London School of Economics
The London School of Economics is a public research university located in London, a constituent college of the federal University of London. Founded in 1895 by Fabian Society members Sidney Webb, Beatrice Webb, Graham Wallas, George Bernard Shaw for the betterment of society, LSE joined the University of London in 1900 and established its first degree courses under the auspices of the University in 1901; the LSE started awarding its own degrees in 2008, prior to which it awarded degrees of the University of London. LSE is located near the boundary between Covent Garden and Holborn; the area is known as Clare Market. The LSE has more than 11,000 students and 3,300 staff, just under half of whom come from outside the UK, it had an income of £ 354.3 million in 2017/18. One hundred and fifty-five nationalities are represented amongst LSE's student body and the school has the second highest percentage of international students of all world universities. Despite its name, the school is organised into 25 academic departments and institutes which conduct teaching and research across a range of legal studies and social sciences.
LSE is a member of the Russell Group, Association of Commonwealth Universities, European University Association and is sometimes considered a part of the "Golden Triangle" of universities in south-east England. For the subject area of social science, LSE places second in the world in the QS Rankings, tenth in THE Rankings, eighth in the Academic Ranking of World Universities. LSE is ranked among the top fifteen universities nationally by all three UK tables, while internationally LSE is ranked in the top 50 by two of the three major global rankings. In the 2014 Research Excellence Framework, the School had the highest proportion of world-leading research among research submitted of any British non-specialist university. LSE has produced many notable alumni in the fields of law, economics, psychology, literature and politics. Alumni and staff include 53 past or present heads of state or government, 20 members of the current British House of Commons and 18 Nobel laureates; as of 2017, 26% of all the Nobel Prizes in Economics have been awarded or jointly awarded to LSE alumni, current staff or former staff, making up 16% of all laureates.
LSE alumni and staff have won 3 Nobel Peace Prizes and 2 Nobel Prizes in Literature. Out of all European universities, LSE has educated the most billionaires according to a 2014 global census of U. S dollar billionaires; the London School of Economics was founded in 1895 by Beatrice and Sidney Webb funded by a bequest of £20,000 from the estate of Henry Hunt Hutchinson. Hutchinson, a lawyer and member of the Fabian Society, left the money in trust, to be put "towards advancing its objects in any way they deem advisable"; the five trustees were Sidney Webb, Edward Pease, Constance Hutchinson, William de Mattos and William Clark. LSE records that the proposal to establish the school was conceived during a breakfast meeting on 4 August 1894, between the Webbs, Louis Flood and George Bernard Shaw; the proposal was accepted by the trustees in February 1895 and LSE held its first classes in October of that year, in rooms at 9 John Street, Adelphi, in the City of Westminster. The School joined the federal University of London in 1900, was recognised as a Faculty of Economics of the university.
The University of London degrees of BSc and DSc were established in 1901, the first university degrees dedicated to the social sciences. Expanding over the following years, the school moved to the nearby 10 Adelphi Terrace to Clare Market and Houghton Street; the foundation stone of the Old Building, on Houghton Street, was laid by King George V in 1920. The 1930s economic debate between LSE and Cambridge is well known in academic circles. Rivalry between academic opinion at LSE and Cambridge goes back to the school's roots when LSE's Edwin Cannan, Professor of Economics, Cambridge's Professor of Political Economy, Alfred Marshall, the leading economist of the day, argued about the bedrock matter of economics and whether the subject should be considered as an organic whole.. The dispute concerned the question of the economist's role, whether this should be as a detached expert or a practical adviser. Despite the traditional view that the LSE and Cambridge were fierce rivals through the 1920s and 30s, they worked together in the 1920s on the London and Cambridge Economic Service.
However, the 1930s brought a return to disputes as economists at the two universities argued over how best to address the economic problems caused by the Great Depression. The main figures in this debate were John Maynard Keynes from Cambridge and the LSE's Friedrich Hayek; the LSE Economist Lionel Robbins was heavily involved. Starting off as a disagreement over whether demand management or deflation was the better solution to the economic problems of the time, it embraced much wider concepts of economics and macroeconomics. Keynes put forward the theories now known as Keynesian economics, involving the active participation of the state and public sector, while Hayek and Robbins followed the Austrian School, which emphasised free trade and opposed state involvement. During World War II, the School decamped from London to the University of Cambridge, occupying buildings belonging to Peterhouse; the School's arms, including its mo
University of Chicago Law School
The University of Chicago Law School is a professional graduate school of the University of Chicago. It employs more than 200 full-time and part-time faculty and hosts more than 600 students in its Juris Doctor program, while offering the Master of Laws, Master of Studies in Law and Doctor of Juridical Science degrees in law, it is ranked among the top law schools in the world, has produced many distinguished alumni in the judiciary, government and business. The law school was conceived in 1902 by the President of the University of Chicago, William Rainey Harper, who requested assistance from faculty at Harvard Law School in setting up the new school. Harper and the law school's first Dean, Joseph Henry Beale, designed the school's curriculum with inspiration from Ernst Freund's interdisciplinary approach to legal education; the construction of the school was financed by John D. Rockefeller and the cornerstone was laid by President Theodore Roosevelt; the law school opened for classes in 1903.
In the 1930s, the law school's curriculum was transformed by the emergence of the law and economics movement. Economists Aaron Director and Henry Calvert Simons taught courses integrated with the antitrust curriculum taught by statesman Edward H. Levi, leading to the development of the Chicago school of economics and the Chicago School approach to antitrust law; the law school expanded in the 1950s under Levi's leadership and, in the 1970s and 1980s, many scholars with connections to the social sciences were attracted to the school's influence in law and economics, including Nobel laureates Ronald Coase and Gary Becker and the most cited legal scholar of the 20th century, Richard A. Posner; the law school's flagship publication is the University of Chicago Law Review. Students edit two other independent law journals, with another three journals overseen by faculty; the law school was housed in Stuart Hall, a Gothic-style limestone building on the campus's main quadrangles. Since 1959, it has been housed in an Eero Saarinen-designed building across the Midway Plaisance from the main campus of the University of Chicago.
The building was expanded in 1987 and again in 1998. It was renovated in 2008. In 1902, the President of the University of Chicago, William Rainey Harper, requested assistance from the faculty of Harvard Law School in establishing a law school at Chicago. Joseph Henry Beale a professor at Harvard, was granted a two-year leave of absence to serve as the first Dean of the law school. Beale and Harper assembled the faculty and designed the curriculum, inspired by jurist and professor Ernst Freund. Freund had suggested that the school advocate an interdisciplinary approach to legal studies, offering elective courses in subjects such as history and political science. In 1903, the law school opened for classes in the University Press Building. John D. Rockefeller paid the $250,000 construction cost, President Theodore Roosevelt laid its cornerstone. At the time of its opening, the law school consisted of 78 students. In 1904, the law school moved to Stuart Hall on the main University campus. In the same year, Sophonisba Breckinridge became the first woman to graduate from the law school.
The law school established its first alumni association. There was considerable change in the law school in the years leading up to World War I and shortly thereafter; the law school established a chapter of the Order of the Coif in 1911. It established the Moot Court program in 1914. During World War I, enrolment at the law school declined: in Spring 1917, 241 students were enrolled. In 1920, Earl B. Dickerson became the first African-American to graduate from the law school. In 1926, enrolment reached 500 students for the first time and, in 1927, the law school began to offer its first seminars. In the 1930s, the law school's curriculum transformed to reflect the emerging influence of the law and economics movement. Aaron Director and Henry Simons began offering economics courses in 1933. Faculty member Edward Levi introduced economics in the antitrust course, permitting Director to teach one of every five classroom sessions; the first volume of the University of Chicago Law Review was published in 1933.
The law school established a legal writing program in 1938 and the Law and Economics Program in 1939. The LL. M. program was established in 1942, while Harry A. Bigelow Teaching Fellowships were established in 1947; as was the case during World War I, enrolment at the law school, like at many of the other top law schools in the country and its academic calendar was adjusted to meet military needs. In the 1950s and 1960s, the law school experienced a period of profound growth and expansion under the leadership of Edward Levi, appointed Dean in 1950. In 1951, Karl Llewellyn and Soia Mentschikoff joined the law school, the latter being the first woman on the faculty. In 1958, Director founded the Journal of Economics. In 1959, the law school moved to its current building on 60th Street, designed by Eero Saarinen. In 1960, constitutional law scholar Philip Kurland founded the Supreme Court Review. Levi served as the Provost and the President of the University of Chicago, before becoming the United States Attorney General under President Gerald Ford.
During his time at the law school, Levi supported the Committee on Social Thought graduate program. By the 1970s and 1980s, the law and economics movement had attracted a series of scholars with strong connections to the social sciences, such as Nobel laureates Ronald Coase and Gary Becker and scholars Richard A. Posner and William M. Landes. In 1972, Posner foun
Fox News is an American pay television news channel. It is owned by the Fox News Group, which itself was owned by News Corporation from 1996–2013, 21st Century Fox from 2013–2019, Fox Corporation since 2019; the channel broadcasts from studios at 1211 Avenue of the Americas in New York City. Fox News is provided in 86 countries or overseas territories worldwide, with international broadcasts featuring Fox Extra segments during ad breaks; the channel was created by Australian-American media mogul Rupert Murdoch to appeal to a conservative audience, hiring former Republican Party media consultant and CNBC executive Roger Ailes as its founding CEO. It launched on October 1996, to 17 million cable subscribers. Fox News grew during the late 1990s and 2000s to become the dominant subscription news network in the US; as of February 2015 94,700,000 US households receive Fox News. Murdoch is the current executive chairman and Suzanne Scott is the CEO. Fox News has been described as practicing biased reporting in favor of the Republican Party, the George W. Bush and Donald Trump administrations and conservative causes while slandering the Democratic Party and spreading harmful propaganda intended to negatively affect its members' electoral performances.
Critics have cited the channel as detrimental to the integrity of news overall. Fox News employees have said that news reporting operates independently of its opinion and commentary programming, have denied bias in news reporting, while former employees have said that Fox ordered them to "slant the news in favor of conservatives." In May 1985, Australian publisher Rupert Murdoch announced he and American industrialist and philanthropist Marvin Davis intended to develop "a network of independent stations as a fourth marketing force" to compete directly with CBS, NBC, ABC through the purchase of six television stations owned by Metromedia. In July 1985, 20th Century Fox announced Murdoch had completed his purchase of 50% of Fox Filmed Entertainment, the parent company of 20th Century Fox Film Corporation. A year 20th Century Fox earned $5.6 million in its fiscal third period ended May 31, 1986, in contrast to a loss of $55.8 million in the third period of the previous year. Subsequently, prior to founding FNC, Murdoch had gained experience in the 24-hour news business when News Corporation's BSkyB subsidiary began Europe's first 24-hour news channel in the United Kingdom in 1989.
With the success of his fourth network efforts in the United States, experience gained from Sky News and the turnaround of 20th Century Fox, Murdoch announced on January 31, 1996, that News Corp. would launch a 24-hour news channel on cable and satellite systems in the United States as part of a News Corp. "worldwide platform" for Fox programming: "The appetite for news – news that explains to people how it affects them – is expanding enormously". In February 1996, after former U. S. Republican Party political strategist and NBC executive Roger Ailes left cable television channel America's Talking, Murdoch asked him to start Fox News Channel. Ailes demanded five months of 14-hour workdays and several weeks of rehearsal shows before its launch on October 7, 1996. At its debut 17 million households were able to watch FNC. Rolling news coverage during the day consisted of 20-minute single-topic shows such as Fox on Crime or Fox on Politics, surrounded by news headlines. Interviews featured facts at the bottom of the screen about the guest.
The flagship newscast at the time was The Schneider Report, with Mike Schneider's fast-paced delivery of the news. During the evening, Fox featured opinion shows: The O'Reilly Report, The Crier Report and Hannity & Colmes. From the beginning, FNC has placed heavy emphasis on visual presentation. Graphics were designed to gain attention. Fox News created the "Fox News Alert", which interrupted its regular programming when a breaking news story occurred. To accelerate its adoption by cable providers, Fox News paid systems up to $11 per subscriber to distribute the channel; this contrasted with the normal practice, in which cable operators paid stations carriage fees for programming. When Time Warner bought Ted Turner's Turner Broadcasting System, a federal antitrust consent decree required Time Warner to carry a second all-news channel in addition to its own CNN on its cable systems. Time Warner selected MSNBC as the secondary news channel, not Fox News. Fox News claimed. Citing its agreement to keep its U.
S. headquarters and a large studio in New York City, News Corporation enlisted the help of Mayor Rudolph Giuliani's administration to pressure Time Warner Cable to transmit Fox News on a city-owned channel. City officials threatened to take action affecting Time Warner's cable franchises in the city. During the September 11, 2001 attacks, Fox News was the first news organization to run a news ticker on the bottom of the screen to keep up with the flow of information that day; the ticker has remained, informing viewers about additional news which reporters may not mention on-screen and repeating news mentioned during a broadcast. FNC maintains an archive of most of its programs; this archive includes Fox Movietone newsreels. Licensing for the Fox N
USC Marshall School of Business
The USC Marshall School of Business is the business school of the University of Southern California. It is accredited by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business. In 1997 the school was renamed following a $35 million donation from alumnus Gordon S. Marshall; the Marshall School began as the College of Commerce and Business Administration in 1920. The Graduate School of Business Administration was established in 1960; the Entrepreneurship Program, the first of its kind in the United States, was established in 1972 and is internationally recognized. It has now been renamed The Lloyd Greif Center for Entrepreneurial Studies; the Pacific RIM Education program was implemented in 1997 as the first MBA course of its kind to require all first year full-time MBA students to participate in an international experience. The Leventhal School of Accounting was formed within the school on February 7, 1979. All of its classes are offered at the University Park campus in Los Angeles. James G. Ellis was the dean from 2007 to 2018.
A new dean has not yet been installed. The school occupies five multi-story buildings on campus: Hoffman Hall, Bridge Hall, the Accounting building, Popovich Hall and Jill and Frank Fertitta Hall, which houses the Marshall School's undergraduate programs; this is the main building of the Marshall School's MBA programs. The $20 million, 55,000 square feet building opened in 1999 as one of the most technologically advanced business school buildings in the United States, it was named after Jane Hoffman Popovich for their $5 million gift. The hall provides state-of-the-art technology and eight case-study rooms equipped with audio-video teleconferencing devices, 13 Experiential Learning classrooms capable of transmitting lectures and presentations throughout the building, more than 1,100 data connections outlets throughout the building, a courtyard, more than 15 miles of fiber-optic and cable wiring in its Modern Career Resource Center. Bridge Hall housed all undergraduate offices for the Marshall School of Business until the opening of Jill & Frank Fertitta Hall in the fall of 2016.
Fertitta Hall, a 104,000-square-foot, five-story building, was built expressly for Marshall's undergraduate community. It houses USC Marshall's Undergraduate student services and advisors' offices; the Office of the Dean, staff offices and a few classrooms continue to be housed at Bridge Hall. The H. Leslie Hoffman Hall of Business Administration, which opened in 1973 and stands eight stories tall, is the former home of the Crocker Business Library, it is named for H. Leslie Hoffman, father of Jane Hoffman Popovich, it was designed by renowned architect I. M. Pei; the building was extensively renovated in 2015-16 into faculty offices. The Marshall School offers a Bachelor of Science in Business Administration. There are several joint programs that offer studies with International Relations and Cinematic Arts in combination with Business Administration. New students take a business core and have other time to fulfill the USC Core and take elective classes; the undergraduate program offers a variety of international opportunities.
The Global Leadership Program comprises a two-semester seminar on business leadership in China and a spring break trip to China. Marshall's two-year full-time MBA comprises a straightforward intensive core and a diverse range of electives and concentrations. USC Marshall offers a MBA program for Professionals and Managers, an online MBA, an executive MBA and a one-year international MBA; the School offers 11 specialty master's degrees, offering specialized business education on a number of topics, including finance, business analytics and global supply chain management. Executive Education For individuals, Marshall Executive Education offers innovative open enrollment programming with a wide variety of business certificate programs – online and in-person – geared towards professional and personal development. Ranked within the top 15 world business research institutions, the Marshall School offers a full-time doctoral program within the five academic departments; the program lasts 4–5 years with up to two years of dissertation.
Along working with notable faculty, doctoral students receive substantial financial aid, such as graduate assistantship and a living stipend, during their study. The Marshall School has more than 82,000 alumni worldwide in 123 countries, its members consider itself 345,000-strong. This robust network is cited by alumni as a factor in their successful job searches. Events at Marshall emphasize the importance of networking within the Trojan Family. In 2019, USC Marshall's MBA program is ranked No.17 nationally by U. S. News and World Report. In 2018, Bloomberg BusinessWeek ranked USC Marshall's MBA program No. 13 nationally. For 2017, Marshall was ranked No. 33 by Forbes. In global rankings, Marshall was ranked No. 28 by The Economist, No. 29 by Business Insider. and No. 29 by QS World University Rankings. See also: List of University of Southern California people Timothy O. Johnson Chairman and CEO of Johnson Production Group Dan Bane Chairman and CEO of Trader Joe's Marc Benioff Founder and CEO of Salesforce.com John Campbell United States Congressman Henry Caruso Founder of Dollar Rent-A-Car Alan Casden Chairman and CEO of Casden Properties Ronnie Chan Chairman of Hang Lung Group and Hang Lung Properties in Hong Kong Yang Ho Cho President and CEO of Korean Airlines and Chairman of the Hanjin Group Chris DeWolfe Co-f
USC Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism
The USC Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism comprises a School of Communication and a School of Journalism at the University of Southern California. Starting July 2017, the school’s Dean is Willow Bay, succeeding Ernest J. Wilson III; the graduate program in Communications is ranked first according to the QS World University Rankings. The Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism was established in 1971 through the support of Jewish United States Ambassador Walter H. Annenberg; the USC Department of Communication Arts and Sciences and the School of Journalism became part of USC Annenberg in 1994. School of Communication: The USC Annenberg School of Communication is the school's center for general communications, it offers degrees from undergraduate to doctorates. Its current director is Sarah Banet-Weiser, who took over from Larry Gross in 2014, it offers the following degrees: B. A. M. A. Ph. D.. School of Journalism Annenberg's School of Journalism's director is Willow Bay, who joined in 2014.
It offers the following degrees: Degrees offered: B. A. M. A.. The Annenberg Networks Network: social network studies and computational social science; the Annenberg Research Network on International Communication: research on international communication issues. The Johnson Communication Leadership Center provides undergraduate scholarships and conducts research on the role of African-Americans in the media; the Center on Communication Leadership & Policy sponsors research and organizes courses and symposia. The center's director is the former dean of USC Annenberg Geoffrey Cowan; the Center for the Digital Future "communication technology and mass media, their impact on individuals and nations. Includes the research project: Surveying the Digital Future The USC U. S.-China Institute: public discussion of the U. S.-China relationship through policy-relevant research and undergraduate training, professional development programs for teachers and officials. It produces public events, documentary films, magazines.
It was established in 2006 by USC President C. L. "Max" Nikias. In fall 2011, it became part of the USC Annenberg School for Communication and Journalism,The USC Center on Public Diplomacy, in partnership with the USC College's School of International Relations: government and non-state actors engagement with foreign audiences. Includes the: U. S. Canada Fulbright Chair in Public Diplomacy The Haptics Lab: integrating the sense of touch into human/computer interactions, is supported by the Integrated Media Systems Center, a National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center; the Metamorphosis Project: the transformations of urban community under the forces of globalization, new communication technologies and population diversity. The Norman Lear Cente: convergence of entertainment and society; the Strategic Public Relations Center: the study and value of public relations. The Annenberg Innovation Lab The USC Annenberg Institute of Sports, Media & Society Knight Digital Media Center USC Annenberg/California Endowment Health Journalism Fellowships USC Annenberg/Getty Arts Journalism Program Institute for Justice and Journalism NEA Arts Journalism Institute in Theater and Musical Theater Everett M. Rogers Award for Achievement in Entertainment Education Selden Ring Award for Investigative Reporting USC Annenberg Walter Cronkite Award for Excellence in Television Political Journalism USC Annenberg Health Journalism Fellowships, one for California journalists and one opened nationally at Center for Health Journalism funded by The California Endowment International Journal of Communication, Editors: Manuel Castells, Larry Gross Online Journalism Review, Editor: Robert Niles Students are active with USC's student-run newspaper, the Daily Trojan.
USC Annenberg is home to student chapters of the Radio-Television News Directors Association and Public Relations Student Society of America. Students run an in-house public relations agency that works with non-profit and small business clients. Annenberg TV News airs Monday through Thursday at 6 p.m. on Trojan Vision. Students are responsible for reporting local and international news and producing the newscast live on air. USC Annenberg's career development office provides services to USC Annenberg students and alumni. Resources include a digital three-camera broadcast studio, a television newsroom, a digital lab equipped with Adobe Premiere nonlinear video editing systems, four computer classrooms and the Experiential Learning Center. Fourteen classrooms feature. Professional media and research software applications are installed on more than 200 computers available for student use. USC Annenberg offers study-abroad opportunities for undergraduate students in Amsterdam, Buenos Aires, Hong Kong, London and Sydney.
Graduate journalism and public relations students may complete summer internships in Cape Town, Hong Kong and London, public diplomacy students have the opportunity to complete summer internships abroad. USC Annenberg offers a joint MA/MSc graduate degree program in global communication
Cornell University is a private and statutory Ivy League research university in Ithaca, New York. Founded in 1865 by Ezra Cornell and Andrew Dickson White, the university was intended to teach and make contributions in all fields of knowledge—from the classics to the sciences, from the theoretical to the applied; these ideals, unconventional for the time, are captured in Cornell's founding principle, a popular 1868 Ezra Cornell quotation: "I would found an institution where any person can find instruction in any study."The university is broadly organized into seven undergraduate colleges and seven graduate divisions at its main Ithaca campus, with each college and division defining its own admission standards and academic programs in near autonomy. The university administers two satellite medical campuses, one in New York City and one in Education City and Cornell Tech, a graduate program that incorporates technology and creative thinking; the program moved from Google's Chelsea Building in New York City to its permanent campus on Roosevelt Island in September 2017.
Cornell is one of ten private land grant universities in the United States and the only one in New York. Of its seven undergraduate colleges, three are state-supported statutory or contract colleges through the State University of New York system, including its agricultural and human ecology colleges as well as its industrial labor relations school. Of Cornell's graduate schools, only the veterinary college is state-supported; as a land grant college, Cornell operates a cooperative extension outreach program in every county of New York and receives annual funding from the State of New York for certain educational missions. The Cornell University Ithaca Campus comprises 745 acres, but is much larger when the Cornell Botanic Gardens and the numerous university-owned lands in New York City are considered; as of October 2018, 58 Nobel laureates, four Turing Award winners and one Fields Medalist have been affiliated with Cornell University. Since its founding, Cornell has been a co-educational, non-sectarian institution where admission has not been restricted by religion or race.
Cornell counts more than 245,000 living alumni, its former and present faculty and alumni include 34 Marshall Scholars, 30 Rhodes Scholars, 29 Truman Scholars, 7 Gates Scholars, 55 Olympic Medalists, 14 living billionaires. The student body consists of more than 14,000 undergraduate and 8,000 graduate students from all 50 American states and 116 countries. Cornell University was founded on April 27, 1865. Senator Ezra Cornell offered his farm in Ithaca, New York, as a site and $500,000 of his personal fortune as an initial endowment. Fellow senator and educator Andrew Dickson White agreed to be the first president. During the next three years, White oversaw the construction of the first two buildings and traveled to attract students and faculty; the university was inaugurated on October 7, 1868, 412 men were enrolled the next day. Cornell developed as a technologically innovative institution, applying its research to its own campus and to outreach efforts. For example, in 1883 it was one of the first university campuses to use electricity from a water-powered dynamo to light the grounds.
Since 1894, Cornell fulfill statutory requirements. Cornell has had active alumni since its earliest classes, it was one of the first universities to include alumni-elected representatives on its Board of Trustees. Cornell was among the Ivies that had heightened student activism during the 1960s related to cultural issues, civil rights, opposition to the Vietnam War. Today the university has more than 4,000 courses. Cornell is known for the Residential Club Fire of 1967, a fire in the Residential Club building that killed eight students and one professor. Since 2000, Cornell has been expanding its international programs. In 2004, the university opened the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar, it has partnerships with institutions in India and the People's Republic of China. Former president Jeffrey S. Lehman described the university, with its high international profile, a "transnational university". On March 9, 2004, Cornell and Stanford University laid the cornerstone for a new'Bridging the Rift Center' to be built and jointly operated for education on the Israel–Jordan border.
Cornell's main campus is on East Hill in Ithaca, New York, overlooking Cayuga Lake. Since the university was founded, it has expanded to about 2,300 acres, encompassing both the hill and much of the surrounding areas. Central Campus has laboratories, administrative buildings, all of the campus' academic buildings, athletic facilities and museums. North Campus is composed of ten residence halls that house first-year students, although the Townhouse Community houses transfer students; the five main residence halls on West Campus make up the West Campus House System, along with several Gothic-style buildings, referred to as "the Gothics". Collegetown contains two upper-level residence halls and the Schwartz Performing Arts Center amid a mixed-use neighborhood of apartments and businesses; the main campus is marked by an irregular layout and eclectic architectural styles, including ornate Collegiate Gothic and Neoclassical buildings, the more spare international and modernist structures. The more ornat
Richard Allen Epstein is an American legal scholar known for his writings on subjects such as torts, property rights and economics, classical liberalism, libertarianism. Epstein is the Laurence A. Tisch Professor of Law and director of the Classical Liberal Institute at New York University, the Peter and Kirsten Bedford Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution, the James Parker Hall Distinguished Service Professor of Law emeritus and a senior lecturer at the University of Chicago. Epstein's writings have extensively influenced American legal thought. In 2000, a study published in The Journal of Legal Studies identified Epstein as the 12th-most cited legal scholar of the 20th century. In 2008, he was chosen in a poll taken by Legal Affairs as one of the most influential legal thinkers of modern times. A study of legal publications between 2009 and 2013 found Epstein to be the 3rd-most cited American legal scholar during that period, behind only Cass Sunstein and Erwin Chemerinsky, he has been a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences since 1985.
Richard A. Epstein was born on April 1943, in Brooklyn, New York, his grandparents were Ashkenazi Jews who immigrated to the United States from Russia and Austria in the early 20th century. Epstein's father, Bernard Epstein, was a radiologist, his mother, Catherine Epstein, managed his father's medical office, he has two sisters. He attended elementary school at P. S. 161, a school, now one of the Success Academy Charter Schools. Epstein and his family lived in Brooklyn until 1954, when his father began working at the Long Island Jewish Medical Center and their family moved to Great Neck, Long Island. Epstein attended Columbia University as an undergraduate student in the early 1960s, he had wide-ranging academic interests and did not wish to select a traditional single major, obtained special permission from the university to pursue a self-selected program of study across the three areas of sociology and mathematics. He graduated with a B. A. summa cum laude in 1964. Epstein's undergraduate performance earned him a Kellett Fellowship, an award at Columbia that pays for two of each year's top graduates to spend two years in England studying at either Cambridge University or Oxford University.
Epstein chose to attend Oxford, where he was a member of Oriel College and earned a first-class honours B. A. in jurisprudence in 1966. He returned to the United States to attend the Yale Law School at Yale University, graduating with an LL. B. cum laude in 1968. After graduating from law school, Epstein was hired as an assistant professor of law at the University of Southern California, he taught at USC for four years before moving to the University of Chicago in 1972. Epstein taught at Chicago for 38 years holding the title of James Parker Hall Distinguished Service Professor of Law. Epstein formally retired from Chicago in 2010, but came out of retirement to join the faculty of New York University as its inaugural Laurence A. Tisch Professor of Law, he remains a professor emeritus and senior lecturer at Chicago, teaching courses there on an occasional basis. In 2013, New York University's School of Law established a new academic research center, the Classical Liberal Institute, named Epstein as its inaugural director.
Since 2001, Epstein has served as the Peter and Kirsten Bedford Senior Fellow at the Hoover Institution, a prominent American public policy think tank located at Stanford University. Epstein has received a number of awards. In 1983, Epstein was made a senior fellow at the Center for Clinical Medical Ethics at the University of Chicago Medical School, in 1985 was inducted into the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, he was editor of the Journal of Legal Studies from 1981 to 1991, was editor of the Journal of Law and Economics from 1991 to 2001. In 2003, Epstein received an honorary LL. D. degree from the University of Ghent, in 2018 received an honorary doctorate in law from the University of Siegen.. In 2005 the College of William & Mary awarded him the Brigham-Kanner Property Rights Prize for his contributions to the field of property rights,In 2011, he was awarded a Bradley Prize by the Bradley Foundation. Epstein became famous in the American legal community in 1985 with Harvard University Press' publication of his book Takings: Private Property and the Power of Eminent Domain.
In Takings, Epstein argued that the "takings clause" of the Fifth Amendment to the U. S. Constitution—which reads, "...nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation", is traditionally viewed as a limit on the governmental power of eminent domain—gives constitutional protection to citizens' economic rights, so requires the government to be regarded the same as any other private entity in a property dispute. The argument was controversial and sparked a great deal of debate on the interpretation of the "takings clause" after its publication. In 1991, during Clarence Thomas' Supreme Court Justice confirmation hearings, Senator Joe Biden, "in a dramatic movement," held the book up and "repeatedly interrogated" Thomas regarding his position on the book's thesis; the book served as a focal point in the argument about the government's ability to control private property. The book has influenced how some courts view property rights and has been cited by the U. S. Supreme Court four times, including the 1992 case South Carolina Coastal Council.
Epstein is an advocate of minimal legal regulation. In his book Simple Rules for a Complex World, Epstein consolidated much of his previous work and argues that simple rules work best because complexities create excessive