard Cutter USCGC Bertholf USCGC Stratton USCGC Hamilton Media related to USCGC Waesche at Wikimedia Commons USCGC Waesche Captures a Semi-Submersible Home page National Security Cutter Waesche - usmilnet.com - pictures and articles National Security Cutter Gallery National Security Cutter Home
Fox News is an American pay television news channel. It is owned by the Fox News Group, which itself was owned by News Corporation from 1996–2013, 21st Century Fox from 2013–2019, Fox Corporation since 2019; the channel broadcasts from studios at 1211 Avenue of the Americas in New York City. Fox News is provided in 86 countries or overseas territories worldwide, with international broadcasts featuring Fox Extra segments during ad breaks; the channel was created by Australian-American media mogul Rupert Murdoch to appeal to a conservative audience, hiring former Republican Party media consultant and CNBC executive Roger Ailes as its founding CEO. It launched on October 1996, to 17 million cable subscribers. Fox News grew during the late 1990s and 2000s to become the dominant subscription news network in the US; as of February 2015 94,700,000 US households receive Fox News. Murdoch is the current executive chairman and Suzanne Scott is the CEO. Fox News has been described as practicing biased reporting in favor of the Republican Party, the George W. Bush and Donald Trump administrations and conservative causes while slandering the Democratic Party and spreading harmful propaganda intended to negatively affect its members' electoral performances.
Critics have cited the channel as detrimental to the integrity of news overall. Fox News employees have said that news reporting operates independently of its opinion and commentary programming, have denied bias in news reporting, while former employees have said that Fox ordered them to "slant the news in favor of conservatives." In May 1985, Australian publisher Rupert Murdoch announced he and American industrialist and philanthropist Marvin Davis intended to develop "a network of independent stations as a fourth marketing force" to compete directly with CBS, NBC, ABC through the purchase of six television stations owned by Metromedia. In July 1985, 20th Century Fox announced Murdoch had completed his purchase of 50% of Fox Filmed Entertainment, the parent company of 20th Century Fox Film Corporation. A year 20th Century Fox earned $5.6 million in its fiscal third period ended May 31, 1986, in contrast to a loss of $55.8 million in the third period of the previous year. Subsequently, prior to founding FNC, Murdoch had gained experience in the 24-hour news business when News Corporation's BSkyB subsidiary began Europe's first 24-hour news channel in the United Kingdom in 1989.
With the success of his fourth network efforts in the United States, experience gained from Sky News and the turnaround of 20th Century Fox, Murdoch announced on January 31, 1996, that News Corp. would launch a 24-hour news channel on cable and satellite systems in the United States as part of a News Corp. "worldwide platform" for Fox programming: "The appetite for news – news that explains to people how it affects them – is expanding enormously". In February 1996, after former U. S. Republican Party political strategist and NBC executive Roger Ailes left cable television channel America's Talking, Murdoch asked him to start Fox News Channel. Ailes demanded five months of 14-hour workdays and several weeks of rehearsal shows before its launch on October 7, 1996. At its debut 17 million households were able to watch FNC. Rolling news coverage during the day consisted of 20-minute single-topic shows such as Fox on Crime or Fox on Politics, surrounded by news headlines. Interviews featured facts at the bottom of the screen about the guest.
The flagship newscast at the time was The Schneider Report, with Mike Schneider's fast-paced delivery of the news. During the evening, Fox featured opinion shows: The O'Reilly Report, The Crier Report and Hannity & Colmes. From the beginning, FNC has placed heavy emphasis on visual presentation. Graphics were designed to gain attention. Fox News created the "Fox News Alert", which interrupted its regular programming when a breaking news story occurred. To accelerate its adoption by cable providers, Fox News paid systems up to $11 per subscriber to distribute the channel; this contrasted with the normal practice, in which cable operators paid stations carriage fees for programming. When Time Warner bought Ted Turner's Turner Broadcasting System, a federal antitrust consent decree required Time Warner to carry a second all-news channel in addition to its own CNN on its cable systems. Time Warner selected MSNBC as the secondary news channel, not Fox News. Fox News claimed. Citing its agreement to keep its U.
S. headquarters and a large studio in New York City, News Corporation enlisted the help of Mayor Rudolph Giuliani's administration to pressure Time Warner Cable to transmit Fox News on a city-owned channel. City officials threatened to take action affecting Time Warner's cable franchises in the city. During the September 11, 2001 attacks, Fox News was the first news organization to run a news ticker on the bottom of the screen to keep up with the flow of information that day; the ticker has remained, informing viewers about additional news which reporters may not mention on-screen and repeating news mentioned during a broadcast. FNC maintains an archive of most of its programs; this archive includes Fox Movietone newsreels. Licensing for the Fox N
Stern launching ramp
Some modern patrol vessels are equipped with a stern launching ramp, for deploying smaller rescue or pursuit boats without requiring the parent ship to first come to a halt. The smaller craft are powered by water-jets, can drive themselves up the ramp by their own power; the stern launching ramps on the United States Coast Guard's Marine Protector cutters require only a single crewmember to remain on deck when its short range prosecutor boat is deployed or retrieved. When the brand new USCGC John F. McCormick visited Astoria, the station of its namesake John F. McCormick, Jeff Heffernan, of the Daily Astorian described how a stern launching ramp allowed a parent vessel to launch her boat in larger swells. Media related to Stern launching ramps at Wikimedia Commons