The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth, south of the Equator. It contains parts of five continents, four oceans and most of the Pacific Islands in Oceania, its surface is 80.9% water, compared with 60.7% water in the case of the Northern Hemisphere, it contains 32.7% of Earth's land. Owing to the tilt of Earth's rotation relative to the Sun and the ecliptic plane, summer is from December to March and winter is from June to September. September 22 or 23 is the vernal equinox and March 20 or 21 is the autumnal equinox; the South Pole is in the center of the southern hemispherical region. Southern Hemisphere climates tend to be milder than those at similar latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, except in the Antarctic, colder than the Arctic; this is because the Southern Hemisphere has more ocean and much less land. The differences are attributed to oceanic heat transfer and differing extents of greenhouse trapping. In the Southern Hemisphere the sun passes from east to west through the north, although north of the Tropic of Capricorn the mean sun can be directly overhead or due north at midday.
The Sun rotating through the north causes an apparent right-left trajectory through the sky unlike the left-right motion of the Sun when seen from the Northern Hemisphere as it passes through the southern sky. Sun-cast shadows turn anticlockwise throughout the day and sundials have the hours increasing in the anticlockwise direction. During solar eclipses viewed from a point to the south of the Tropic of Capricorn, the Moon moves from left to right on the disc of the Sun, while viewed from a point to the north of the Tropic of Cancer, the Moon moves from right to left during solar eclipses. Cyclones and tropical storms spin clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere due to the Coriolis effect; the southern temperate zone, a subsection of the Southern Hemisphere, is nearly all oceanic. This zone includes the southern tip of South Africa; the Sagittarius constellation that includes the galactic centre is a southern constellation and this, combined with clearer skies, makes for excellent viewing of the night sky from the Southern Hemisphere with brighter and more numerous stars.
Forests in the Southern Hemisphere have special features which set them apart from those in the Northern Hemisphere. Both Chile and Australia share, for example, unique beech species or Nothofagus, New Zealand has members of the related genera Lophozonia and Fuscospora; the eucalyptus is native to Australia but is now planted in Southern Africa and Latin America for pulp production and biofuel uses. 800 million humans live in the Southern Hemisphere, representing only 10–12% of the total global human population of 7.3 billion. Of those 800 million people, 200 million live in Brazil, the largest country by land area in the Southern Hemisphere, while 141 million live on the island of Java, the most populous island in the world; the most populous nation in the Southern Hemisphere is Indonesia, with 261 million people. Portuguese is the most spoken language in the Southern Hemisphere, followed by Javanese; the largest metropolitan areas in the Southern Hemisphere are São Paulo, Buenos Aires, Rio de Janeiro and Sydney.
The most important financial and commercial centers in the Southern Hemisphere are São Paulo, where the Bovespa Index is headquartered, along with Sydney, home to the Australian Securities Exchange, home to the Johannesburg Stock Exchange and Buenos Aires, headquarters of the Buenos Aires Stock Exchange, the oldest stock market in the Southern Hemisphere. Among the most developed nations in the Southern Hemisphere are Australia, with a nominal GDP per capita of US$51,850 and a Human Development Index of 0.939, the second highest in the world as of 2016. New Zealand is well developed, with a nominal GDP per capita of US$38,385 and a Human Development Index of 0.915, putting it at #13 in the world in 2016. The least developed nations in the Southern Hemisphere cluster in Africa and Oceania, with Burundi and Mozambique at the lowest ends of the Human Development Index, at 0.404 and 0.418 respectively. The nominal GDP per capitas of these two countries don't go above US$550 per capita, a tiny fraction of the incomes enjoyed by Australians and New Zealanders.
The most widespread religions in the Southern Hemisphere are Christianity in South America, southern Africa and Australia/New Zealand, followed by Islam in most of the islands of Indonesia and in parts of southeastern Africa, Hinduism, concentrated on the island of Bali and neighboring islands. The oldest continuously inhabited city in the Southern Hemisphere is Bogor, in western Java, founded in 669 CE. Ancient texts from the Hindu kingdoms prevalent in the area definitively record 669 CE as the year when Bogor was founded. However, there is some evidence that Zanzibar, an ancient port with around 200,000 inhabitants on
A port is a maritime commercial facility which may comprise one or more wharves where ships may dock to load and discharge passengers and cargo. Although situated on a sea coast or estuary, some ports, such as Hamburg and Duluth, are many miles inland, with access from the sea via river or canal. Today, by far the greatest growth in port development is in Asia, the continent with some of the world's largest and busiest ports, such as Singapore and the Chinese ports of Shanghai and Ningbo-Zhoushan. Whenever ancient civilisations engaged in maritime trade, they tended to develop sea ports. One of the world's oldest known artificial harbors is at Wadi al-Jarf on the Red Sea. Along with the finding of harbor structures, ancient anchors have been found. Other ancient ports include Guangzhou during Qin Dynasty China and Canopus, the principal Egyptian port for Greek trade before the foundation of Alexandria. In ancient Greece, Athens' port of Piraeus was the base for the Athenian fleet which played a crucial role in the Battle of Salamis against the Persians in 480 BCE.
In ancient India from 3700 BCE, Lothal was a prominent city of the Indus valley civilisation, located in the Bhāl region of the modern state of Gujarāt. Ostia Antica was the port of ancient Rome with Portus established by Claudius and enlarged by Trajan to supplement the nearby port of Ostia. In Japan, during the Edo period, the island of Dejima was the only port open for trade with Europe and received only a single Dutch ship per year, whereas Osaka was the largest domestic port and the main trade hub for rice. Nowadays, many of these ancient sites no longer function as modern ports. In more recent times, ports sometimes fall out of use. Rye, East Sussex, was an important English port in the Middle Ages, but the coastline changed and it is now 2 miles from the sea, while the ports of Ravenspurn and Dunwich have been lost to coastal erosion. Whereas early ports tended to be just simple harbours, modern ports tend to be multimodal distribution hubs, with transport links using sea, canal, road and air routes.
Successful ports are located to optimize access to an active hinterland, such as the London Gateway. Ideally, a port will grant easy navigation to ships, will give shelter from wind and waves. Ports are on estuaries, where the water may be shallow and may need regular dredging. Deep water ports such as Milford Haven are less common, but can handle larger ships with a greater draft, such as super tankers, Post-Panamax vessels and large container ships. Other businesses such as regional distribution centres and freight-forwarders and other processing facilities find it advantageous to be located within a port or nearby. Modern ports will have specialised cargo-handling equipment, such as gantry cranes, reach stackers and forklift trucks. Ports have specialised functions: some tend to cater for passenger ferries and cruise ships; some third world countries and small islands such as Ascension and St Helena still have limited port facilities, so that ships must anchor off while their cargo and passengers are taken ashore by barge or launch.
In modern times, ports decline, depending on current economic trends. In the UK, both the ports of Liverpool and Southampton were once significant in the transatlantic passenger liner business. Once airliner traffic decimated that trade, both ports diversified to container cargo and cruise ships. Up until the 1950s the Port of London was a major international port on the River Thames, but changes in shipping and the use of containers and larger ships, have led to its decline. Thamesport, a small semi-automated container port thrived for some years, but has been hit hard by competition from the emergent London Gateway port and logistics hub. In mainland Europe, it is normal for ports to be publicly owned, so that, for instance, the ports of Rotterdam and Amsterdam are owned by the state and by the cities themselves. By contrast, in the UK all ports are in private hands, such as Peel Ports who own the Port of Liverpool, John Lennon Airport and the Manchester Ship Canal. Though modern ships tend to have bow-thrusters and stern-thrusters, many port authorities still require vessels to use pilots and tugboats for manoeuvering large ships in tight quarters.
For instance, ships approaching the Belgian port of Antwerp, an inland port on the River Scheldt, are obliged to use Dutch pilots when navigating on that part of the estuary that belongs to the Netherlands. Ports with international traffic have customs facilities; the terms "port" and "seaport" are used for different types of port facilities that handle ocean-going vessels, river port is used for river traffic, such as barges and other shallow-draft vessels. A dry port is an inland intermodal terminal directly connected by road or rail to a seaport and operating as a centre for the transshipment of sea cargo to inland destinations. A fishing port is a harbor for landing and distributing fish, it may be a recreational facility, but it is commercial. A fishing port is the only port that depends on an ocean product, depletion of fish may cause a fishing port to be uneconomical. An inland port is a port on a navigable lake, river, or canal with access to a sea or ocean, which therefore allows a ship to sail from the ocean inland to the port to load or unload its cargo.
An example of this is the St. Lawrence Seaway which allows ships to travel from the Atlantic Ocean several thousand kilometers inland to Great Lakes ports like Toronto, Duluth-Superior, C
Battle of Peleliu
The Battle of Peleliu, codenamed Operation Stalemate II by the United States military, was fought between the U. S. and Japan during the Mariana and Palau Campaign of World War II, from September to November 1944, on the island of Peleliu. U. S. Marines of the 1st Marine Division, soldiers of the U. S. Army's 81st Infantry Division, fought to capture an airstrip on the small coral island; this battle was part of a larger offensive campaign known as Operation Forager, which ran from June to November 1944, in the Pacific Theater. Major General William Rupertus, Commander of the 1st Marine Division, predicted the island would be secured within four days. However, after repeated Imperial Army defeats in previous island campaigns, Japan had developed new island-defense tactics and well-crafted fortifications that allowed stiff resistance, extending the battle through more than two months. In the United States, this was a controversial battle because of the island's questionable strategic value and the high casualty rate, which exceeded that of all other amphibious operations during the Pacific War.
The National Museum of the Marine Corps called it "the bitterest battle of the war for the Marines". By 1944, American victories in the Southwest and Central Pacific had brought the war closer to Japan, with American bombers able to strike at the Japanese main islands from air bases secured during the Mariana Islands campaign. There was disagreement among the U. S. Joint Chiefs over two proposed strategies to defeat the Japanese Empire; the strategy proposed by General Douglas MacArthur called for the recapture of the Philippines, followed by the capture of Okinawa an attack on the Japanese mainland. Admiral Chester Nimitz favored a more direct strategy of bypassing the Philippines, but seizing Okinawa and Taiwan as staging areas to an attack on the Japanese mainland, followed by the future invasion of Japan's southernmost islands. Both strategies for different reasons; the 1st Marine Division had been chosen to make the assault. President Franklin D. Roosevelt traveled to Pearl Harbor to meet both commanders and hear their arguments.
MacArthur's strategy was chosen. However, before MacArthur could retake the Philippines, the Palau Islands Peleliu and Angaur, were to be neutralized and an airfield built to protect MacArthur's right flank. By 1944, Peleliu Island was occupied by about 11,000 Japanese of the 14th Infantry Division with Korean and Okinawan laborers. Colonel Kunio Nakagawa, commander of the division's 2nd Regiment, led the preparations for the island's defense. After their losses in the Solomons, Gilberts and Marianas, the Imperial Army assembled a research team to develop new island-defense tactics, they chose to abandon the old strategy of stopping the enemy at the beach. The new tactics would only disrupt the landings at the water's edge and depend on an in-depth defense farther inland. Colonel Nakagawa used the rough terrain to his advantage, by constructing a system of fortified bunkers and underground positions all interlocked into a "honeycomb" system; the old "banzai charge" attack was discontinued as being both wasteful of men and ineffective.
These changes would force the Americans into a war of attrition requiring more resources. Nakagawa's defenses were based at Peleliu's highest point, Umurbrogol Mountain, a collection of hills and steep ridges located at the center of Peleliu overlooking a large portion of the island, including the crucial airfield; the Umurbrogol contained some 500 limestone caves, interconnected by tunnels. Many of these were former mine shafts. Engineers added sliding armored steel doors with multiple openings to serve both artillery and machine guns. Cave entrances were built slanted as a defense against flamethrower attacks; the caves and bunkers were connected to a vast system throughout central Peleliu, which allowed the Japanese to evacuate or reoccupy positions as needed, to take advantage of shrinking interior lines. The Japanese were well armed with 81 mm and 150 mm mortars and 20 mm anti-aircraft cannons, backed by a light tank unit and an anti-aircraft detachment; the Japanese used the beach terrain to their advantage.
The northern end of the landing beaches faced a 30-foot coral promontory that overlooked the beaches from a small peninsula, a spot known to the Marines who assaulted it as "The Point". Holes were blasted into the ridge to accommodate a 47 mm gun, six 20 mm cannons; the positions were sealed shut, leaving just a small firing slit to assault the beaches. Similar positions were crafted along the 2-mile stretch of landing beaches; the beaches were filled with thousands of obstacles for the landing craft, principally mines and a large number of heavy artillery shells buried with the fuses exposed to explode when they were run over. A battalion was placed along the beach to defend against the landing, but they were meant to delay the inevitable American advance inland. Unlike the Japanese, who drastically altered their tactics for the upcoming battle, the American invasion plan was unchanged from that of previous amphibious landings after suffering 3,000 casualties and two months of delaying tactics against the entrenched Japanese defenders at the Battle of Biak.
On Peleliu, American planners chose to land on the southwest beaches because of their proximity to the airfield on South Peleliu. The 1st Marine Regiment, commanded by Colonel Lewis B. Puller, was to land on the northern end of the beaches; the 5th Marine Regiment, under Colonel Harold D. Harris, would land in the center, the 7th Marine Regiment, under Col. Herman H. Hannek
Amphibious assault ship
An amphibious assault ship is a type of amphibious warfare ship employed to land and support ground forces on enemy territory by an amphibious assault. The design evolved from aircraft carriers converted for use as helicopter carriers. Modern ships support amphibious landing craft, with most designs including a well deck. Coming full circle, some amphibious assault ships support V/STOL fixed-wing aircraft, now having a secondary role as aircraft carriers; the role of the amphibious assault ship is fundamentally different from that of a standard aircraft carrier: its aviation facilities have the primary role of hosting helicopters to support forces ashore rather than to support strike aircraft. However, some are capable of serving in the sea-control role, embarking aircraft like Harrier fighters for combat air patrol and helicopters for anti-submarine warfare or operating as a safe base for large numbers of STOVL fighters conducting air support for an expeditionary unit ashore. Most of these ships can carry or support landing craft, such as air-cushioned landing craft or LCUs.
The largest fleet of these types is operated by the United States Navy, including the Wasp class dating back to 1989 and the similar America-class ships that debuted in 2014. Amphibious assault ships are operated by the French Navy, the Italian Navy, the Republic of Korea Navy, the Royal Australian Navy, the Brazilian Navy, the Spanish Navy; the term amphibious assault ship is used interchangeably with other ship classifications. It applies to all large-deck amphibious ships such as the Landing Platform Helicopter, Landing Helicopter Assault, Landing Helicopter Dock. In the Pacific theatre of World War II, escort carriers would escort the landing ships and troop carriers during the island-hopping campaign. In this role, they would provide air cover for the troopships as well as fly the first wave of attacks on the beach fortifications in amphibious landing operations. On occasion, they would escort the large carriers, serving as emergency airstrips and providing fighter cover for their larger sisters while these were busy readying or refuelling their own planes.
In addition, they would transport aircraft and spare parts from the US to the remote island airstrips. Despite all the progress, seen during World War II, there were still fundamental limitations in the types of coastline that were suitable for assault. Beaches had to be free of obstacles, have the right tidal conditions and the correct slope. However, the development of the helicopter fundamentally changed the equation; the first use of helicopters in an amphibious assault came during the invasion of Egypt during the Suez War in 1956. In this engagement, two British light fleet carriers and Theseus, were converted to perform a battalion-size airborne assault with helicopters; the techniques were developed further by American forces during the Vietnam War and refined during training exercises. The modern amphibious assault can take place at any point of the coast, making defending against them difficult. Most early amphibious assault ships were converted from small aircraft carriers; as well as the two Colossus-class light aircraft carriers converted for use in the Suez War, the Royal Navy converted the Centaur-class carriers Albion and Bulwark into "commando carriers" during the 1950s.
Their sister ship HMS Hermes was converted to a commando carrier in the early 1970s, but was restored to aircraft carrier operations before the end of the 1970s. The United States Navy used three Essex-class aircraft carriers. Amphibious assault craft were constructed for the role; the United States Navy constructed the Tarawa class of five Landing Helicopter Assault ships, which began to enter service from the late 1970s, the Wasp class of eight Landing Helicopter Dock ships, the first of, commissioned in 1989. The United States Navy is designing a new class of assault ships: the first America-class ship entered service in October 2014; the first British ship to be constructed for the amphibious assault role was HMS Ocean, commissioned into the Royal Navy in 1998. Other nations have built amphibious assault ships. Most modern amphibious assault ships have a well deck, allowing them to launch landing craft in rougher seas than a ship that has to use cranes or a stern ramp; the US Navy hull classification symbols differ among these vessels, depending on, among other things, their facilities for aircraft: a modern Landing Ship Dock has a helicopter deck, a Landing Platform Dock has a hangar, a Landing Helicopter Dock or Landing Helicopter Assault has a full-length flight deck with internal aviation facilities for both rotary and fixed wing craft below deck.
Due to their aircraft carrier heritage, all amphibious assault ships resemble aircraft carriers in design. The flight deck is used to operate attack and utility helicopters for landing troops and supplies and on some ship types launch and recover Harrier Jump Jets to provide air support to landing operations. STOL aircraft such as the OV-10 were sometimes deployed on and were able to perform short take-offs and landings on large-deck amphibiou
Sikorsky CH-53 Sea Stallion
The CH-53 Sea Stallion is the most common name for the Sikorsky S-65 family of heavy-lift transport helicopters. Developed for use by the United States Marine Corps, it is in service with Germany, Iran and Mexico; the United States Air Force operated the HH-53 "Super Jolly Green Giant" during the late– and post–Vietnam-War era, updating most of them as the MH-53 Pave Low. The dimensionally-similar CH-53E Super Stallion is a heavier-lifting, improved version designated S-80E by Sikorsky, its third engine makes it more powerful than the Sea Stallion, which it has replaced in the heavy-lift mission. In 1960, the United States Marine Corps began to seek a replacement for their HR2S piston-powered helicopters. On 27 January 1961, the Marine Corps began working with the US Army and Air Force on the "Tri-Service VTOL transport", which would emerge as the Vought-Hiller-Ryan XC-142A tiltwing; the design became more elaborate and the program stretched out, causing the Marines to drop out when they decided they would not receive a working machine in a satisfactory timeframe.
In the end, the XC-142A, although a innovative and capable machine, never entered production. In March 1962, the United States Navy's Bureau of Naval Weapons, acting on behalf of the Marines, issued a request for a "Heavy Helicopter Experimental / HH"; the specifications dictated a load capability of 8,000 pounds with an operational radius of 100 nautical miles at a speed of 150 knots. The HH was to be used in the assault transport, aircraft recovery, personnel transport, medical evacuation roles. In the assault transport role, it was to be used to haul heavy equipment instead of troops. In response, Boeing Vertol offered a modified version of the CH-47 Chinook. Kaman's proposal died when the British government dropped its backing of the Rotodyne program. Competition between Boeing Vertol and Sikorsky was intense, with the Chinook having an advantage because it was being acquired by the United States Army. Sikorsky threw everything into the contest and was awarded the contract in July 1962; the Marines wanted to buy four prototypes but ran into funding problems.
Sikorsky, determined to keep the deal, cut their estimate for development costs and said that the program could be done with two prototypes. The military bought the proposal, in September 1962 Sikorsky was awarded a contract for a little under US$10 million for two "YCH-53A" prototypes, as well as a mockup and a ground-test airframe; the development program did not go smoothly, due to a shortage of engineering resources plus various failures of subcontractors and the government, but these problems were overcome. There was the problem that U. S. Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara was pushing to maintain "commonality" between the armed services by using the Chinook, but the Marines managed to convince McNamara's staff that the Chinook could not meet their requirements without numerous expensive changes. All these obstacles overcome, the first YCH-53A performed its initial flight at the Sikorsky plant in Stratford, Connecticut, on 14 October 1964, about four months behind schedule; the Marines had placed an initial production contract for 16 helicopters in September.
Flight trials went more smoothly than expected. It received the military designation and name "CH-53A Sea Stallion". Delivery of production CH-53s began in 1966; the CH-53A arrived in Vietnam in January 1967 and proved useful recovering more downed aircraft than the CH-54. A total of 141 CH-53As were built, including the two prototypes; the U. S. Navy acquired 15 CH-53As from the USMC in 1971 for airborne mine countermeasures activities; the helicopters had more powerful T64-GE-413 turboshafts installed and received the designation "RH-53A". The United States Air Force ordered the HH-53B in September 1966 and first flew on 15 March 1967, it added drop fuel tanks and a rescue hoist. The Air Force used the HH-53B for combat rescue. HH-53C was an improved CSAR variant with a smaller 450 US gallons fuel tank in exchange for more armor and better communication systems; the CH-53C was similar. It was used by the USAF for more general transport work. Heavy lifting in tropical climates demanded more power, so the Marines decided to acquire an improved variant, the "CH-53D", with uprated engines the T64-GE-412 later the T64-GE-413.
The CH-53D included an uprated transmission to go with the more powerful engines, a revised interior to permit a load of 55 troops. The initial flight of the CH-53D was on 27 January 1969; the CH-53D served alongside the CH-53A through the rest of the Vietnam War. A VIP transport version designated, "VH-53D" with plush accommodations was used by the Marines for the US presidential flights; the US Navy acquired CH-53D based helicopters for mine sweeping. These were designated "RH-53D" and included mine sweeping gear such as a pair of 0.50 BMG Browning machine guns for detonating mines. The Navy received 30 RH-53Ds beginning in 1973. After the RH-53Ds were in service, the RH-53As were handed back to the Marines and restored to CH-53A configuration. During the 1980s, Israeli Air Force's CH-53 Yas'ur fleet was upgraded and improved by Israel Aircraft Industries, along with military high-tech firm Elbit Systems; the project – which ended on
Bell UH-1Y Venom
The Bell UH-1Y Venom is a twin-engine, medium-sized utility helicopter, built by Bell Helicopter under the H-1 upgrade program of the United States Marine Corps. One of the latest members of the numerous Huey family, the UH-1Y is called "Yankee", based on the NATO phonetic alphabet pronunciation of its variant letter; the UH-1Y was to have been remanufactured from UH-1Ns, but in 2005, it was approved for the aircraft to be built as new. After entering service in 2008, the UH-1Y replaced the USMC's aging fleet of UH-1N Twin Huey light utility helicopters, first introduced in the early 1970s, it is in full-rate production, with deliveries to the Marines to be completed in late 2018. In 1996, the United States Marine Corps launched the H-1 upgrade program by signing a contract with Bell Helicopter for upgrading 100 UH-1Ns into UH-1Ys and upgrading 180 AH-1Ws into AH-1Zs; the H-1 program created modernized attack and utility helicopters with considerable design commonality to reduce operating costs.
The UH-1Y and AH-1Z share a common tailboom, rotor system, avionics architecture, software and displays for over 84% identical components. Over the years new avionics and radios, in addition to modern door guns and safety upgrades, have increased the UH-1N's empty weight. With a maximum speed of 100 knots and an inability to lift much more than its own crew and ammunition, the UH-1N, while useful, is limited in its utility; the Y-model upgrades pilot avionics to a glass cockpit, adds further safety modifications and provides the UH-1 with a modern FLIR system. However, the biggest improvement is an increase in engine power. By replacing the engines and the two-bladed rotor system with four composite blades, the Y-model will return the Huey to the utility role for which it was designed; the UH-1Y was to have been remanufactured from UH-1N airframes, but in April 2005 approval was granted to build them as new helicopters. The Y-model updates an airframe, central to Marine Corps aviation in Iraq.
The Huey has many mission requirements including command and control, reconnaissance, troop transport, medical evacuation and close air support. Detachments of two to four Hueys have been deployed with detachments of four to eight Cobras; the forward-mounted weaponry of the Cobra combined with the door guns of the Huey provides a 240° field of fire. Bell delivered two UH-1Ys to the U. S. Marine Corps in February 2008 and full-rate production was begun in September 2009; the Marine Corps plans to buy 160 Y-models to replace their inventory of N-models. The UH-1Y variant modernizes the UH-1 design, its most noticeable upgrade over previous variants is a four-blade, all-composite rotor system designed to withstand up to 23 mm rounds. A 21-inch fuselage extension just forward of the main door has been added for more capacity; the UH-1Y features upgraded engines and transmissions, a digital cockpit with flat panel multifunctional displays, an 84% parts commonality with the AH-1Z. Compared to the UH-1N, the Y-model has an increased payload 50% greater range, a reduction in vibration, higher cruise speed.
The UH-1Y and AH-1Z completed their developmental testing in early 2006. During the first quarter of 2006 the UH-1Ys were transferred to the Operational Test Unit at NAS Patuxent River, where they began operational evaluation testing. In February 2008, the UH-1Y and AH-1Z began the final portion of OPEVAL testing. On 8 August 2008, the Marine Corps certified the UH-1Y as operationally capable and it was deployed for the first time in January 2009 as part of the aviation combat element of the 13th Marine Expeditionary Unit; the UH-1N Twin Huey was retired by the Marines in August 2014, making the UH-1Y the Marine Corps' standard utility helicopter. On 11 October 2017, the Defense Security Cooperation Agency notified the United States Congress of the potential sale of 12 UH-1Ys and related systems and support to the Czech Republic for a cost of US$575m. United StatesUnited States Marine CorpsHMLA-167 HMLA-169 HMLA-267 HMLA-269 HMLA-367 HMLA-369 HMLA-469 HMLA-773 HMLAT-303 Data from Bell UH-1Y guide, International Directory of Civil AircraftGeneral characteristics Crew: one or two pilots, plus crew chief, other crew members as mission requires Capacity: 6,660 lb including up to ten crashworthy passenger seats, six litters or equivalent cargo Length: 58 ft 4 in Rotor diameter: 48 ft 10 in Height: 14 ft 7 in Disc area: 1,808 ft² Empty weight: 11,840 lb Useful load: 6,660 lb Max.
Takeoff weight: 18,500 lb Powerplant: 2 × General Electric T700-GE-401C turboshaft, 1,828 shp for 2.5 min.
United States Navy
The United States Navy is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States. It is the largest and most capable navy in the world and it has been estimated that in terms of tonnage of its active battle fleet alone, it is larger than the next 13 navies combined, which includes 11 U. S. allies or partner nations. With the highest combined battle fleet tonnage and the world's largest aircraft carrier fleet, with eleven in service, two new carriers under construction. With 319,421 personnel on active duty and 99,616 in the Ready Reserve, the Navy is the third largest of the service branches, it has 282 deployable combat vessels and more than 3,700 operational aircraft as of March 2018, making it the second-largest air force in the world, after the United States Air Force. The U. S. Navy traces its origins to the Continental Navy, established during the American Revolutionary War and was disbanded as a separate entity shortly thereafter.
The U. S. Navy played a major role in the American Civil War by blockading the Confederacy and seizing control of its rivers, it played the central role in the World War II defeat of Imperial Japan. The US Navy emerged from World War II as the most powerful navy in the world; the 21st century U. S. Navy maintains a sizable global presence, deploying in strength in such areas as the Western Pacific, the Mediterranean, the Indian Ocean, it is a blue-water navy with the ability to project force onto the littoral regions of the world, engage in forward deployments during peacetime and respond to regional crises, making it a frequent actor in U. S. foreign and military policy. The Navy is administratively managed by the Department of the Navy, headed by the civilian Secretary of the Navy; the Department of the Navy is itself a division of the Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense. The Chief of Naval Operations is the most senior naval officer serving in the Department of the Navy.
The mission of the Navy is to maintain and equip combat-ready Naval forces capable of winning wars, deterring aggression and maintaining freedom of the seas. The U. S. Navy is a seaborne branch of the military of the United States; the Navy's three primary areas of responsibility: The preparation of naval forces necessary for the effective prosecution of war. The maintenance of naval aviation, including land-based naval aviation, air transport essential for naval operations, all air weapons and air techniques involved in the operations and activities of the Navy; the development of aircraft, tactics, technique and equipment of naval combat and service elements. U. S. Navy training manuals state that the mission of the U. S. Armed Forces is "to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained combat operations in support of the national interest." As part of that establishment, the U. S. Navy's functions comprise sea control, power projection and nuclear deterrence, in addition to "sealift" duties, it follows as certain as that night succeeds the day, that without a decisive naval force we can do nothing definitive, with it, everything honorable and glorious.
Naval power... is the natural defense of the United States The Navy was rooted in the colonial seafaring tradition, which produced a large community of sailors and shipbuilders. In the early stages of the American Revolutionary War, Massachusetts had its own Massachusetts Naval Militia; the rationale for establishing a national navy was debated in the Second Continental Congress. Supporters argued that a navy would protect shipping, defend the coast, make it easier to seek out support from foreign countries. Detractors countered that challenging the British Royal Navy the world's preeminent naval power, was a foolish undertaking. Commander in Chief George Washington resolved the debate when he commissioned the ocean-going schooner USS Hannah to interdict British merchant ships and reported the captures to the Congress. On 13 October 1775, the Continental Congress authorized the purchase of two vessels to be armed for a cruise against British merchant ships. S. Navy; the Continental Navy achieved mixed results.
In August 1785, after the Revolutionary War had drawn to a close, Congress had sold Alliance, the last ship remaining in the Continental Navy due to a lack of funds to maintain the ship or support a navy. In 1972, the Chief of Naval Operations, Admiral Elmo Zumwalt, authorized the Navy to celebrate its birthday on 13 October to honor the establishment of the Continental Navy in 1775; the United States was without a navy for nearly a decade, a state of affairs that exposed U. S. maritime merchant ships to a series of attacks by the Barbary pirates. The sole armed maritime presence between 1790 and the launching of the U. S. Navy's first warships in 1797 was the U. S. Revenue-Marine, the primary predecessor of the U. S. Coast Guard. Although the USRCS conducted operations against the pirates, their depredations far outstripped its abilities and Congress passed the Naval Act of 1794 that established a permanent standing navy on 27 March 1794; the Naval Act ordered the construction and manning of six frigates and, by October 1797, the first three were brought into service: USS United States, USS Constellation, USS Constitution.
Due to his strong posture on having a strong standing Navy during this period, John Adams is "often called the father of the American Navy". In 1798–99 the Navy was involved in an undeclared Quasi-War with France. From 18