Ocho Rios is a town in the parish of Saint Ann on the north coast of Jamaica. Just outside the city and residents can visit Columbus Park, where Columbus first came on land, see maritime artifacts and Spanish colonial buildings, it now caters to tourists. It is a port of call for cruise ships as well as for cargo ships loading sugar, in the past, bauxite. Scuba diving and other water sports are offered in the town's vicinity; the name "Ocho Rios" is a misnomer, as there are not eight rivers in the area. It could be a British corruption of the original Spanish name "Las Chorreras", a name given to the village because of the nearby Dunn's River Falls; the North Coast Highway from the international airport at Montego Bay to Ocho Rios has been improved since 2007 and the journey is now an hour and forty five minutes drive. On 26 August 2011, the Jamaican government announced a $21 million revitalization plan for the resort area. Since March 2016, with the opening of the North-South portion of Highway 2000, driving and commute times into the nation's capital, has gone from over 2 hours to a little under an hour.
The opening of this highway has reduced traffic on the old route between Jamaica's two cities immensely. The town has restaurants, in Margaritaville and Dolphin Cove nightclubs where tourists swim and interact with dolphins. Another major point of interest is Fern Gully. Fern Gully is the result of a 1907 earthquake. Fern Gully stretches about 3 miles of great rocky gorge where travellers can see over 540 variety of ferns. In 1907, the British government paved over the destroyed river bed to create what is known as The Fern Gully Highway; the town was a shooting location during the filming Dr. No, the first James Bond film, released in 1962; the Sans Souci hotel was used as the exterior of the Blue Mountain cottage, the home of Bond villain Miss Taro. A decade the town was used again in a Bond film, this time 1973's Live and Let Die. James Cameron's first film, 1982's Piranha II: The Spawning, was filmed at the Mallards Beach-Hyatt Hotel in Ocho Rios, which doubled for the film's Club Elysium. Beaches Resorts – Ocho Rios Couples Resorts – Tower Isle and Sans Souci Locations Rooms Resorts RIU Hotels & Resorts Jewel Dunn's River Resort Moon Palace Jamaica Ocho Rios travel guide from Wikivoyage Jamaica Tourist Board Ocho Rios page
3"/50 caliber gun
The 3″/50 caliber gun in United States naval gun terminology indicates the gun fired a projectile 3 inches in diameter, the barrel was 50 calibers long. Different guns of this caliber were used by the U. S. Navy and U. S. Coast Guard from 1890 through the 1990s on a variety of combatant and transport ship classes; the gun is still in use with the Spanish Navy on Serviola-class patrol boats. The US Navy's first 3″/50 caliber gun was an early model with a projectile velocity of 2,100 feet per second. Low-angle mountings for this gun had a range of 7000 yards at the maximum elevation of 15 degrees; the gun entered service around 1900 with the Bainbridge-class destroyers, was fitted to Connecticut-class battleships. By World War II these guns were found only on a few Coast Guard cutters and Defensively Equipped Merchant Ships. Low-angle 3″/50 caliber guns were mounted on ships built from the early 1900s through the early 1920s and were carried by submarines and merchant ships during the Second World War.
These guns fired the same 2,700 feet per second ammunition used by the following dual-purpose Marks, but with range limited by the maximum elevation of the mounting. These were built-up guns with a tube, partial-length jacket and vertical sliding breech block. Dual-purpose 3″/50 caliber guns first entered service in 1915 as a refit to USS Texas, were subsequently mounted on many types of ships as the need for anti-aircraft protection was recognized. During World War II, they were the primary gun armament on destroyer escorts, patrol frigates, submarine chasers, some fleet submarines, other auxiliary vessels, were used as a secondary dual-purpose battery on some other types of ships, including some older battleships, they replaced the original low-angle 4"/50 caliber guns on "flush-deck" Wickes and Clemson-class destroyers to provide better anti-aircraft protection. The gun was used on specialist destroyer conversions; these dual-purpose guns were "quick-firing", meaning that they used fixed ammunition, with powder case and projectile permanently attached, handled as a single unit weighing 34 pounds.
The shells alone weighed about 13 pounds including an explosive bursting charge of 0.81 pounds for anti-aircraft rounds or 1.27 pounds for High Capacity rounds, the remainder of the weight being the steel casing. Maximum range was 14,600 yards at 45 degrees elevation and ceiling was 29,800 feet at 85 degrees elevation. Useful life expectancy was 4300 effective full charges per barrel; the 3"/50 caliber gun Marks 17 and 18 was first used as a submarine deck gun on R-class submarines launched in 1918-1919. At the time it was an improvement on the earlier 3"/23 caliber gun. After using larger guns on many other submarines, the 3"/50 caliber gun Mark 21 was specified as the standard deck gun on the Porpoise- through Gato-class submarines launched in 1935-1942; the small gun was chosen to remove the temptation to engage enemy escort vessels on the surface. The gun was mounted aft of the conning tower to reduce submerged drag, but early in World War II it was shifted to a forward position at the commanding officer's option.
Wartime experience showed. This need was met by transferring 4"/50 caliber guns from S-class submarines as they were shifted from combat to training roles beginning in late 1942; the 5"/25 caliber gun removed from battleships sunk or damaged in the attack on Pearl Harbor and manufactured in a submarine version, became standard. When multiple hits from Oerlikon 20 mm cannon and Bofors 40 mm guns were unable to prevent kamikaze strikes during the final year of the second world war. Post-war experimentation with an extended range variant was abandoned as shipboard surface-to-air missiles were developed; the United States Navy considered contemporary 5"/38 caliber guns and 5″/54 caliber guns more effective against surface targets. The 3″/50 caliber gun was a semiautomatic anti-aircraft weapon with a power driven automatic loader; these monobloc 3 ″ guns were fitted to both twin mountings. The single was to be exchanged for a twin 40 mm antiaircraft gun mount and the twin for a quadruple 40 mm mount.
This was performed on Essex-class aircraft carriers, Allen M. Sumner and Gearing-class destroyers and other ships circa 1946-50. Although intended as a one-for-one replacement for the 40 mm mounts, the final version of the new 3-inch mounts was heavier than expected, on most ships the mounts could be replaced only on a two-for-three basis; the mounts were of open-base-ring type. The right and left gun assemblies were identical in the twin mounts; the mounts used a common power drive that could train at a rate of 30 degree/second and elevate from 15 degrees to 85 degrees at a rate of 24 degree/second. The cannon was fed automatically from an on-mount magazine, replenished during action by two loaders on each side of the cannon. With proximity fuze and fire-control radar, a twin 3″/50 mount firing 50 rounds per minute per
M249 light machine gun
The M249 light machine gun designated the M249 Squad Automatic Weapon and formally written as Light Machine Gun, 5.56 mm, M249, is the American adaptation of the Belgian FN Minimi, a light machine gun manufactured by the Belgian company FN Herstal. The M249 is manufactured in the United States by the local subsidiary FN Manufacturing LLC in Columbia, South Carolina and is used in the U. S. Armed Forces; the weapon was introduced in 1984 after being judged the most effective of a number of candidate weapons to address the lack of automatic firepower in small units. The M249 provides infantry squads with the high rate of fire of a machine gun combined with accuracy and portability approaching that of a rifle; the M249 is gas operated and air-cooled. It has a quick-change barrel, allowing the gunner to replace an overheated or jammed barrel. A folding bipod is attached near the front of the gun, it can be fed from both linked ammunition and STANAG magazines, like those used in the M16 and M4. This allows the SAW gunner to use rifle magazines as an emergency source of ammunition in the event that they run out of linked rounds.
M249s have seen action in every major conflict involving the United States since the U. S. invasion of Panama in 1989. Due to the weight and age of the weapon, the United States Marine Corps is fielding the M27 Infantry Automatic Rifle with plans to replace the M249 in Marine Corps service; the M249 is referred to as a "Squad Assault Weapon". M249 has a powerful high firerate power that can blast humans in seconds, this weapon is called the slaughter which may be the reason why multiple arrests have this reason, M249 or as the slaughter can be used to commit suicide. In 1965, the U. S. Army and U. S. Marine Corps' primary machine guns were the M2 Browning and M60; the M2 was a large-caliber heavy machine gun mounted on vehicles or in fixed emplacements. The M60 was a more mobile general-purpose machine gun intended to be carried with the troops to provide heavy automatic fire. Both were heavy weapons and required a crew of at least two to operate efficiently; the Browning automatic rifle, the army's main individual machine gun since its introduction in World War I, was phased out in 1957 with the introduction of the M14 rifle, which had a automatic mode.
"Designated riflemen" in every squad were ordered to use their weapons on the automatic setting, while other troops were required to use their rifle's semi-automatic mode on most occasions to increase accuracy and conserve ammunition. Because the M14 and M16 rifles had not been designed with sustained automatic fire in mind, they overheated or jammed; the 20-round and 30-round magazines of these weapons limited their sustained automatic effectiveness when compared to belt-fed weapons. The Army decided that an individual machine gun, lighter than the M60, but with more firepower than the M16, would be advantageous. Through the 1960s, the introduction of a machine gun into the infantry squad was examined in various studies. While there was a brief flirtation with the concept of a flechette- or dart-firing Universal Machine Gun during one study, most light machine gun experiments concentrated on the Stoner 63 light machine gun, a modular weapon that could be modified for different purposes; the Stoner 63 LMG saw combat for a brief period in Vietnam with the Marine Corps, on a wider scale with the U.
S. Navy SEALs. In 1968, the Army Small Arms Program developed plans for a new 5.56 mm caliber LMG, though no funds were allocated. Studies of improved 5.56 mm ammunition, with better performance characteristics, began. The earliest reference to studies of other caliber cartridges for the LMG did not appear until 1969. In July 1970, the U. S. Army approved development of an LMG, with no specified caliber. At this time, the nomenclature "Squad Automatic Weapon" was introduced. Actual design of alternative cartridges for the LMG did not begin until July 1971. A month Frankford Arsenal decided on two cartridge designs for the new LMG: a 6 mm cartridge and a new 5.56 mm cartridge with a much larger case. Neither design was finalized by March 1972, when the Army published the specifications document for the planned SAW; the 6 mm cartridge design was approved in May that year. Prior to July 1972, SAW development contracts were awarded to Maremont, Philco Ford, the Rodman Laboratory at Rock Island Arsenal.
These companies produced designs with Army designations XM233, XM234 and XM235 respectively—X denoting "experimental". Designs were required to have a weight of less than 9.07 kg including 200 rounds of ammunition, a range of at least 800 meters. When the time came for developmental and operational testing of the SAW candidates, three 5.56 mm candidate weapons were included with the 6 mm candidates: the M16 HBAR, a heavy-barrel variant of the M16 designed for prolonged firing. The initial round of tests ended in December 1974. In February 1976, the Minimi and Rodman XM235 SAW were selected for further development. At this time, opinions of the 6 mm cartridge were beginning to sour due to the logistical implications of providing yet another ammunition type to the infantry. In June, it was requested that the SAW specifications document be revised to emphasize standard 5.56 mm ammunition. In October, the requested revisions were approved, bids were solicited for the conversion of the Rodman XM235 to 5.56 mm.
Production of the converted XM235 was awarded to Ford Aerospace, its designation was changed to XM248. A new
An aircraft carrier is a warship that serves as a seagoing airbase, equipped with a full-length flight deck and facilities for carrying, arming and recovering aircraft. It is the capital ship of a fleet, as it allows a naval force to project air power worldwide without depending on local bases for staging aircraft operations. Carriers have evolved since their inception in the early twentieth century from wooden vessels used to deploy balloons to nuclear-powered warships that carry numerous fighters, strike aircraft and other types of aircraft. While heavier aircraft such as fixed-wing gunships and bombers have been launched from aircraft carriers, it is not possible to land them. By its diplomatic and tactical power, its mobility, its autonomy and the variety of its means, the aircraft carrier is the centerpiece of modern combat fleets. Tactically or strategically, it replaced the battleship in the role of flagship of a fleet. One of its great advantages is that, by sailing in international waters, it does not interfere with any territorial sovereignty and thus obviates the need for overflight authorizations from third party countries, reduce the times and transit distances of aircraft and therefore increase the time of availability on the combat zone.
There is no single definition of an "aircraft carrier", modern navies use several variants of the type. These variants are sometimes categorized as sub-types of aircraft carriers, sometimes as distinct types of naval aviation-capable ships. Aircraft carriers may be classified according to the type of aircraft they carry and their operational assignments. Admiral Sir Mark Stanhope, RN, former First Sea Lord of the Royal Navy, has said, "To put it countries that aspire to strategic international influence have aircraft carriers." Henry Kissinger, while United States Secretary of State said: "An aircraft carrier is 100,000 tons of diplomacy". As of April 2019, there are 41 active aircraft carriers in the world operated by thirteen navies; the United States Navy has 11 large nuclear-powered fleet carriers—carrying around 80 fighter jets each—the largest carriers in the world. As well as the aircraft carrier fleet, the U. S. Navy has nine amphibious assault ships used for helicopters, although these carry up to 20 vertical or short take-off and landing fighter jets and are similar in size to medium-sized fleet carriers.
China, India and the UK each operate a single large/medium-size carrier, with capacity from 30 to 60 fighter jets. Italy operates two light fleet carriers and Spain operates one. Helicopter carriers are operated by Japan, Australia, Brazil, South Korea, Thailand. Future aircraft carriers are under construction or in planning by Brazil, India, the United Kingdom, the United States. Amphibious assault ship Anti-submarine warfare carrier Balloon carrier and balloon tenders Escort carrier Fleet carrier Flight deck cruiser Helicopter carrier Light aircraft carrier Sea Control Ship Seaplane tender and seaplane carriers Aircraft cruiser A fleet carrier is intended to operate with the main fleet and provides an offensive capability; these are the largest carriers capable of fast speeds. By comparison, escort carriers were developed to provide defense for convoys of ships, they were slower with lower numbers of aircraft carried. Most were built from mercantile hulls or, in the case of merchant aircraft carriers, were bulk cargo ships with a flight deck added on top.
Light aircraft carriers were fast enough to operate with the main fleet but of smaller size with reduced aircraft capacity. The Soviet aircraft carrier Admiral Kusnetsov was termed a heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser; this was a legal construct to avoid the limitations of the Montreux Convention preventing'aircraft carriers' transiting the Turkish Straits between the Soviet Black Sea bases and the Mediterranean. These ships, while sized in the range of large fleet carriers, were designed to deploy alone or with escorts. In addition to supporting fighter aircraft and helicopters, they provide both strong defensive weaponry and heavy offensive missiles equivalent to a guided missile cruiser. Aircraft carriers today are divided into the following four categories based on the way that aircraft take off and land: Catapult-assisted take-off barrier arrested-recovery: these carriers carry the largest and most armed aircraft, although smaller CATOBAR carriers may have other limitations. All CATOBAR carriers in service today are nuclear powered.
Two nations operate carriers of this type: ten Nimitz class and one Gerald R. Ford class fleet carriers by the United States, one medium-sized carrier by France, for a world total of twelve in service. Short take-off but arrested-recovery: these carriers are limited to carrying lighter fixed-wing aircraft with more limited payloads. STOBAR carrier air wings, such as the Sukhoi Su-33 and future Mikoyan MiG-29K wings of Admiral Kuznetsov are geared towards air superiority and fleet defense roles rather than strike/power projection tasks, which require heavier payloads. Today China and Russia each operate one carrier of this type – a total of three in service currently. Short take-off vertical-landing: limited to carrying STOVL aircraft. STOVL aircraft, such as the Harrier Jump Jet family and Yakovlev Yak-38 have limited payloads, lower perfor
A dry dock is a narrow basin or vessel that can be flooded to allow a load to be floated in drained to allow that load to come to rest on a dry platform. Dry docks are used for the construction and repair of ships and other watercraft; the use of dry docks in China goes at least as far back the 10th century A. D. In 1088, Song Dynasty scientist and statesman Shen Kuo wrote in his Dream Pool Essays: At the beginning of the dynasty the two Che provinces presented two dragon ships each more than 200 ft. in length. The upper works included several decks with palatial cabins and saloons, containing thrones and couches all ready for imperial tours of inspection. After many years, their hulls decayed and needed repairs, but the work was impossible as long as they were afloat. So in the Hsi-Ning reign period a palace official Huang Huai-Hsin suggested a plan. A large basin was excavated at the north end of the Chin-ming Lake capable of containing the dragon ships, in it heavy crosswise beams were laid down upon a foundation of pillars.
So that the basin filled with water, after which the ships were towed in above the beams. The water was pumped out by wheels so that the ships rested quite in the air; when the repairs were complete, the water was let in again. The beams and pillars were taken away, the whole basin covered over with a great roof so as to form a hangar in which the ships could be protected from the elements and avoid the damage caused by undue exposure; the first English and oldest surviving dry dock still in use was commissioned by Henry VII of England at HMNB Portsmouth in 1495. This dry dock holds the world's oldest commissioned warship, HMS Victory; the earliest description of a floating dock comes from a small Italian book printed in Venice in 1560, called Descrittione dell'artifitiosa machina. In the booklet, an unknown author asks for the privilege of using a new method for the salvaging of a grounded ship and proceeds to describe and illustrate his approach; the included woodcut shows a ship flanked by two large floating trestles, forming a roof above the vessel.
The ship is pulled in an upright position by a number of ropes attached to the superstructure. The Saint-Nazaire's Chantiers de l'Atlantique owns one of the biggest in the world: 1,200 by 60 metres; the largest graving dock of the Mediterranean as of 2009 is at the Hellenic Shipyards S. A.. The Alfredo da Silva Dry Dock in Almada, was closed in 2000; the largest roofed dry dock is at the German Meyer Werft Shipyard in Papenburg, Germany, it is 504 m long, 125 m wide and stands 75 m tall. Harland and Wolff Heavy Industries in Belfast, Northern Ireland, is the site of a large dry dock 556 by 93 metres; the massive cranes are named after the Biblical figures Goliath. Dry Dock 12 at Newport News Shipbuilding at 662 by 76 metres is the largest dry dock in the USA; the largest floating-dock in North America is named The Vigorous. It is operated by Vigor Industries in Portland, OR, in the Swan Island industrial area along the Willamette River. A graving dock is the traditional form of dry dock, it is narrow basin made of earthen berms and concrete, closed by gates or by a caisson.
When open, a vessel is floated in and the water pumped out, leaving the craft supported on blocks. The keel blocks as well as the bilge block are placed on the floor of the dock in accordance with the "docking plan" of the ship. Routine use of dry docks is for the "graving" i.e. the cleaning, removal of barnacles and rust, re-painting of ships' hulls. Some fine-tuning of the ship's position can be done by divers while there is still some water left to manoeuvre it about, it is important that supporting blocks conform to the structural members so that the ship is not damaged when its weight is supported by the blocks. Some anti-submarine warfare warships have protruding sonar domes, requiring that the hull of the ship be supported several metres from the bottom of the drydock. Once the remainder of the water is pumped out, the ship can be inspected or serviced; when work on the ship is finished, water is allowed to re-enter the dry dock and the ship is refloated. Modern graving docks are box-shaped, to accommodate the newer, boxier ship designs, whereas old dry docks are shaped like the ships that are planned to be docked there.
This shaping was advantageous because such a dock was easier to build, it was easier to side-support the ships, less water had to be pumped away. Dry docks used for building Navy vessels may be built with a roof; this is done to prevent spy satellites from taking pictures of the dry dock and any ships or submarines that may be in it. During World War II, fortified dry docks were used by the Germans to protect their submarines from Allied air raids. Today, covered dry docks are used only when servicing or repairing a fleet ballistic missile submarine. Another advantage of covered dry docks is. A floating dry dock is a type of pontoon for dry docking ships, possessing floodable buoyancy chambers and a "U"-shaped cross-section; the walls are used to give the dry dock stability when the floor or deck is below the surface of the water. When valves are opened, the
Norfolk Naval Shipyard
The Norfolk Naval Shipyard called the Norfolk Navy Yard and abbreviated as NNSY, is a U. S. Navy facility in Portsmouth, for building and repairing the Navy's ships, it is the oldest and largest industrial facility that belongs to the U. S. Navy as well as the most multifaceted. Located on the Elizabeth River, the yard is just a short distance upriver from its mouth at Hampton Roads, it was established as Gosport Shipyard in 1767. Destroyed during the American Revolutionary War, it was rebuilt and became home to the first operational drydock in the United States in the 1820s. Changing hands during the American Civil War, it served the Confederate States Navy until it was again destroyed in 1862, when it was given its current name; the shipyard was again rebuilt, has continued operation through the present day. The Gosport Shipyard was founded on November 1, 1767 by Andrew Sprowle on the western shore of the Elizabeth River in Norfolk County in the Virginia Colony; this shipyard became a prosperous merchant facility for the British Crown.
In 1775, at the beginning of the American Revolution, Sprowle stayed loyal to the Crown and fled Virginia, which confiscated all of his properties, including the shipyard. In 1779, while the newly formed Commonwealth of Virginia was operating the shipyard, it was burned by British troops. In 1794, United States Congress passed "An Act to Provide a Naval Armament," allowing the Federal Government to lease the Gosport Shipyard from Virginia. In 1799 the keel of USS Chesapeake, one of the first six frigates authorized by Congress, was laid, making her the first ship built in Gosport for the U. S. Navy; the federal government purchased the shipyard from Virginia in 1801 for $12,000. This tract of land measured 16 acres and now makes up the northeastern corner of the current shipyard. In 1827, construction began on the first of what would be the first two dry docks in the United States; the first one was completed three weeks ahead of similar projects in both Boston and South America, making it the first functional dry dock in the Americas.
Dry Dock One, as it is referred to today, is still operational and is listed as historical landmark in Portsmouth, Virginia. Officer's Quarters A, B, C were built about 1837. Additional land on the eastern side of the Elizabeth River was purchased in 1845; the shipyard and neighboring towns suffered from a severe yellow fever epidemic in 1855, which killed about a quarter of the population, including James Chisholm, whose account was published shortly after his death in the epidemic. Slave labor was extensively utilized in the Norfolk Navy Yard from its foundation until the Civil War; some idea of the human scale can be found in this exert from a letter of Commodore Lewis Warrington dated 12 October 1831 to the Board of Navy Commissioners. Warrington's letter to the BNC, was in response to various petitions by white workers, his letter attempts both to reassure the BNC in light of the recent Nat Turner Rebellion which occurred on 22 August 1831 and to serve as a reply to the Dry Dock's stonemasons who had quit their positions and accused the project chief engineer, Loammi Baldwin, of the unfair hiring of enslaved labor in their stead.
"There are about two hundred and forty six blacks employed in the Dock altogether. On 21 June 1839 Commodore Warrington endorsed a petition signed by 34 slaveholders pleading with the Secretary of the Navy continue it. Warrington noted, he added. George Teamoh]] as a young enslaved laborer and ship caulker worked at Norfolk Navy Yard in the 1830s and 1840s wrote of this unrequited labor"; the government had patronized, given encouragement to slavery to a greater extent than the great majority of the country has been aware. It had in its service hundreds if not thousands of slaves employed on government works." As late "as 1848 one third of the 300 workers at the Gosport navy yard were hired slaves." In 1861, Virginia joined the Confederate States of America. Fearing that the Confederacy would take control of the facility, the shipyard commander Charles Stewart McCauley ordered the burning of the shipyard; the Confederate forces did in fact take over the shipyard, did so without armed conflict through an elaborate ruse orchestrated by civilian railroad builder William Mahone.
He bluffed the Federal troops into abandoning the shipyard in Portsmouth by running a single passenger train into Norfolk with great noise and whistle-blowing much more sending it back west, returning the same train again, creating the illusion of large numbers of arriving troops to the Federals listening in Portsmouth across the Elizabeth River
Tutankhamun was an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th dynasty, during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom or sometimes the New Empire Period. He has, since the discovery of his intact tomb, been referred to colloquially as King Tut, his original name, means "Living Image of Aten", while Tutankhamun means "Living Image of Amun". In hieroglyphs, the name Tutankhamun was written Amen-tut-ankh, because of a scribal custom that placed a divine name at the beginning of a phrase to show appropriate reverence, he is also the Nibhurrereya of the Amarna letters, the 18th dynasty king Rathotis who, according to Manetho, an ancient historian, had reigned for nine years—a figure that conforms with Flavius Josephus's version of Manetho's Epitome. The 1922 discovery by Howard Carter of Tutankhamun's nearly intact tomb, funded by Lord Carnarvon, received worldwide press coverage, it sparked a renewed public interest in ancient Egypt, for which Tutankhamun's mask, now in the Egyptian Museum, remains the popular symbol.
Exhibits of artifacts from his tomb have toured the world. In February 2010, the results of DNA tests confirmed that he was the son of the mummy found in the tomb KV55, believed by some to be Akhenaten, his mother was his father's sister and wife, whose name is unknown but whose remains are positively identified as "The Younger Lady" mummy found in KV35. The deaths of a few involved in the discovery of Tutankhamun's mummy have been popularly attributed to the curse of the pharaohs. Tutankhamun was the son of Akhenaten and one of Akhenaten's sisters, or one of his cousins; as a prince, he was known as Tutankhaten. He ascended to the throne in 1333 BC, at the age of nine or ten, taking the throne name Nebkheperure, his wet nurse was a woman called Maia, known from her tomb at Saqqara. His teacher was most Sennedjem; when he became king, he married his half-sister, who changed her name to Ankhesenamun. They had two daughters. Computed tomography studies released in 2011 revealed that one daughter was born prematurely at 5–6 months of pregnancy and the other at full-term, 9 months.
The daughter born at 9 months gestation had spina bifida and Sprengel's deformity. Given his age, the king had powerful advisers including General Horemheb and Grand Vizier Ay. Horemheb records that the king appointed him "lord of the land" as hereditary prince to maintain law, he noted his ability to calm the young king when his temper flared. In his third regnal year, under the influence of his advisors, Tutankhamun reversed several changes made during his father's reign, he restored the god Amun to supremacy. The ban on the cult of Amun was lifted and traditional privileges were restored to its priesthood; the capital was moved back to Thebes and the city of Akhetaten abandoned. This is when he changed his name to Tutankhamun, "Living image of Amun", reinforcing the restoration of Amun; as part of his restoration, the king initiated building projects, in particular at Karnak in Thebes, where he dedicated a temple to Amun. Many monuments were erected, an inscription on his tomb door declares the king had "spent his life in fashioning the images of the gods".
The traditional festivals were now celebrated again, including those related to the Apis Bull and Opet. His restoration stela says: The temples of the goddesses... were in ruins. Their shrines were overgrown, their sanctuaries were as non-existent and their courts were used as roads... the gods turned their backs upon this land... If anyone made a prayer to a god for advice he would never respond; the country was economically weak and in turmoil following the reign of Akhenaten. Diplomatic relations with other kingdoms had been neglected, Tutankhamun sought to restore them, in particular with the Mitanni. Evidence of his success is suggested by the gifts from various countries found in his tomb. Despite his efforts for improved relations, battles with Nubians and Asiatics were recorded in his mortuary temple at Thebes, his tomb contained body armor, folding stools appropriate for military campaigns, bows, he was trained in archery. However, given his youth and physical disabilities, which seemed to require the use of a cane in order to walk, most historians speculate that he did not take part in these battles.
Tutankhamun was slight of build, 167 cm tall. He had large front incisors and an overbite characteristic of the Thutmosid royal line to which he belonged. Between September 2007 and October 2009, various mummies were subjected to detailed anthropological and genetic studies as part of the King Tutankhamun Family Project; the research showed that Tutankhamun had "a cleft palate" and a mild case of scoliosis, a medical condition in which the spine deviates to the side from the normal position. It was posited in a 2002 documentary'Assassination of King Tut' for the Discovery Channel that he suffered from Klippel-Feil syndrome, but subsequent analysis excluded this as an acceptable diagnosis. Examination of Tutankhamun's body has revealed deformations in his left foot, caused by necrosis of bone tissue; the affliction may have forced Tutankhamun to walk with the use of a cane, many of which were found in his tomb. In DNA tests of Tutankhamun's mummy, scientists found DNA from the mosquito-borne parasites that cause mala