The USS Liberty incident was an attack on a United States Navy technical research ship, USS Liberty, by Israeli Air Force jet fighter aircraft and Israeli Navy motor torpedo boats, on 8 June 1967, during the Six-Day War. The combined air and sea attack killed 34 crew members, wounded 171 crew members, damaged the ship. At the time, the ship was in international waters north of the Sinai Peninsula, about 25.5 nmi northwest from the Egyptian city of Arish. Israel apologized for the attack, saying that the USS Liberty had been attacked in error after being mistaken for an Egyptian ship. Both the Israeli and U. S. governments conducted inquiries and issued reports that concluded the attack was a mistake due to Israeli confusion about the ship's identity. Others, including survivors of the attack, have rejected these conclusions and maintain that the attack was deliberate. In May 1968, the Israeli government paid US$3.32 million to the U. S. government in compensation for the families of the 34 men killed in the attack.
In March 1969, Israel paid a further $3.57 million to the men, wounded. In December 1980, it agreed to pay $6 million as the final settlement for material damage to Liberty itself plus 13 years of interest. USS Liberty was the 7,725 long tons civilian cargo vessel Simmons Victory, a mass-produced, standard-design Victory Ship, the follow-on series to the famous Liberty Ships that supplied the Allies with cargo during World War II, it was acquired by the United States Navy and converted to an auxiliary technical research ship, a cover name for National Security Agency "spy ships" carrying out signals intelligence missions. It began its first deployment in waters off the west coast of Africa, it carried out several further operations during the next two years. During the Six-Day War between Israel and several Arab nations, the United States of America maintained a neutral country status. Several days before the war began, the USS Liberty was ordered to proceed to the eastern Mediterranean area to perform a signals intelligence collection mission in international waters near the north coast of Sinai, Egypt.
After the war erupted, due to concerns about its safety as it approached its patrol area, several messages were sent to Liberty to increase its allowable closest point of approach to Egypt's and Israel's coasts from 12.5 and 6.5 nautical miles to 20 and 15 nautical miles, later to 100 nautical miles for both countries. Due to ineffective message handling and routing, these messages were not received until after the attack. According to Israeli sources, at the start of the war on 5 June, General Yitzhak Rabin, Israeli Air Force chief of staff informed Commander Ernest Carl Castle, the American naval attaché in Tel Aviv, that Israel would defend its coast with every means at its disposal, including sinking unidentified ships, he asked the U. S. to keep its ships away from Israel's shore or at least inform Israel of their exact positions. American sources said that no inquiry about ships in the area was made until after the attack on Liberty. In a message sent from U. S. Secretary of State Dean Rusk to U.
S. Ambassador Walworth Barbour in Tel Aviv, Rusk asked for "urgent confirmation" of Israel's statement. Barbour responded: "No request for info on U. S. ships operating off Sinai was made until after Liberty incident." Further, Barbour stated: "Had Israelis made such an inquiry it would have been forwarded to the chief of naval operations and other high naval commands and repeated to dept."With the outbreak of war, Captain William L. McGonagle of Liberty asked Vice Admiral William I. Martin at the United States Sixth Fleet headquarters to send a destroyer to accompany Liberty and serve as its armed escort and as an auxiliary communications center; the following day, Admiral Martin replied: "Liberty is a marked United States ship in international waters, not a participant in the conflict and not a reasonable subject for attack by any nation. Request denied." He promised, that in the unlikely event of an inadvertent attack, jet fighters from the Sixth Fleet would be overhead in ten minutes. Meanwhile, on 6 June, at the United Nations, in response to Egyptian complaints that the United States was supporting Israel in the conflict, U.
S. Ambassador Arthur Goldberg told the Security Council that vessels of the Sixth Fleet were several hundred miles from the conflict; when the statement was made this was the case, since Liberty, now assigned to the Sixth Fleet, was in the central Mediterranean Sea, passing between Libya and Crete. It would steam to about 13 nmi north of the Sinai Peninsula. On the night of 7 June Washington time, early morning on 8 June, 01:10Z or 3:10 am local time, the Pentagon issued an order to Sixth Fleet headquarters to tell Liberty to come no closer than 100 nautical miles to Israel, Syria, or the Sinai coast. According to the Naval Court of Inquiry and the National Security Agency official history, the order to withdraw was not sent on the radio frequency that Liberty monitored for her orders until 15:25 Zulu, several hours after the attack, due to a long series of administrative and message routing problems; the Navy said a large volume of unrelated high-precedence traffic, including intelligence intercepts related to the conflict, were being handled at the time.
Mung Chiang is an American engineering researcher/educator, technology entrepreneur, university leader, foreign policy official. He is the John A. Edwardson Dean of the College of Engineering at Purdue University, he was the Arthur LeGrand Doty Professor of Electrical Engineering at Princeton University, an affiliated faculty in Applied and Computational Mathematics and in Computer Science. Mung Chiang received the B. S. in both Electrical Engineering and Mathematics in 1999, M. S. in Electrical Engineering in 2000, Ph. D. in Electrical Engineering in 2003 from Stanford University. He became an Assistant Professor at Princeton University's Electrical Engineering Department in 2004, an Associate Professor with tenure in 2008, a Professor in 2011, the Arthur LeGrand Doty Professor of Electrical Engineering in 2013, he is among the youngest faculty at Princeton University to become an endowed chair professor. In 2017, he was named Dean of the College of Engineering at Purdue University. At age 40, he is among the youngest in modern history to become the leader of a major college in an American university.
In 2013, Chiang became the 38th recipient of the Alan T. Waterman Award, the highest honor to young scientists in U. S. and administered by the National Science Foundation and the National Science Board. He is the only researcher in the field of networking to receive the Waterman Award. In 2014, he was selected in the category of Natural and Social Sciences. In 2012, he received the IEEE Kiyo Tomiyasu Award from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, he is the youngest recipient of an IEEE-wide Technical Field Award. He has received other awards on research and education, including Frederick Emmons Terman Award in Engineering Education in 2013, INFORMS Information Systems Design Science Award 2014, IEEE SECON Best Paper Award in 2013, IEEE INFOCOM Best Paper Award in 2012, IEEE Fellow in 2012, Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers in 2008, Technology Review TR35 Young Innovator Award in 2007, ONR Young Investigator Award in 2007, NSF CAREER Award in 2005, Princeton University H. B.
Wentz Junior Faculty Award in 2005, Hertz Graduate Fellowship in 1999. Chiang is best known for his work on networks Optimization of Networks, Network Utility Maximization and Smart Data Pricing, he is known as a founder of the field of Fog/Edge Computing. Chiang's Ph. D. dissertation in 2003 made contributions to optimization theory. Since he has contributed to many areas in networking research, including wireless networks, the Internet, broadband access, content distribution, network function optimization, network economics and social learning networks. In 2009, he founded the Princeton EDGE Lab, which bridges the theory-practice divide in networking research by spanning from proofs to prototypes and is the nation's first laboratory dedicated to edge computing, he was the Chairman of founding Steering Committee of the IEEE Transactions on Network Science and Engineering in 2013-14. He co-edited the National Information Technology Research and Development Program's report on Complex Engineered Networks in 2013, co-chairs the first Fog World Congress Research Program and the IEEE/ACM Symposium on Edge Computing in 2017.
Chiang co-authored a technical undergraduate textbook: Networked Life: 20 Questions and Answers and a popular science book The Power of Networks: Six Principles That Connect Our Lives. The first book received the PROSE Awards in Science and Technology Writing in 2013; the second book was mentioned in various popular media, such as the. He created an undergraduate course at Princeton University: Networks: Friends and Bytes in 2011, which led to a Massive Open Online Course in 2012 with about 400,000 enrolled students since 2012, he received the 2016 Distinguished Teaching Award at Princeton University Engineering School. Chiang is an inventor of about 20 issued U. S. patents. He initiated a number of technology transfers from university lab to networking industry in the areas of network optimization and big data, he is a co-inventor of various smart data pricing technologies and the deep personalization in e-learning. He is a co-founder and the first CEO of DataMi, a startup company that enables Open Toll Free mobile data and the Peak Valley Technology globally, a co-founder of Zoomi, a startup company on big data for learning and training, a co-founder of Smartiply, a startup company on fog networking.
He is a member of the advisory board of several other startup companies and technology investment funds. He is a founding board member of "OpenFog Consortium, a global, non-profit, industry-academia consortium launched in 2015 to develop and promote fog computing and fog networking technologies, based off on concept developed by Chiang, alongside IEEE ComSoc CIO Tao Zhang and Cisco executive Helder Antunes; the consortium was co-founded by Chiang's Princeton Edge Lab, ARM, Dell and Microsoft, has over 60 member companies and universities from around the world. It merged with Industrial Internet Consortium in 2019. During 2014-17, he was the Director of the "Keller Center for Innovation in Engineering Education" at Princeton University. In 2014, he was named a New Jersey CEO of the Year by New Jersey Technology Council, he was the Chair of the Princeton Entrepreneurship Advisory Committee "" in 2014 to make recommendations on the vision and mechanisms of entrepreneurship at Princeton University.
In 2015, he created and was named the inaugural Chairman of the "Princeton Entrepreneurship Council", part
Zinc finger protein Aiolos known as Ikaros family zinc finger protein 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IKZF3 gene. This gene encodes a member of the Ikaros family of zinc-finger proteins. Three members of this protein family are hematopoietic-specific transcription factors involved in the regulation of lymphocyte development; this gene product is a transcription factor, important in the regulation of B lymphocyte proliferation and differentiation. Both Ikaros and Aiolos can participate in chromatin remodeling. Regulation of gene expression in B lymphocytes by Aiolos is complex as it appears to require the sequential formation of Ikaros homodimers, Ikaros/Aiolos heterodimers, Aiolos homodimers. At least six alternative transcripts encoding different isoforms have been described. IKZF3 has been shown to interact with BCL2-like 1 and HRAS. IKZF3+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, in the public domain