United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U. S. allies or partner nations. With the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches, it has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force. The U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, established during the American Revolutionary War and was disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter.
The U. S. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers, it played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The US Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world; the 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, it is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U. S. foreign and military policy. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy; the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is the most senior naval officer serving in the Department of the Navy.
The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. The U. S. Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States; the Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war. The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy; the development of aircraft, tactics, technique and equipment of naval combat and service elements. U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is "to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest." As part of that establishment, the U. S. Navy's functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties, it follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, with it, everything honorable and glorious.
Naval power... is the natural defense of the United States The Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia; the rationale for establishing a national navy was debated in the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships and reported the captures to the Congress. On 13 October 1775, the Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships. S. Navy; the Continental Navy achieved mixed results.
In August 1785, after the Revolutionary War had drawn to a close, Congress had sold Alliance, the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy. In 1972, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, authorized the Navy to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy in 1775; the United States was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U. S. maritime merchant ships to a series of attacks by the Barbary pirates. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U. S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U. S. Revenue-Marine, the primary predecessor of the U. S. Coast Guard. Although the USRCS conducted operations against the pirates, their depredations far outstripped its abilities and Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 that established a permanent standing navy on 27 March 1794; the Naval Act ordered the construction and manning of six frigates and, by October 1797, the first three were brought into service: USS United States, USS Constellation, USS Constitution.
Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy during this period, John Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy". In 1798–99 the Navy was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France. From 18
War on Terror
The War on Terror known as the Global War on Terrorism, is an international military campaign, launched by the United States government after the September 11 attacks against the United States. The naming of the campaign uses a metaphor of war to refer to a variety of actions that do not constitute a specific war as traditionally defined. U. S. president George W. Bush first used the term "war on terrorism" on 16 September 2001, "war on terror" a few days in a formal speech to Congress. In the latter speech, George Bush stated, "Our enemy is a radical network of terrorists and every government that supports them." The term was used with a particular focus on countries associated with al-Qaeda. The term was criticised by such people as Richard B. Myers, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, more nuanced terms subsequently came to be used by the Bush administration to publicly define the international campaign led by the U. S.. S. operations in internal government documentation. U. S. President Barack Obama announced on 23 May 2013 that the Global War on Terror was over, saying the military and intelligence agencies will not wage war against a tactic but will instead focus on a specific group of networks determined to destroy the U.
S. On 28 December 2014, the Obama administration announced the end of the combat role of the U. S.-led mission in Afghanistan. However, the unexpected rise of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant terror group—also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria —led to a new operation against terror in the Middle East and South Asia, Operation Inherent Resolve. Criticism of the War on Terror focused on morality, economics; the notion of a "war" against "terrorism" has proven contentious, with critics charging that it has been exploited by participating governments to pursue long-standing policy/military objectives, reduce civil liberties, infringe upon human rights. Critics assert that the term "war" is not appropriate in this context since there is no identifiable enemy and it is unlikely that international terrorism can be brought to an end by military means; the phrase "War on Terror" has been used to refer to the ongoing military campaign led by the U. S. U. K. and their allies against organizations and regimes identified by them as terrorist, excludes other independent counter-terrorist operations and campaigns such as those by Russia and India.
The conflict has been referred to by names other than the War on Terror. It has been known as: World War III World War IV Bush's War on Terror The Long War The Forever War The Global War on Terror The War Against al-Qaeda In 1984, the Reagan administration, which had expanded the CIA-run program of funding the Jihadi militants in Afghanistan, employed the term "war against terrorism" to pass legislation aimed at countering terrorist groups in the wake of the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing that killed 241 U. S. and 58 French peacekeepers. In 2017, U. S. Vice President Mike Pence called the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing "the opening salvo in a war that we have waged since—the global war on terror."The concept of the U. S. at war with terrorism may have begun on 11 September 2001 when Tom Brokaw, having just witnessed the collapse of one of the towers of the World Trade Center, declared "Terrorists have declared war on."On 16 September 2001, at Camp David, U. S. president George W. Bush used the phrase war on terrorism in an ostensibly unscripted comment when answering a journalist's question about the impact of enhanced law enforcement authority given to the U.
S. surveillance agencies on Americans' civil liberties: "This is a new kind of—a new kind of evil. And we understand, and the American people are beginning to understand. This crusade, this war on terrorism is going to take a while, and the American people must be patient. I'm going to be patient." Shortly after, the White House said the president regretted use of the term crusade, as it might have been misunderstood as referring to the historical Crusades. On 20 September 2001, during a televised address to a joint session of Congress, George Bush said, "Our war on terror begins with al Qaeda, but it does not end there, it will not end until every terrorist group of global reach has been found and defeated."In April 2007, the British government announced publicly that it was abandoning the use of the phrase "War on Terror" as they found it to be less than helpful. This was explained more by Lady Eliza Manningham-Buller. In her 2011 Reith lecture, the former head of MI5 said that the 9/11 attacks were "a crime, not an act of war.
So I never felt it helpful to refer to a war on terror."U. S. president Barack Obama used the term, but in his inaugural address on 20 January 2009, he stated: "Our nation is at war, against a far-reaching network of violence and hatred." In March 2009 the Defense Department changed the name of operations from "Global War on Terror" to "Overseas Contingency Operation". In March 2009, the Obama administration requested that Pentagon staff members avoid the use of the term and instead to use "Overseas Contingency Operation". Basic objectives of the Bush administration "war on terror", such as targeting al Qaeda and building international counterterrorism alliances, remain in place. In May 2010, the Obama administration published a report outlining its National Security Strategy; the document dropped the Bush-era phrase "global war on terror" and reference to "Islamic extremism," and stated, "This is not a g
Laying the keel or laying down is the formal recognition of the start of a ship's construction. It is marked with a ceremony attended by dignitaries from the shipbuilding company and the ultimate owners of the ship. Keel laying is one of the four specially celebrated events in the life of a ship. In earlier times, the event recognized as the keel laying was the initial placement of the central timber making up the backbone of a vessel, called the keel; as steel ships replaced wooden ones, the central timber gave way to a central steel beam. Modern ships are now built in a series of pre-fabricated, complete hull sections rather than being built around a single keel; the event recognized as the keel laying is the first joining of modular components, or the lowering of the first module into place in the building dock. It is now called "keel authentication", is the ceremonial beginning of the ship's life, although some modules may have been started months before that stage of construction. Keel-related traditions from the times of wooden ships are said to bring luck to the ship during construction and to the captain and crew during her life.
They include placing a newly minted coin under the keel and constructing the ship over it, having the youngest apprentice place the coin, when the ship is finished, presenting the owners with the oak block on which the keel is laid. The tradition of the placement of coins derives from the mast stepping custom of placing coins under the mast and is believed to date back to Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome and were intended to "pay the ferryman" to convey the souls of the dead across the River Styx should the ship sink; the first milestone in the history of a ship is the simple ceremony that marks the laying of the keel. Invitations to the ceremony are issued by shipyard officials, the ceremony is conducted by them; the builder may be the president of a private company. The ship's prospective name, without the "USS", is mentioned in the invitation.
Maine is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. Maine is the 12th smallest by area, the 9th least populous, the 38th most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. It is bordered by New Hampshire to the west, the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast, the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the northeast and northwest respectively. Maine is the easternmost state in the contiguous United States, the northernmost state east of the Great Lakes, it is known for its rocky coastline. There is a humid continental climate throughout most of the state, including in coastal areas such as its most populous city of Portland; the capital is Augusta. For thousands of years, indigenous peoples were the only inhabitants of the territory, now Maine. At the time of European arrival in what is now Maine, several Algonquian-speaking peoples inhabited the area; the first European settlement in the area was by the French in 1604 on Saint Croix Island, by Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons.
The first English settlement was the short-lived Popham Colony, established by the Plymouth Company in 1607. A number of English settlements were established along the coast of Maine in the 1620s, although the rugged climate and conflict with the local peoples caused many to fail over the years; as Maine entered the 18th century, only a half dozen European settlements had survived. Loyalist and Patriot forces contended for Maine's territory during the American Revolution and the War of 1812. During the War of 1812, the largely-undefended eastern region of Maine was occupied by British forces, but returned to the United States after the war following major defeats in New York and Louisiana, as part of a peace treaty, to include dedicated land on the Michigan peninsula for Native American peoples. Maine was part of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts until 1820, when it voted to secede from Massachusetts to become a separate state. On March 15, 1820, under the Missouri Compromise, it was admitted to the Union as the 23rd state.
There is no definitive explanation for the origin of the name "Maine", but the most origin is that the name was given by early explorers after the former province of Maine in France. Whatever the origin, the name was fixed for English settlers in 1665 when the English King's Commissioners ordered that the "Province of Maine" be entered from on in official records; the state legislature in 2001 adopted a resolution establishing Franco-American Day, which stated that the state was named after the former French province of Maine. Other theories mention earlier places with similar names, or claim it is a nautical reference to the mainland. Attempts to uncover the history of the name of Maine began with James Sullivan's 1795 "History of the District of Maine", he made the unsubstantiated claim that the Province of Maine was a compliment to the queen of Charles I, Henrietta Maria, who once "owned" the Province of Maine in France. This was quoted by Maine historians until the 1845 biography of that queen by Agnes Strickland established that she had no connection to the province.
A new theory, put forward by Carol B. Smith Fisher in 2002, is that Sir Ferdinando Gorges chose the name in 1622 to honor the village where his ancestors first lived in England, rather than the province in France. "MAINE" appears in the Domesday Book of 1086 in reference to the county of Dorset, today Broadmayne, just southeast of Dorchester. The view held among British place name scholars is that Mayne in Dorset is Brythonic, corresponding to modern Welsh "maen", plural "main" or "meini"; some early spellings are: MAINE 1086, MEINE 1200, MEINES 1204, MAYNE 1236. Today the village is known as Broadmayne, primitive Welsh or Brythonic, "main" meaning rock or stone, considered a reference to the many large sarsen stones still present around Little Mayne farm, half a mile northeast of Broadmayne village; the first known record of the name appears in an August 10, 1622 land charter to Sir Ferdinando Gorges and Captain John Mason, English Royal Navy veterans, who were granted a large tract in present-day Maine that Mason and Gorges "intend to name the Province of Maine".
Mason had served with the Royal Navy in the Orkney Islands, where the chief island is called Mainland, a possible name derivation for these English sailors. In 1623, the English naval captain Christopher Levett, exploring the New England coast, wrote: "The first place I set my foote upon in New England was the Isle of Shoals, being Ilands in the sea, above two Leagues from the Mayne." Several tracts along the coast of New England were referred to as Main or Maine. A reconfirmed and enhanced April 3, 1639, from England's King Charles I, gave Sir Ferdinando Gorges increased powers over his new province and stated that it "shall forever hereafter, be called and named the PROVINCE OR COUNTIE OF MAINE, not by any other name or names whatsoever..." Maine is the only U. S. state whose name has one syllable. The original inhabitants of the territory, now Maine were Algonquian-speaking Wabanaki peoples, including the Passamaquoddy, Penobscot and Kennebec. During the King Philip's War, many of these peoples would merge in one form or another to become the Wabanaki Confederacy, aiding the Wampanoag of Massachusetts & the Mahican of New York.
Afterwards, many of these people were driven from their natural territories, but most of the tribes of Maine continued, until the American Revolution
The Tomahawk Land Attack Missile is a long-range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missile, used by the United States Navy and Royal Navy in ship and submarine-based land-attack operations. Introduced by General Dynamics in the 1970s, it was designed as a medium- to long-range, low-altitude missile that could be launched from a surface platform. Since it has been upgraded several times with guidance systems for precision navigation. In 1992–1994, McDonnell Douglas Corporation was the sole supplier of Tomahawk Missiles and produced Block II and Block III Tomahawk missiles and remanufactured many Tomahawks to Block III specifications. In 1994, Hughes outbid McDonnell Douglas Aerospace to become the sole supplier of Tomahawk missiles, it is now manufactured by Raytheon. In 2016, the U. S. Department of Defense purchased 149 Tomahawk Block IV missiles for $202.3 million. The Tomahawk missile family consists of a number of subsonic, jet engine-powered missiles designed to attack a variety of surface targets.
Although several launch platforms have been deployed or envisaged, only sea launched variants are in service. Tomahawk has a modular design, allowing a wide variety of warhead and range capabilities; the Tomahawk project was awarded to Applied Physics Laboratory near Laurel, Maryland by the US Navy. James H. Walker led a team of scientists to build this new long range missile; the original design, updated with advanced technology, is still used today. There have been several variants of the BGM-109 Tomahawk employing various types of warheads. BGM-109A Tomahawk Land Attack Missile – Nuclear with a W80 thermonuclear weapon. Retired from service sometime between 2010 and 2013. Reports from early 2018 state that the U. S. Navy is considering introducing a nuclear-tipped cruise missile into service. RGM/UGM-109B Tomahawk Anti Ship Missile – active radar homing anti-ship missile variant. BGM-109C Tomahawk Land Attack Missile – Conventional with a unitary warhead; this was a modified Bullpup warhead. BGM-109D Tomahawk Land Attack Missile – Dispenser with cluster munitions.
RGM/UGM-109E Tomahawk Land Attack Missile – improved version of the TLAM-C. BGM-109G Ground Launched Cruise Missile – with a W84 nuclear warhead. AGM-109H/L Medium Range Air to Surface Missile – a shorter range, turbojet powered air-launched cruise missile with cluster munitions. Ground-launched cruise missiles and their truck-like launch vehicles were employed at bases in Europe. Many of the anti-ship versions were converted into TLAMs at the end of the Cold War; the Block III TLAMs that entered service in 1993 can fly 3 percent farther using their new turbofan engines and use Global Positioning System receivers to strike more precisely. Block III TLAM-Cs retain the Digital Scene Matching Area Correlation II navigation system, allowing GPS only missions, which allow for rapid mission planning, with some reduced accuracy, DSMAC only missions, which take longer to plan but terminal accuracy is somewhat better, GPS aided missions which combine both DSMAC II and GPS navigation which provides the greatest accuracy.
Block IV TLAMs have an improved turbofan engine allowing for throttle control, allowing in-flight speed changes, as well as better fuel economy and quicker launch times. The Block IV TLAMs have enhanced loiter capabilities and are equipped with a real-time targeting system for striking fleeing targets as well as onboard electro-optical sensors allowing for real-time battle damage assessment. Additionally, the Block IV missiles have the capabilities to be retargeted inflight, the ability to transmit, via satcom, an image prior to impact to assist in determining if the missile was attacking the target and the damage from the attack. A major improvement to the Tomahawk is network-centric warfare-capabilities, using data from multiple sensors to find its target, it will be able to send data from its sensors to these platforms. It will be a part of the networked force being implemented by the Pentagon. Tomahawk Block II variants were all tested during January 1981 to October 1983. Deployed in 1984, some of the improvements included: an improved booster rocket, cruise missile radar altimeter, navigation through the Digital Scene Matching Area Corellator.
Tomahawk Block III introduced in 1993 added time-of-arrival control and improved accuracy for Digital Scene Matching Area Correlator and jam-resistant GPS, lighter WDU-36 warhead, engine improvements and extended missile's range. Tactical Tomahawk Weapons Control System takes advantage of a loitering feature in the missile's flight path and allows commanders to redirect the missile to an alternative target, if required, it can be reprogrammed in-flight to attack predesignated targets with GPS coordinates stored in its memory or to any other GPS coordinates. The missile can send data about its status back to the commander, it entered service with the US Navy in late 2004. The Tactical Tomahawk Weapons Control System added the capability for limited mission planning on board the firing unit. Tomahawk Block IV introduced in 2006 adds the strike controller which can change the missile in flight to one of 15 preprogrammed alternate targets or redirect it to a new target; this targeting flexibility includes the capability to loiter over
Naval Station Pearl Harbor
Naval Station Pearl Harbor is a U. S. naval base adjacent to Honolulu, in the U. S. state of Hawaii. In 2010, along with the United States Air Force's Hickam Air Force Base, the facility was merged to form Joint Base Pearl Harbor–Hickam. Pearl Harbor is the headquarters of the United States Pacific Fleet; the attack on Pearl Harbor by the Empire of Japan on Sunday, 7 December 1941 brought the United States into World War II. Naval Station Pearl Harbor provides berthing and shore side support to surface ships and submarines, as well as maintenance and training. Pearl Harbor can accommodate the largest ships in the fleet, to include dry dock services, is now home to over 160 commands. Housing and family support are provided and are an integral part of the shore side activities, which encompasses both permanent and transient personnel; because Pearl Harbor is the only intermediate maintenance facility for submarines in the Middle Pacific, it serves as host to a large number of visiting submariners.
The Naval Computer and Telecommunications Area Master Station, Wahiawa, Hawaii is the world's largest communication station. The headquarters site of this shore command is located in the central section of the island of Oahu three miles north of Wahiawa. Following the annexation of Hawaii, Pearl Harbor was refitted to allow for more navy ships. In May 1899, Commander John F. Merry was made naval representative with authority to transact business for the Navy Department and its Bureaus, he assumed control of the Coal Depot and its equipment. To supplement his facilities, he was assigned two coal barges. Inquiries that commenced in June culminated in the establishment of the "Naval Station, Honolulu" on 17 November 1899. On 2 February 1900, this title was changed to "Naval Station, Hawaii"; the creation of the Naval Station allowed the Navy Department to explore territorial outposts. In October 1899, Nero and Iroquois made extensive surveys and sounding of the waterways to Midway and Guam. One of the reasons for these explorations was to select a possible cable route to Luzon.
A coal famine and an outbreak of the bubonic plague were the only two incidents that hindered the Commandant from fulfilling his duties. Because of the severe coal shortage in September 1899, the Commandant sold coal to the Oahu Railway and Land Company and the Inter-Island Steam Navigation Company, Ltd. Although this indicated the affinity of economic ties with the Navy, it was to a certain extent counteracted by the quarantine of the naval establishment from December 1899 to February 1900, because of the bubonic plague. 61 deaths were recorded in Honolulu for this period. Work was delayed on nascent Navy projects in Honolulu Harbor. From 1900 to 1908, the Navy devoted its time to improving the facilities of the 85 acres that constituted the naval reservation in Honolulu. Under the Appropriation Act of 3 March 1901, this tract of land was improved with the erection of additional sheds and housing. Improvements included a machine shop and foundry, Commandant's house and stables, cottage for the watchman, fencing, 10-ton wharf crane, water-pipe system.
Pearl Harbor was dredged and the channel enlarged to accommodate larger ships. On 28 May 1903, the first battleship, entered the harbor for coal and water. However, when the vessels of the Asiatic station visited Honolulu in January 1904, Rear Admiral Silas Terry complained that they were inadequately accommodated with dockage and water. Under the above Appropriation Act, Congress approved the acquisition of lands for the development of a naval station at Pearl Harbor and the improvement of the channel to the Lochs; the Commandant, under the direction of the Bureau of Equipment, attempted to obtain options on lands surrounding Pearl Harbor that were recommended for naval use. This endeavor was unsuccessful when the owners of the property refused to accept what was deemed to be a fair price. Condemnation proceedings, under the Hawaiian law of eminent domain, were begun on 6 July 1901; the land acquired by this suit included the present Navy Yard, Kauhua Island, a strip on the southeast coast of Ford Island.
The work of dredging the coral reef that blocked Pearl Harbor progressed enough to allow the gunboat Petrel to proceed to the upper part of Main Loch in January 1905. One of the early concerns of the growing station was that the Army would make claims on its property; because of their facilities, as wharves, artesian wells, coal supplies, many requests were made by the Army for their use. By February 1901, the Army had made application for the privilege of establishing on Navy docks movable cranes for handling coal and other stores, a saluting battery and a flag staff on the naval reservation, an artesian well of its own. All these requests were rejected by the Bureau of Equipment on the theory that, once granted, they "will constitute a permanent foothold on the property, end in dividing it between the two Departments, or in the entire exclusion of the Navy Department on the ground of military expediency as established by frequency of use." However, the Army Depot Quartermaster at Honolulu contracted for the sinking of an artesian well on the Naval Station with the Commandant's approval, who, in turn, acted on a recommendation of the Bureau of Yards and Docks.
The flow of water obtained amounted to over 1.5 million gallons per day, sufficient for all purposes of the Army and Navy. The Bureau of Equipment felt that its word of caution was justified when the Depot Quartermaster in 1902 let it be known that any water used by the Navy from the artesian well was "only given by courtesy of the Army". Despite the warnings of the Bureau of Equipment, the War Department, the Department of L