AN/SLQ-32 Electronic Warfare Suite
The AN/SLQ-32 is a shipboard electronic warfare suite built by the Raytheon Company of Goleta and The Hughes Aircraft Company. It is the primary electronic warfare system in use by U. S. Navy ships. Referred to by its operators as the "slick-32"; the SLQ-32 was conceived in the 1970s to augment the AN/WLR-1, in service since the early 1960s. It was determined to save costs to replace the various WLR-1 series suites with the SLQ-32 as a stand-alone system; as designed, the SLQ-32 was produced in three variants, the 1, 2 and 3. In its service life, two additional versions were built, the 4 and 5; the Air Transport Rack sized processors were supplied by ROLM Mil-Spec Computers in San Jose, CA. SLQ-321 – A simple threat warning receiver, it was capable of receiving high-band radar signals of the type carried on missiles and aircraft; the 1 was installed on small combatants such as frigates. This variant of the system is being phased out as current ships equipped become decommissioned. SLQ-322 – Initially the most common variant, the 2 added the ability to receive surveillance and targeting radars.
This provided a passive targeting capability for Harpoon missile-equipped ships. The 2 was installed on frigates, 270-foot Coast Guard Cutters. SLQ-323 – Expanding on the 2's capabilities, the 3 added active radar-jamming capability; the 3 was installed on various combatants such as cruisers, large amphibious ships and high-value replenishment vessels. SLQ-324 – Designed for installation on aircraft carriers, the 4 consisted of two 3 systems, one for each side of the ship, tied to a common computer and display console. Additional line replaceable units and software were added to support the wide separation of the two antenna/electronics enclosures. SLQ-325 – The 5 was built as a response to the Stark incident in 1987; the 5 incorporated a compact version of the 3 system intended to give active jamming capability to the Perry class FFG's, which were too small to carry a full 3. All versions of the SLQ-32, with the exception of the 4, are interfaced with the MK36 Decoy Launching System, able to launch chaff and infrared decoys under the control of the SLQ-32.
The number and arrangement of MK36 launchers installed depends on the size of the ship, ranging from two launchers on a small combatant to as many as ten on an aircraft carrier. A growing number of systems are being upgraded to incorporate the multi-national MK-53 Nulka system; the original modular design was intended to allow upgrades of the system from one variant to the next by installing additional equipment as required. Starting in the early 1990s, a program was begun to upgrade all SLQ-32s in the U. S. fleet. Most 1 systems were upgraded to 2, most 2 systems were upgraded to 3; this was carried out during a major ship overhaul. The initial procurement process was built around a “design to price” concept in which the final delivery cost per system was fixed in the contract; the SLQ-32 was designed to support the protection of ships against anti-ship missiles in an open sea environment. After initial deployment of the system, naval roles began to change requiring ships to operate much closer to shore in denser signal environments.
This change in roles required changes to the SLQ-32 systems. With experience gained working with the SLQ-32, coupled with improvements to the hardware and software and operators overcame the initial problems; the SLQ-32 is now the mainstay of surface electronic warfare in the U. S. Navy and U. S. Coast Guard's WMEC 270-foot Class Ships. In 1996, a program called the Advanced Integrated Electronic Warfare System was begun to develop a replacement for the SLQ-32. Designated the AN/SLY-2, AIEWS reached the prototype stage by 1999, but funding was withdrawn in April 2002 due to ballooning costs and constant delays in the projects development, it has since been replaced with Surface Electronic Warfare Improvement Program, which will replace the existing SLQ-32 hardware and technology in an evolutionary fashion. As of September 2013 SEWIP Block 2 upgrades were first installed on Burke-class destroyers in 2014, with full-rate production scheduled for mid-2015. Block 2 improved detection capabilities. SEWIP Block 2 was tested on USS Freedom in December 2014.
Electronic Warfare ELINT U. S. Navy Raytheon Federation of American Scientists: AN/SLQ-32 Electronic Warfare system Raytheon Product Description for the AN/SLQ-32 AN/SLQ-32 in the Warfighters Encyclopedia AN/SLQ-325 Data Sheet EXHIBIT R-2, RDT&E Budget Item Justification Surface Electronic Warfare Improvement Program
The Xian H-6 is a licence-built version of the Soviet Tupolev Tu-16 twin-engine jet bomber, built for China's People's Liberation Army Air Force. Delivery of the Tu-16 to China began in 1958, the Xi'an Aircraft Industrial Corporation signed a licence production agreement with the USSR to build the type in the late 1950s; the first Chinese Tu-16, or "H-6" as it was designated in Chinese service, flew in 1959. Production was performed by the plant with at least 150 built into the 1990s. China is estimated to operate around 120 of the aircraft; the latest version is the H-6K, a redesigned version capable of carrying air-launched cruise missiles. According to United States Department of Defense, this will give the PLAAF a long-range standoff offensive air capability with precision-guided munitions; the first domestically produced H-6 was completed in 1968 and evidence of bombing training was recorded by U. S. spy satellites on August 13, 1971. By March of the following year, the CIA estimated that the PRC had 32 aircraft operational with an additional 19 awaiting completion.
The H-6 was used to drop nine nuclear devices at the Lop Nur test site. However, with the increased development in ballistic missile technology, the nuclear delivery capabilities that the H-6 offered diminished in importance; the CIA estimated in 1976. Along with the H-6 free-fall bomber, an "H-6A" nuclear bomber was built, as well as an "H-6B" reconnaissance variant, "H-6C" conventional bomber and "H-6E" nuclear bomber with improved countermeasures, the "H-6D" antiship missile carrier, the "HY-6" series capable of acting as an in-flight fuel tanker; the H-6D was introduced in the early 1980s and carried a C-601 antishipping missile (NATO codename "Silkworm", an air-launched derivative of the Soviet P-15 Termit under each wing. The H-6D featured various modernized systems and sports an enlarged radome with a Type 245 Kobalt I-band surveillance radar under the nose; the Type 245 radar was based on the Soviet PSBN-M-8 NATO codename Mushroom radar used on the Tupolev Tu-16. Earlier versions were installed on the early models of the H-6.
The H-6 has been used as a tanker and drone launcher. H-6 production featured extended curved wingtips. Many H-6A and H-6C aircraft were updated in the 1990s to the "H-6F" configuration, the main improvement being a modern navigation system, with a Global Positioning System satellite constellation receiver, Doppler navigation radar, inertial navigation system. New production began in the 1990s as well, with Xian building the "H-6G", a director for ground-launched cruise missiles. In terms of land attack cruise missiles five immediate possibilities were considered by PLAAF - the indigenous HN-1, HN-2 and HN-3, DH-10/CJ-10, a variant of Russian designed cruise missile, it is believed CJ-10 is chosen to be the main land attack missile for H-6 bombers, now the "H-6M" cruise missile carrier, which has four pylons for improved cruise missiles and is fitted with a terrain-following system. These variants have no internal bomb capability, most or all of their defensive armament has been deleted; the H-6K, first flying on January 5, 2007, entered service in October 2009 during the celebrations of the 60th anniversary of the People's Republic of China, is claimed to make China the fourth country with a strategic bomber after US, Russia and the United Kingdom.
With a reinforced structure making use of composite materials, enlarged engine inlets for Russian Soloviev D-30 turbofan engines giving a claimed combat radius of 3,500 kilometres, a glass cockpit with large size LCD multi-function display, a reworked nose section eliminating the glazed navigator's station in favour of a more powerful radar, the H-6K is a more modern aircraft than earlier versions. Six underwing hardpoints for CJ-10A cruise missiles are added; the rear 23 mm guns and gunner position are replaced by electronic components. The H-6K is designed for stand-off attacks, it is capable of attacking US carrier battle groups and priority targets in Asia. This aircraft has nuclear strike capability. While previous models had limited missile capacity, the H-6K can carry up to six YJ-12 and 6-7 ALCMs. Although the aircraft has a new nose radome housing a modern air-to-ground radar, it is not clear if the bomber or other Chinese assets yet have the capability to collect accurate targeting information for successful strikes against point targets in areas beyond the first island chain.
An electro-optical targeting system is fitted under the nose. In January 2009, it was reported that an indigenous turbofan engine, the WS-18, was under development for use in the H-6K. In 2015, about 15 H-6Ks were in service. A H-6K fitted with a refuelling probe may have first flown in December 2016. Besides extending range, a possible mission for the variant may be to launch satellites or ballistic missiles. Defense Intelligence Agency chief Ashley confirmed that China is developing two new air-launched ballistic missiles, one of which can carry a nuclear warhead; the H-6K would be suited to launch such missiles. In January 2019, Norinco announced it had tested an analogous of the American "Mother of all Bombs." The weapon is carried by an H-6K and takes up the whole of the bomb bay, making it 5–6 m long and weighing 10 tons. Chinese media c
The Phalanx CIWS is a close-in weapon system for defense against anti-ship missiles, etc. It was manufactured by the General Dynamics Corporation, Pomona Division. Consisting of a radar-guided 20 mm Vulcan cannon mounted on a swiveling base, the Phalanx has been used by multiple navies around the world, notably the U. S. Navy on every class of surface combat ship with the exception of the San Antonio-class LPD, by the Canadian Royal Canadian Navy, the British Royal Navy, by the U. S. Coast Guard aboard its Hamilton and Legend-class cutters; the Phalanx is used by 15 other allied nations. A land variant, known as the LPWS, part of the C-RAM system, has been deployed in a short range missile defense role, to counter incoming rockets and mortar fire; because of their distinctive barrel-shaped radome and their automated nature of operation, Phalanx CIWS units are sometimes nicknamed "R2-D2" after the famous droid character from the Star Wars films. The Phalanx Close-In Weapons System was developed as the last line of automated weapons defense against antiship missiles and attacking aircraft, including high-g and maneuvering sea-skimmers.
The first prototype system was offered to the U. S. Navy for evaluation on the destroyer leader USS King in 1973 and it was determined that additional improvements were required to improve performance and reliability. Subsequently, the Phalanx Operational Suitability Model completed its Operational Test and Evaluation on board the destroyer USS Bigelow in 1977; the model exceeded operational maintenance and availability specifications. Another evaluation followed, the weapon system was approved for production in 1978. Phalanx production started with orders for 14 foreign military systems; the first ship fitted out was the aircraft carrier USS Coral Sea in 1980. The Navy began placing CIWS systems on non-combatant vessels in 1984; the basis of the system is the 20 mm M61 Vulcan Gatling gun autocannon, used since 1959 by the United States military on various tactical aircraft, linked to a Ku band fire control radar system for acquiring and tracking targets. This proven system was combined with a purpose-made mounting, capable of fast elevation and traverse speeds, to track incoming targets.
An self-contained unit, the mounting houses the gun, an automated fire-control system and all other major components, enabling it to automatically search for, track and confirm kills using its computer-controlled radar system. Due to this self-contained nature, Phalanx is ideal for support ships, which lack integrated targeting systems and have limited sensors; the entire unit has a mass between 12,400 to 13,500 lb. Due to the evolution of threats and computer technology, the Phalanx system has been developed through several configurations; the basic style is the Block 0, equipped with first-generation, solid-state electronics and with marginal capability against surface targets. The Block 1 upgrade offered various improvements in radar, computing power, rate of fire, an increase in maximum engagement elevation to +70 degrees; these improvements were intended to increase the system's capability against emerging Russian supersonic antiship missiles. Block 1A introduced a new computer system to counter more maneuverable targets.
The Block 1B PSuM adds a forward-looking infrared sensor to make the weapon effective against surface targets. This addition was developed to provide ship defense against small vessel threats and other "floaters" in littoral waters and to improve the weapon's performance against slower low-flying aircraft; the FLIR's capability is of use against low-observability missiles and can be linked with the RIM-116 Rolling Airframe Missile system to increase RAM engagement range and accuracy. The Block 1B allows for an operator to visually identify and target threats; as the system model manager, the U. S. Navy is in the process of upgrading all their Phalanx systems to the Block 1B configuration. All U. S Navy Phalanx systems are scheduled for upgrade to Block 1B by the end of FY 2015. In addition to the FLIR sensor, the Block 1B incorporates an automatic acquisition video tracker, optimized gun barrels, Enhanced Lethality Cartridges for additional capabilities against asymmetric threats such as small maneuvering surface craft, slow-flying fixed and rotary-winged aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles.
The FLIR sensor improves performance against antiship cruise missiles, while the OGB and ELC provide tighter dispersion and increased "first-hit" range. Another system upgrade is the Phalanx 1B Baseline 2 radar to improve detection performance, increase reliability, reduce maintenance, it has a surface mode to track and destroy threats closer to the water's surface, increasing the ability to defend against fast-attack boats and low-flying missiles. S. Navy Phalanx system-equipped vessels by FY 2019; the Block 1B is used by other navies, such as Canada, Japan, Egypt and the UK. In April 2017, Raytheon tested a new electric gun for the Phalanx allowing the system to fire at varying rates to conserve ammunition; the new design replaces the pneumatic motor and storage tanks, reducing system weight by 180 lb while increasing reliability and reducing operating costs. The CIWS is designed to be the last
People's Liberation Army Air Force
The People's Liberation Army Air Force is the aerial warfare service branch of the People's Liberation Army, the armed forces of the People's Republic of China. The PLAAF was established on 11 November 1949; as of 2014, the PLAAF has a strength of around 398,000 personnel and is the largest air force in Asia. The PLA's first organized air unit, was formed in July 1949 at Beijing Nanyuan Airport, it consisted of six P-51s, two Mosquitoes, two PT-19s. On 25 October 1949, Liu Yalou was appointed as the chief of air force in the People's Liberation Army. By 11 November, the air force command was formed from the headquarters of Liu Yalou's 14th bingtuan. Much Soviet assistance was received to help the process along; the PLAAF fought the Korean War in Soviet-built Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15s, known as the J-2 in Chinese service, with training from Soviet instructors. The war brought Soviet assistance for the indigenous aircraft industry; the Shenyang Aircraft Corporation built the two-seat MiG-15UTI trainer as the JJ-2, during the war manufactured various components to maintain the Soviet-built fighters.
By 1956 the People's Republic was assembling copies of MiG-15s and eight years was producing both the Shenyang J-5 and the Shenyang J-6 under license. The 1960s were a difficult time for the PLAAF; the withdrawal of Soviet aid due to the Sino-Soviet split, the prioritization of the missile and nuclear weapon programs, crippled the industry, which markedly declined through 1963. A recovery began around 1965 as J-2s, J-5s, some J-6s were provided to North Vietnam during the Vietnam War. Development of the Shenyang J-8, China's first indigenous fighter, was initiated during the 1960s; the PLA Air Force underwent reorganization and streamlining as part of the reduction in force begun in 1985. Before the 1985 reorganization, the Air Force had four branches: air defense, ground attack and independent air regiments. In peacetime the Air Force Directorate, under the supervision of the PLA General Staff Department, controlled the Air Force through headquarters located with, or in communication with, each of the seven military region headquarters.
In war, control of the Air Force reverted to the regional commanders. In 1987 it was not clear how the reorganization and the incorporation of air support elements into the group armies affected air force organization; the largest Air Force organizational unit was the division, which consisted of 17,000 personnel in three regiments. A typical air defense regiment had three squadrons of three flights; the Air Force had 220,000 air defense personnel who controlled about 100 surface-to-air missile sites and over 16,000 AA guns. In addition, it had a large number of early-warning, ground-control-intercept, air-base radars manned by specialized troops organized into at least twenty-two independent regiments. In the 1980s the Air Force made serious efforts to raise the educational level and improve the training of its pilots. Superannuated pilots were assigned to other duties. All new pilots were at least middle-school graduates; the time it took to train a qualified pilot capable of performing combat missions was reduced from four or five years to two years.
Training emphasized raising technical and tactical skills in individual pilots and participation in combined-arms operations. Flight safety increased. In 1987 the Air Force had serious technological deficiencies — when compared with its principal threat, the Soviet Armed Forces — and had many needs that it could not satisfy, it needed more advanced aircraft, better avionics, electronic countermeasures equipment, more powerful aircraft weaponry, a low-altitude surface-to-air missile, better controlled antiaircraft artillery guns. Some progress was made in aircraft design with the incorporation of Western avionics into the Chengdu J-7 and Shenyang J-8, the development of refueling capabilities for the B-6D bomber and the A-5 attack fighter, increased aircraft all-weather capabilities, the production of the HQ-2J high-altitude surface-to-air missile and the C-601 air-to-ship missile. Although the PLAAF received significant support from Western nations in the 1980s when China was seen as a counterweight to Soviet power, this support ended in 1989 as a result of the Chinese crackdown on the Tiananmen protests of 1989 and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991.
After the fall of the USSR, the Russian Federation became China's principal arms supplier, to the extent that Chinese economic growth allowed Russia to sustain its aerospace industry. In the late 1980s, the primary mission of the PLAAF was the defense of the mainland, most aircraft were assigned to this role. A smaller number of ground attack and bomber units were assigned to Air interdiction and close air support, some bomber units could be used for nuclear delivery; the force had only limited military airlift and aerial reconnaissance capabilities. In the early 1990s, the PLAAF began a program of modernization, motivated by the collapse of the Soviet Union, as well as the possibility of military conflict with the Republic of China and also involving the United States; this process began with the acquisition of Su-27s in the early 1990s and the development of various fourth-generation aircraft, including the domestic J-10, the FC-1. The PLAAF strove to improve its pilot training and continued to retire obsolete aircraft.
This resulted in a reduction of the overall number of aircraft in the PLAAF with a concurrent increase in quality of its air fleet. The 21st century has seen the continuation of the modernization program with China's huge economic growth, it acquired 76 Su-30MKK's fro
2018 missile strikes against Syria
On 14 April 2018, beginning at 04:00 Syrian time, the United States and the United Kingdom carried out a series of military strikes involving aircraft and ship-based missiles against multiple government sites in Syria. They said it was in response to the Douma chemical attack against civilians on 7 April, which they attributed to the Syrian government; the Syrian government denied involvement in the Douma attacks and called the airstrikes a violation of international law. A Syrian government offensive to recapture the rebel-held Eastern Ghouta suburb began in February 2018; the offensive was condemned by Western media for its brutal humanitarian consequences. By the beginning of April, Douma was one of the last rebel enclaves remaining in the region, with rebel group Jaysh al-Islam in control of the city. Russian and Syrian state media reported a deal between the rebel group and Russia to hand over Douma to government control. Other news agencies reported members of the rebel group claiming a deal had not been brokered and that Jaysh al-Islam would not surrender Douma.
What followed was a suspected chemical attack carried out in the Syrian city of Douma on 7 April 2018, with at least 70 people reported killed. One pro-opposition source said; the Jaysh al-Islam rebel group, which controlled Douma at the time, along with several medical and activist groups, including the pro-rebel White Helmets, all reported that two Syrian Air Force Mi-8 helicopters had dropped barrel bombs. The bombs were filled with chlorine gas and sarin; the World Health Organization said it received reports from partner agencies that some 500 people arrived at health facilities showing "signs and symptoms consistent with exposure to toxic chemicals." On 6 July 2018, the OPCW produced an interim report stating that chlorine residues had been found at the two attack sites, although no organophosphorous nerve agents or their degradation products were detected. As with previous incidents, the United Kingdom, the United States, other nations accused the Syrian government of being responsible for the use of chemical weapons.
Russia and Iran, the Syrian government's main allies, denied chemical weapons had been used, claiming it was a false flag operation. Russia has said. State media agency, the Syrian Arab News Agency said that the Saudi Arabian-backed Jaysh al-Islam was making "chemical attack fabrications in an exposed and failed attempt to obstruct advances by the Syrian Arab Army". In May 2017, French President Emmanuel Macron said the use of chemical weapons in Syria would be a red line requiring immediate reprisal. France and the United States cited positive urine and blood samples collected as proof of chlorine being used in Douma. In the early hours of 9 April 2018, an airstrike was conducted against Tiyas Military Airbase in Syria; the United States denied launching the airstrike, an Israeli spokeswoman declined to comment. On 10 April, an emergency United Nations Security Council meeting was held where competing solutions were presented on how to handle the response to the chemical attack. By 11 April, Western nations began to consider military action in Syria, seeking a "strong joint response."On 11 April, the Syrian government said it had invited the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons to investigate the sites of the attacks.
"Syria is keen on cooperating with the OPCW to uncover the truth behind the allegations that some western sides have been advertising to justify their aggressive intentions," said SANA, quoting an official source in the Foreign Ministry. Russia denied chemical weapons were used and on 13 April blamed Britain for staging the event in order to provoke US airstrikes. By 12 April, British Prime Minister Theresa May had ordered Royal Navy submarines in the Mediterranean to move within cruise missile range of Syria by the end of the week. British military sources told The Times that days before the missile strikes a British Astute-class submarine armed with Tomahawk missiles and approaching within firing range of Syrian military targets was chased by "one, two" Russian Kilo-class submarines from the Russian naval base at Tartus; the Russian submarines were supported by two frigates and an antisubmarine aircraft, while the British submarine was assisted by a US Navy P-8 Poseidon patrol aircraft. No British submarine took part in the strikes.
The United Nations Charter requires a mandate from the United Nations Security Council for sovereign states to use force for the purpose of maintaining international security, but not for acting in self-defence or the protection of populations threatened by extermination at the hands of their own government. Since the UN Charter came into effect in 1945, military action in retaliation or reprisal to the act of another state has been prohibited. Russia's use of its veto meant there was no prospect of the Security Council authorizing the use of force. Therefore, the legality of military action relies on an international public order argument based on defending the credibility of the prohibition of the use of chemical weapons, enforcing Syria's obligations under the terms of its membership of the Chemical Weapons Convention, protecting civilians from further chemical weapon attacks to alleviate humanitarian suffering; the strikes came hours before inspectors from the OPCW Fact-Finding Mission were due to arrive in Syria to investigate the attack.
The United Kingdom published its legal position regarding military action which concluded limited strikes are ju
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U. S. allies or partner nations. With the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches, it has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force. The U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, established during the American Revolutionary War and was disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter.
The U. S. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers, it played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The US Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world; the 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, it is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U. S. foreign and military policy. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy; the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is the most senior naval officer serving in the Department of the Navy.
The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. The U. S. Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States; the Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war. The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy; the development of aircraft, tactics, technique and equipment of naval combat and service elements. U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is "to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest." As part of that establishment, the U. S. Navy's functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties, it follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, with it, everything honorable and glorious.
Naval power... is the natural defense of the United States The Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia; the rationale for establishing a national navy was debated in the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships and reported the captures to the Congress. On 13 October 1775, the Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships. S. Navy; the Continental Navy achieved mixed results.
In August 1785, after the Revolutionary War had drawn to a close, Congress had sold Alliance, the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy. In 1972, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, authorized the Navy to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy in 1775; the United States was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U. S. maritime merchant ships to a series of attacks by the Barbary pirates. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U. S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U. S. Revenue-Marine, the primary predecessor of the U. S. Coast Guard. Although the USRCS conducted operations against the pirates, their depredations far outstripped its abilities and Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 that established a permanent standing navy on 27 March 1794; the Naval Act ordered the construction and manning of six frigates and, by October 1797, the first three were brought into service: USS United States, USS Constellation, USS Constitution.
Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy during this period, John Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy". In 1798–99 the Navy was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France. From 18