Qualcomm Incorporated is an American multinational semiconductor and telecommunications equipment company that designs and markets wireless telecommunications products and services. It derives most of its revenue from chipmaking and the bulk of its profit from patent licensing businesses; the company headquarters is located in San Diego, United States, has 224 worldwide locations. The parent company is Qualcomm Incorporated, which includes the Qualcomm Technology Licensing Division. Qualcomm's wholly owned subsidiary, Qualcomm Technologies, Inc. operates all of Qualcomm's R&D activities. Qualcomm was created on July 1985 by seven former Linkabit employees led by Irwin Jacobs; the company was named Qualcomm for “QUALity COMMunications.” It started as a contract research and development center for government and defense projects. Qualcomm merged with Omninet in 1988 and raised $3.5 million in funding in order to produce the Omnitracs satellite communications system for trucking companies. Qualcomm grew from eight employees in 1986 to 620 employees in 1991.
By 1989, Qualcomm had $32 million in revenues, 50 percent of, from an Omnitracs contract with Schneider National. Omnitracs profits helped fund Qualcomm's research and development into code-division multiple access technologies for cell phone networks. Qualcomm was operating at a loss in the 1990s due to its investment in CDMA research. To obtain funding, the company filed an initial public offering in September 1991 raising $68 million. An additional $486 million was raised in 1995 through the sale of 11.5 million more shares. The second funding round was done to raise money for the mass manufacturing of CDMA-based phones, base-stations, equipment, after most US-based cellular networks announced they would adopt the CDMA standard; the company had $383 million in annual revenue in 1995 and $814 million by 1996. In 1991, Qualcomm acquired Eudora, an email client software for the PC that could be used with the OmniTRACS system; the acquisition associated a used email client with a company, little-known at the time.
In 1998, Qualcomm was restructured. Its cell-phone manufacturing business was spun-off in order to focus on its higher-margin patents business; the following year, Qualcomm was the fastest growing stock on the market with a 2,621 percent growth over one year. By 2000, Qualcomm had grown to 6,300 employees, $3.2 billion in revenues, $670 million in profit. 39 percent of its sales were from CDMA technology, followed by licensing and other products. Around this time, Qualcomm established offices in Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America. By 2001, 65 percent of Qualcomm's revenues originated from outside the United States with 35 percent coming from South Korea. In 2005, Paul E. Jacobs, son of Qualcomm founder Dr. Irwin Jacobs, was appointed as Qualcomm's new CEO. Whereas Irwin Jacobs focused on CDMA patents, Paul Jacobs refocused much of Qualcomm's new research and development on projects related to the internet of things. Qualcomm announced Steven Mollenkopf would succeed Paul Jacobs as CEO in December 2013.
Mollenkopf said he would expand Qualcomm's focus to wireless technology for cars, wearable devices, other new markets. The European Commission fined Qualcomm €997 million for abuse of dominant market position on January 24, 2018. On March 16, 2018, Qualcomm removed executive chairman Paul Jacobs after he "broached a long-shot bid" for a buyout earlier that week. In 2018, Qualcomm filed a lawsuit against Intel. "After several meet-and-confers and exchanges of written correspondence, on May 18, Intel appeared willing to cooperate, offering a'limited supplemental production of technical materials relating to relevant components designed for 2018 iPhone models' in exchange for Qualcomm's agreement that the limited production would satisfy certain requests in the document subpoena," the US federal court filing states. A court in the US, on March 15,2019, ruled that Apple must indemnify Qualcomm for infringing three patents related to mobile technologies; the jury ruled. $1.41 per iPhone that used the company’s technology without authorization.
For the fiscal year 2017, Qualcomm reported earnings of US$2.5 billion, with an annual revenue of US$22.3 billion, an increase of 5.4% over the previous fiscal cycle. Qualcomm's shares traded at over $55 per share, its market capitalization was valued at over US$91.9 billion in September 2018. The company is ranked 133rd on the Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by revenue. Qualcomm pioneered the commercialization of the cdmaOne standard for wireless cellular communications, following up with CDMA2000, an early standard for third-generation mobile. Today, the company is the leading patent holder in advanced 3G mobile technologies, including CDMA2000 1xEV-DO and its evolutions; the license streams from the patents on these inventions, related products, are a major component of Qualcomm's business. In June 2011, Qualcomm announced that it would release a set of application programming interfaces geared to give Web-based applications deeper links into hardware. Beginning in 1991, Qualcomm participated in the development of the Globalstar satellite system along with Loral Space & Communications.
It uses a low Earth orbit satellite constellation consisting of 44 active satellites. The system is used for voice telephony via hand-held satellite phones, asset tracking and data transfer using mobile satellite modems; the system was designed as a normal IS-95 system, used the satellite as a "
Multimedia is content that uses a combination of different content forms such as text, images, animations and interactive content. Multimedia contrasts with media that use only rudimentary computer displays such as text-only or traditional forms of printed or hand-produced material. Multimedia can be recorded and played, interacted with or accessed by information content processing devices, such as computerized and electronic devices, but can be part of a live performance. Multimedia devices are electronic media devices used to experience multimedia content. Multimedia is distinguished from mixed media in fine art. In the early years of multimedia the term "rich media" was synonymous with interactive multimedia, "hypermedia" was an application of multimedia; the term multimedia was coined by singer and artist Bob Goldstein to promote the July 1966 opening of his "LightWorks at L'Oursin" show at Southampton, Long Island. Goldstein was aware of an American artist named Dick Higgins, who had two years discussed a new approach to art-making he called "intermedia".
On August 10, 1966, Richard Albarino of Variety borrowed the terminology, reporting: "Brainchild of songscribe-comic Bob Goldstein, the'Lightworks' is the latest multi-media music-cum-visuals to debut as discothèque fare." Two years in 1968, the term "multimedia" was re-appropriated to describe the work of a political consultant, David Sawyer, the husband of Iris Sawyer—one of Goldstein's producers at L'Oursin. In the intervening forty years, the word has taken on different meanings. In the late 1970s, the term referred to presentations consisting of multi-projector slide shows timed to an audio track. However, by the 1990s'multimedia' took on its current meaning. In the 1993 first edition of Multimedia: Making It Work, Tay Vaughan declared "Multimedia is any combination of text, graphic art, sound and video, delivered by computer; when you allow the user – the viewer of the project – to control what and when these elements are delivered, it is interactive multimedia. When you provide a structure of linked elements through which the user can navigate, interactive multimedia becomes hypermedia."The German language society Gesellschaft für deutsche Sprache recognized the word's significance and ubiquitousness in the 1990s by awarding it the title of German'Word of the Year' in 1995.
The institute summed up its rationale by stating " has become a central word in the wonderful new media world". In common usage, multimedia refers to an electronically delivered combination of media including video, still images and text in such a way that can be accessed interactively. Much of the content on the web today falls within this definition; some computers which were marketed in the 1990s were called "multimedia" computers because they incorporated a CD-ROM drive, which allowed for the delivery of several hundred megabytes of video and audio data. That era saw a boost in the production of educational multimedia CD-ROMs; the term "video", if not used to describe motion photography, is ambiguous in multimedia terminology. Video is used to describe the file format, delivery format, or presentation format instead of "footage", used to distinguish motion photography from "animation" of rendered motion imagery. Multiple forms of information content are not considered modern forms of presentation such as audio or video.
Single forms of information content with single methods of information processing are called multimedia to distinguish static media from active media. In the fine arts, for example, Leda Luss Luyken's ModulArt brings two key elements of musical composition and film into the world of painting: variation of a theme and movement of and within a picture, making ModulArt an interactive multimedia form of art. Performing arts may be considered multimedia considering that performers and props are multiple forms of both content and media. Multimedia presentations may be viewed by person on stage, transmitted, or played locally with a media player. A broadcast may be a recorded multimedia presentation. Broadcasts and recordings can be digital electronic media technology. Digital online multimedia streamed. Streaming multimedia may be on-demand. Multimedia games and simulations may be used in a physical environment with special effects, with multiple users in an online network, or locally with an offline computer, game system, or simulator.
The various formats of technological or digital multimedia may be intended to enhance the users' experience, for example to make it easier and faster to convey information. Or in entertainment or art, to transcend everyday experience. Enhanced levels of interactivity are made possible by combining multiple forms of media content. Online multimedia is becoming object-oriented and data-driven, enabling applications with collaborative end-user innovation and personalization on multiple forms of content over time. Examples of these range from multiple forms of content on Web sites like photo galleries with both images and title user-updated, to simulations whose co-efficients, illustrations, animations or videos are modifiable, allowing the multimedia "experience" to be altered without reprogramming. In addition to seeing and hearing, haptic technology enables virtual objects to be felt. Emerging technology involving illusions of taste and smell may enhance the multimedia experience. Multimedia may be broadly divided into linear and non-linear categories: Linea
Los Angeles the City of Los Angeles and known by its initials L. A. is the most populous city in California, the second most populous city in the United States, after New York City, the third most populous city in North America. With an estimated population of four million, Los Angeles is the cultural and commercial center of Southern California; the city is known for its Mediterranean climate, ethnic diversity and the entertainment industry, its sprawling metropolis. Los Angeles is the largest city on the West Coast of North America. Los Angeles is in a large basin bounded by the Pacific Ocean on one side and by mountains as high as 10,000 feet on the other; the city proper, which covers about 469 square miles, is the seat of Los Angeles County, the most populated county in the country. Los Angeles is the principal city of the Los Angeles metropolitan area, the second largest in the United States after that of New York City, with a population of 13.1 million. It is part of the Los Angeles-Long Beach combined statistical area the nation's second most populous area with a 2015 estimated population of 18.7 million.
Los Angeles is one of the most substantial economic engines within the United States, with a diverse economy in a broad range of professional and cultural fields. Los Angeles is famous as the home of Hollywood, a major center of the world entertainment industry. A global city, it has been ranked 6th in the Global Cities Index and 9th in the Global Economic Power Index; the Los Angeles metropolitan area has a gross metropolitan product of $1.044 trillion, making it the third-largest in the world, after the Tokyo and New York metropolitan areas. Los Angeles hosted the 1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics and will host the event for a third time in 2028; the city hosted the Miss Universe pageant twice, in 1990 and 2006, was one of 9 American cities to host the 1994 FIFA men's soccer World Cup and one of 8 to host the 1999 FIFA women's soccer World Cup, hosting the final match for both tournaments. Home to the Chumash and Tongva, Los Angeles was claimed by Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo for Spain in 1542 along with the rest of what would become Alta California.
The city was founded on September 4, 1781, by Spanish governor Felipe de Neve. It became a part of Mexico in 1821 following the Mexican War of Independence. In 1848, at the end of the Mexican–American War, Los Angeles and the rest of California were purchased as part of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, becoming part of the United States. Los Angeles was incorporated as a municipality on April 4, 1850, five months before California achieved statehood; the discovery of oil in the 1890s brought rapid growth to the city. The completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, delivering water from Eastern California assured the city's continued rapid growth; the Los Angeles coastal area was settled by the Chumash tribes. A Gabrieleño settlement in the area was called iyáangẚ, meaning "poison oak place". Maritime explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo claimed the area of southern California for the Spanish Empire in 1542 while on an official military exploring expedition moving north along the Pacific coast from earlier colonizing bases of New Spain in Central and South America.
Gaspar de Portolà and Franciscan missionary Juan Crespí, reached the present site of Los Angeles on August 2, 1769. In 1771, Franciscan friar Junípero Serra directed the building of the Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, the first mission in the area. On September 4, 1781, a group of forty-four settlers known as "Los Pobladores" founded the pueblo they called El Pueblo de Nuestra Señora la Reina de los Ángeles,'The Town of Our Lady the Queen of the Angels'; the present-day city has the largest Roman Catholic Archdiocese in the United States. Two-thirds of the Mexican or settlers were mestizo or mulatto, a mixture of African and European ancestry; the settlement remained a small ranch town for decades, but by 1820, the population had increased to about 650 residents. Today, the pueblo is commemorated in the historic district of Los Angeles Pueblo Plaza and Olvera Street, the oldest part of Los Angeles. New Spain achieved its independence from the Spanish Empire in 1821, the pueblo continued as a part of Mexico.
During Mexican rule, Governor Pío Pico made Los Angeles Alta California's regional capital. Mexican rule ended during the Mexican–American War: Americans took control from the Californios after a series of battles, culminating with the signing of the Treaty of Cahuenga on January 13, 1847. Railroads arrived with the completion of the transcontinental Southern Pacific line to Los Angeles in 1876 and the Santa Fe Railroad in 1885. Petroleum was discovered in the city and surrounding area in 1892, by 1923, the discoveries had helped California become the country's largest oil producer, accounting for about one-quarter of the world's petroleum output. By 1900, the population had grown to more than 102,000; the completion of the Los Angeles Aqueduct in 1913, under the supervision of William Mulholland, assured the continued growth of the city. Due to clauses in the city's charter that prevented the City of Los Angeles from selling or providing water from the aqueduct to any area outside its borders, many adjacent city and communities became compelled to annex themselves into Los Angeles.
Los Angeles created the first municipal zoning ordinance in the United States. On September 14, 1908, the Los Angeles City Council promulgated residential and industrial land use zones; the new ordinance established three residential zones of a single type, where industrial uses were
A business incubator is a company that helps new and startup companies to develop by providing services such as management training or office space. The National Business Incubation Association defines business incubators as a catalyst tool for either regional or national economic development. NBIA categorizes their members’ incubators by the following five incubator types: academic institutions. Business incubators differ from research and technology parks in their dedication to startup and early-stage companies. Research and technology parks, on the other hand, tend to be large-scale projects that house everything from corporate, government or university labs to small companies. Most research and technology parks do not offer business assistance services, which are the hallmark of a business incubation program. However, many research and technology parks house incubation programs. Incubators differ from the U. S. Small Business Administration's Small Business Development Centers in that they serve only selected clients.
SBDCs are required by law to offer general business assistance to any company that contacts them for help. In addition, SBDCs work with any small business at any stage of development, not only startup companies. Many business incubation programs partner with their local SBDC to create a "one-stop shop" for entrepreneurial support. Within European Union countries there are different EU and state funded programs that offer support in form of consulting, prototype creation and other services and co-funding for them. TecHub is one of examples for IT companies and ideas.. In India, the business incubators are promoted in a varied fashion: as Technology Business Incubators and as Startup Incubators -- the first deals with technology business and the deals with promoting startups; the mission on creating specific innovations among the young minds of researchers via. 101 specialized incubators has been boosted in various parts of India through AIM-India. For instance, AIC-IIITKottayam, a Startup-based Incubator, specializes in IoT Cloud research jointly with world class incubators from Germany, USA, so forth.
The formal concept of business incubation began in the USA in 1959 when Joseph L. Mancuso opened the Batavia Industrial Center in a Batavia, New York, warehouse. Incubation expanded in the U. S. in the 1980s and spread to the UK and Europe through various related forms. The U. S.-based International Business Innovation Association estimates that there are about 7,000 incubators worldwide. A study funded by the European Commission in 2002 identified around 900 incubation environments in Western Europe; as of October 2006, there were more than 1,400 incubators in North America, up from only 12 in 1980. Her Majesty's Treasury identified around 25 incubation environments in the UK in 1997. In 2005 alone, North American incubation programs assisted more than 27,000 companies that provided employment for more than 100,000 workers and generated annual revenues of $17 billion. In 2017, research group named Social Innovation Monitor has identified 171 incubators in Italy where 60% of them are in the North of Italy.
Moreover, big corporations are applying strategies of open innovation through the creation of programme of corporate incubation. Some examples these programmes are: TIM #Wcap FoodForward by Deloitte Italia. Incubation activity has not been limited to developed countries. Since startup companies lack many resources and networks, incubators provide services which helps them get through initial hurdles in starting up a business; these hurdles include space, legal, computer services and other prerequisites to running the business. Among the most common incubator services are: Help with business basics Networking activities Marketing assistance Market Research High-speed Internet access Help with accounting/financial management Access to bank loans, loan funds and guarantee programs Help with presentation skills Links to higher education resources Links to strategic partners Access to angel investors or venture capital Comprehensive business training programs Advisory boards and mentors Management team identification Help with business etiquette Technology commercialization assistance Help with regulatory compliance Intellectual property management There are a number of business incubators that have focused on particular industries or on a particular business model, earning them their own name.
Virtual business incubator - online business incubator Kitchen incubator - a business incubator focused on the food industry Public incubator - a business incubator focused on the public good Seed accelerator - a business incubator focused on early startups Corporate accelerator - a program of a larger company that acts akin to a seed accelerator Startup studio - a business incubator with interacting portfolio companies Hybrid Incubator - A business incubator that combines virtual incubator with on-premise activitiesMore than half of all business incubation programs are "mixed-use" projects, meaning they work with clients from a variety of industries. Technology incubators account for 39% of incubation pr
Immersion (virtual reality)
Immersion into virtual reality is a perception of being physically present in a non-physical world. The perception is created by surrounding the user of the VR system in images, sound or other stimuli that provide an engrossing total environment; the name is a metaphoric use of the experience of submersion applied to representation, fiction or simulation. Immersion can be defined as the state of consciousness where a "visitor" or "immersant"'s awareness of physical self is transformed by being surrounded in an artificial environment; the degree to which the virtual or artistic environment faithfully reproduces reality determines the degree of suspension of disbelief. The greater the suspension of disbelief, the greater the degree of presence achieved. According to Ernest W. Adams and consultant on game design, immersion can be separated into three main categories: Tactical immersion Tactical immersion is experienced when performing tactile operations that involve skill. Players feel "in the zone".
Strategic immersion Strategic immersion is more cerebral, is associated with mental challenge. Chess players experience strategic immersion when choosing a correct solution among a broad array of possibilities. Narrative immersion Narrative immersion occurs when players become invested in a story, is similar to what is experienced while reading a book or watching a movie. Staffan Björk and Jussi Holopainen, in Patterns In Game Design, divide immersion into similar categories, but call them sensory-motoric immersion, cognitive immersion and emotional immersion, respectively. In addition to these, they add a new category: Spatial immersion Spatial immersion occurs when a player feels the simulated world is perceptually convincing; the player feels that he or she is "there" and that a simulated world looks and feels "real". Presence, a term derived from the shortening of the original "telepresence", is a phenomenon enabling people to interact with and feel connected to the world outside their physical bodies via technology.
It is defined as a person's subjective sensation of being there in a scene depicted by a medium virtual in nature. Most designers focus on the technology used to create a high-fidelity virtual environment, it is the subjective perception, although generated by and/or filtered through human-made technology, that determines the successful attainment of presence. Virtual reality glasses can produce a visceral feeling of being in a simulated world, a form of spatial immersion called Presence. According to Oculus VR, the technology requirements to achieve this visceral reaction are low-latency and precise tracking of movements. Michael Abrash gave a talk on VR at Steam Dev Days in 2014. According to the VR research team at Valve, all of the following are needed to establish presence. A wide field of view Adequate resolution Low pixel persistence A high enough refresh rate Global display where all pixels are illuminated Optics Optical calibration Rock-solid tracking – translation with millimeter accuracy or better, orientation with quarter degree accuracy or better, volume of 1.5 meter or more on a side Low latency Immersive virtual reality is a hypothetical future technology that exists today as virtual reality art projects, for the most part.
It consists of immersion in an artificial environment where the user feels just as immersed as they feel in consensus reality. The most considered method would be to induce the sensations that made up the virtual reality in the nervous system directly. In functionalism/conventional biology we interact with consensus reality through the nervous system, thus we receive all input from all the senses as nerve impulses. It gives your neurons a feeling of heightened sensation, it would involve the user receiving inputs as artificially stimulated nerve impulses, the system would receive the CNS outputs and process them allowing the user to interact with the virtual reality. Natural impulses between the body and central nervous system would need to be prevented; this could be done by blocking out natural impulses using nanorobots which attach themselves to the brain wiring, whilst receiving the digital impulses of which describe the virtual world, which could be sent into the wiring of the brain. A feedback system between the user and the computer which stores the information would be needed.
Considering how much information would be required for such a system, it is that it would be based on hypothetical forms of computer technology. Understanding of the nervous systemA comprehensive understanding of which nerve impulses correspond to which sensations, which motor impulses correspond to which muscle contractions will be required; this will allow the correct sensations in the user, actions in the virtual reality to occur. The Blue Brain Project is the current, most promising research with the idea of understanding how the brain works by building large scale computer models. Ability to manipulate CNSThe nervous system would need to be manipulated. Whilst non-invasive devices using radiation have been postulated, invasive cybernetic implants are to become available sooner an
University of Southern California
The University of Southern California is a private research university in Los Angeles, California. Founded in 1880, it is the oldest private research university in California. For the 2018–19 academic year, there were 20,000 students enrolled in four-year undergraduate programs. USC has 27,500 graduate and professional students in a number of different programs, including business, engineering, social work, occupational therapy and medicine, it is the largest private employer in the city of Los Angeles, generates $8 billion in economic impact on Los Angeles and California. USC is the birthplace of the Domain Name System. Other technologies invented at USC include DNA computing, dynamic programming, image compression, VoIP, antivirus software. USC's alumni include a total of 11 Rhodes Scholars and 12 Marshall Scholars; as of October 2018, nine Nobel laureates, six MacArthur Fellows, one Turing Award winner have been affiliated with the university. USC sponsors a variety of intercollegiate sports and competes in the National Collegiate Athletic Association as a member of the Pac-12 Conference.
Members of USC's sports teams, the Trojans, have won 104 NCAA team championships, ranking them third in the United States, 399 NCAA individual championships, ranking them second in the United States. Trojan athletes have won 288 medals at the Olympic Games, more than any other university in the United States. In 1969, it joined the Association of American Universities. USC has had a total of 521 football players drafted to the National Football League, the second-highest number of drafted players in the country; the University of Southern California was founded following the efforts of Judge Robert M. Widney, who helped secure donations from several key figures in early Los Angeles history: a Protestant nurseryman, Ozro Childs, an Irish Catholic former-Governor, John Gately Downey, a German Jewish banker, Isaias W. Hellman; the three donated 308 lots of land to establish the campus and provided the necessary seed money for the construction of the first buildings. Operated in affiliation with the Methodist Church, the school mandated from the start that "no student would be denied admission because of race."
The university is no longer affiliated with any church, having severed formal ties in 1952. When USC opened in 1880, tuition was $15.00 per term and students were not allowed to leave town without the knowledge and consent of the university president. The school had an enrollment of 53 students and a faculty of 10; the city lacked paved streets, electric lights, a reliable fire alarm system. Its first graduating class in 1884 was a class of three—two males and female valedictorian Minnie C. Miltimore; the colors of USC are cardinal and gold, which were approved by USC's third president, the Reverend George W. White, in 1896. In 1958, the shade of gold, more of an orange color, was changed to a more yellow shade; the letterman's awards were the first to make the change. USC students and athletes are known as Trojans, epitomized by the Trojan Shrine, nicknamed "Tommy Trojan", near the center of campus; until 1912, USC students were known as Fighting Methodists or Wesleyans, though neither name was approved by the university.
During a fateful track and field meet with Stanford University, the USC team was beaten early and conclusively. After only the first few events, it seemed implausible USC would win. After this contest, Los Angeles Times sportswriter Owen Bird reported the USC athletes "fought on like the Trojans of antiquity", the president of the university at the time, George F. Bovard, approved the name officially. During World War II, USC was one of 131 colleges and universities nationally that took part in the V-12 Navy College Training Program which offered students a path to a Navy commission. USC is responsible for $8 billion in economic output in Los Angeles County. On May 1, 2014, USC was named as one of many higher education institutions under investigation by the Office of Civil Rights for potential Title IX violations by Barack Obama's White House Task Force to Protect Students from Sexual Assault. USC is under a concurrent Title IX investigation for potential anti-male bias in disciplinary proceedings, as well as denial of counseling resources to male students, as of 8 March 2016.
In 2017, the university came into the national spotlight when the Los Angeles Times published information about Carmen A. Puliafito, the dean of USC's medical school. After accusations of drug use, he resigned from his position as dean in 2016 and was fired from the school the following year after the news stories were published, his medical license was subsequently suspended pending a decision. The following year, the Los Angeles Times broke another story about USC focusing on George Tyndall, a gynecologist accused of abusing 52 patients at USC; the reports span from 1990 to 2016 and include using racist and sexual language, conducting exams without gloves and taking pictures of his patients' genitals. Inside Higher Ed noted that there have been "other incidents in which the university is perceived to have failed to act on misconduct by powerful officials" when it reported that the university's president, C. L. Max Nikias, is resigning. Tyndall was fired in 2017 after reaching a settlement with the university.
The school did not report him to state medical authorities or law enforcement at the time, though the LAPD is now investigatin
Air Force Research Laboratory
The Air Force Research Laboratory is a scientific research organization operated by the United States Air Force Materiel Command dedicated to leading the discovery and integration of affordable aerospace warfighting technologies and executing the Air Force science and technology program, providing warfighting capabilities to United States air and cyberspace forces. It controls the entire Air Force science and technology research budget, $2.4 billion in 2006. The Laboratory was formed at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio on 31 October 1997 as a consolidation of four Air Force laboratory facilities and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research under a unified command; the Laboratory is composed of seven technical directorates, one wing, the Office of Scientific Research. Each technical directorate emphasizes a particular area of research within the AFRL mission which it specializes in performing experiments in conjunction with universities and contractors. Since the Laboratory's formation in 1997, it has conducted numerous experiments and technical demonstrations in conjunction with NASA, Department of Energy National Laboratories, DARPA, other research organizations within the Department of Defense.
Notable projects include the X-37, X-40, X-53, HTV-3X, YAL-1A, Advanced Tactical Laser, the Tactical Satellite Program. The Laboratory may face problems in the future as 40 percent of its workers are slated to retire over the next two decades while since 1980 the United States has not produced enough science and engineering degrees to keep up with demand. In 1945 the Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories were established; these laboratories were active from 1945 to 2011, following consolidation to Wright-Patterson Air Force Base and Kirtland Air Force Base under the 2005 Base Realignment and Closure Commission. The labs were founded as the Air Force Cambridge Research Center, a Cold War systems development organization which developed telephone modem communications for a Digital Radar Relay in 1949. Created by General Henry H. Arnold in 1945, AFCRC participated in Project Space Track and Semi-Automatic Ground Environment development; the path to a consolidated Air Force Research Laboratory began with the passage of the Goldwater–Nichols Act, designed to streamline the use of resources by the Department of Defense.
In addition to this Act, the end of the Cold War began a period of budgetary and personnel reductions within the armed forces in preparation for a "stand-down" transition out of readiness for a global war with the Soviet Union. Prior to 1990, the Air Force laboratory system spread research out into 13 different laboratories and the Rome Air Development Center which each reported up two separate chains of command: a product center for personnel, the Air Force Systems Command Director of Science & Technology for budgetary purposes. Bowing to the constraints of a reduced budget and personnel, the Air Force merged the existing research laboratories into four "superlabs" in December 1990. During this same time period, the Air Force Systems Command and Air Force Logistics Command merged to form Air Force Materiel Command in July 1992. While the initial consolidation of Air Force laboratories reduced overhead and budgetary pressure, another push towards a unified laboratory structure came in the form of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1996, Section 277.
This section instructed the Department of Defense to produce a five-year plan for consolidation and restructuring of all defense laboratories. The existing laboratory structure was created in October 1997 through the consolidation of Phillips Laboratory headquartered in Albuquerque, New Mexico, Wright Laboratory in Dayton, Rome Laboratory in Rome, New York, Armstrong Laboratory in San Antonio and the Air Force Office of Scientific Research; the single laboratory concept was developed and championed by Maj Gen Richard Paul, Director of Science & Technology for AFMC and Gen Henry Viccellio Jr, became the first Commander of AFRL. With the merger of the laboratories into a single entity, the history offices at each site ceased to maintain independent histories and all history functions were transferred to a central History Office located at AFRL HQ at Wright-Patterson AFB. In homage to the predecessor laboratories, the new organization named four of the research sites after the laboratories and assured that each laboratory's history would be preserved as inactivated units.
The laboratory is divided into 8 Technical Directorates, one wing, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research based on different areas of research. AFOSR is a funding body for external research while the other directorates perform research in-house or under contract to external entities. A directorate is equivalent to a military wing; each directorate is composed of a number of divisions and has at least three support divisions in addition to its research divisions. The Operations and Integration Division provides the directorate with well-conceived and executed business computing, human resource management, business development services while the Financial Management Division manages the financial resources and the Procurement Division provides an in-house contracting capability; the support divisions at any given location work together to minimize overhead at any given research site. Each division is further broken down into branches equivalent to a military squadron. Superimposed on the overall AFRL structure are the eight detachments.
Each detachment is composed of the AFRL military personnel at any given geographical location. For example, the personnel