The United States Open Tennis Championships is a hard court tennis tournament. The tournament is the modern version of one of the oldest tennis championships in the world, the U. S. National Championship, for which men's singles and men's doubles were first played in 1881. Since 1987, the US Open has been chronologically the fourth and final Grand Slam tournament of the year; the other three, in chronological order, are the Australian Open, the French Open, Wimbledon. The US Open starts on the last Monday of August and continues for two weeks, with the middle weekend coinciding with the U. S. Labor Day holiday; the tournament consists of five primary championships: men's and women's singles, men's and women's doubles, mixed doubles. The tournament includes events for senior and wheelchair players. Since 1978, the tournament has been played on acrylic hard courts at the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows–Corona Park, New York City; the US Open is owned and organized by the United States Tennis Association, a non-profit organization, the chairperson of the US Open is Katrina Adams.
Revenue from ticket sales and television contracts are used to develop tennis in the United States. The US Open employs standard 7-points tiebreakers in every set of a singles match. For the other three Grand Slam events, there are special scoring methods for a match that reaches 6–6 in the last possible set: in the French Open, the decisive set continues until a player takes a two-game lead, in Australia, an extended tiebreaker to 10 points is played, at Wimbledon, a standard tiebreaker is played only if the game score reaches 12–12; as with the US Open, those events use tiebreakers to decide the other sets. The tournament was first held in August 1881 on grass courts at the Newport Casino in Newport, Rhode Island; that year, only clubs that were members of the United States National Lawn Tennis Association were permitted to enter. Richard Sears won the men's singles at this tournament, the first of his seven consecutive singles titles. From 1884 through 1911, the tournament used a challenge system whereby the defending champion automatically qualified for the next year's final, where he would play the winner of the all-comers tournament.
In 1915, the national championship was relocated to the West Side Tennis Club in Forest Hills, New York City. The effort to relocate it to New York City began as early as 1911 when a group of tennis players, headed by New Yorker Karl Behr, started working on it. In the first years of the U. S. National Championship, only men competed and the tournament was known as the U. S. National Singles Championships for Men. In 1887, six years after the men's nationals were first held, the first U. S. Women's National Singles Championship was held at the Philadelphia Cricket Club; the winner was 17-year-old Philadelphian Ellen Hansell. This was followed by the introduction of the U. S. Women's National Doubles Championship in 1899 and the U. S. Mixed Doubles Championship in 1892; the women's tournament used a challenge system from 1888 through 1918, except in 1917. Between 1890 and 1906, sectional tournaments were held in the east and the west of the country to determine the best two doubles teams, which competed in a play-off for the right to compete against the defending champions in the challenge round.
In early 1915, a group of about 100 tennis players signed a petition in favor of moving the tournament. They argued that most tennis clubs and fans were located in the New York City area and that it would therefore be beneficial for the development of the sport to host the national championship there; this view was opposed by another group of players that included eight former national singles champions. This contentious issue was brought to a vote at the annual USNLTA meeting on February 5, 1915, with 128 votes in favor of and 119 against relocation. From 1921 through 1923, the tournament was played at the Germantown Cricket Club in Philadelphia, it returned to the West Side Tennis Club in 1924 following completion of the 14,000-seat Forest Hills Stadium. Although many regarded it as a major championship, the International Lawn Tennis Federation designated it as one of the world's major tournaments commencing in 1924. At the 1922 U. S. National Championships, the draw seeded players for the first time to prevent the leading players from playing each other in the early rounds.
The open era has begun in 1968 when professional tennis players were allowed to compete for the first time at the Grand Slam tournament held at the West Side Tennis Club. The previous U. S. National Championships had been limited to amateur players. Except for mixed doubles, all events at the 1968 national tournament were open to professionals; that year, 96 men and 63 women entered, prize money totaled US$100,000. In 1970, the US Open became the first Grand Slam tournament to use a tiebreaker to decide a set that reached a 6–6 score in games. From 1970 through 1974, the US Open used a best-of-nine-point sudden-death tiebreaker before moving to the International Tennis Federation's best-of-twelve points system. In 1973, the US Open became the first Grand Slam tournament to award equal prize money to men and women, with that year's singles champions, John Newcombe and Margaret Court, receiving US$25,000 each. Beginning in 1975, the tournament was played on clay courts instead of grass, floodlights allowed matches to be played at night.
In 1978, the tournament moved from the West Side Tennis Club to the larger and newly constructed USTA National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows, three miles to the north. The tournament's court surface switched from clay to hard. Jimmy Connors is the only individual to have won US
The Transavia PL-12 Airtruk is a single-engine agricultural aircraft designed and built by the Transavia Corporation in Australia. The Airtruk is a shoulder-wing strut braced sesquiplane of all-metal construction, with the cockpit mounted above a tractor-location opposed-cylinder air-cooled engine and short pod fuselage with rear door; the engine cowling, rear fuselage and top decking are of fibreglass. It has the main units of which are carried on the lower sesquiplane wings, it has twin tail booms with two unconnected tails. Its first flight was on 22 April 1965, was certified on 10 February 1966, it was developed from the Bennett Airtruck designed in New Zealand by Luigi Pellarini. It is able to ferry two passengers as a topdresser. Other versions can be used as cargo, ambulance or aerial survey aircraft, carry one passenger in the top deck and four in the lower deck; the Airtruk is sometimes known as the Airtruck. Because the name "Airtruck" was registered by the New Zealand companies Bennett Aviation Ltd and Waitomo Aircraft Ltd, for their PL-11, Transavia found another name for their PL-12.
July 1978 saw the first flight of an improved model, the T-300 Skyfarmer, powered by a Textron Lycoming IO-540-engine. This was followed in 1981 by the T-300A with improved aerodynamics. Transavia ceased production of the T-300 in 1985. In 1982 certification was undertaken to enable sales in the North American market. Assistance was provided by the Aeronautical Research Laboratories of the Defence Science and Technology Organisation and extensive tests carried out on the ground and in subsequent flight flutter clearance trials. Ref. DSTO Structures Tech. Memo. 341 In 1985 an extended version was produced and released as the T-400. The engine was changed from a 6-cylinder to an 8-cylinder and the tail booms extended by 750 millimetres. Other minor changes were made to the aerodynamics. Flutter clearance tests were again carried out by ARL and manufacture proceeded. An isolated flutter incident was reported in 1986 involving violent oscillations of the rudder and tail boom on the T-400 during a delivery flight.
Investigations were carried out by ARL and a split mass balance arm was fitted to each rudder. Prior to this the aircraft had relied on frictional damping provided by the lengthy control cables; the modified aircraft was tested both on the ground, in flight trials in March 1988 over Port Philip near Melbourne, Australia. All attempts to induce the oscillations showed that there was no indication of a mode of vibration becoming unstable; the maximum speed achieved was 160 knots in a steep dive. Oscillations were induced with an air operated tool fitted with an out-of-balance rotating mass; this device had a rotational speed from 18 Hz down to zero for each charge of the compressed air cylinder. At least 120 had been built by 1988; as of 2008, there are at least three examples in museums in New Zealand, with an additional one being restored to airworthy status. The second prototype is preserved in the Powerhouse Museum collection, Australia. There is one Transavia PL-12 Airtruk on display and under restoration at the Danish Air Museum at the airport called "Stauning" in western Denmark.
There is one airworthy Airtruk in Ecka airfield near Zrenjanin, two airworthy T300A models in AlburyAustralia and one airworthy PL12 model in Tooma, Australia. There is one airworthy and flying at Temora Airport, New South Wales Australia There is one located in the Bathurst Aerodrome, New South Wales Australia. There is one located at the Queensland Air Museum, Queensland Australia. There is one located at Cuatro Vientos Spain. PL-12 Airtruk Single-engined agricultural aircraft. Powered by 300 hp Rolls Royce Continental IO-520-D PL-12U Multi-purpose utility transport, air ambulance, aerial survey aircraft. T-320 Airtruk Powered by a 320-hp Continental/Rolls-Royce Tiara 6-320-2B piston engine. Skyfarmer T-300 Powered by Lycoming O-540 engine. Skyfarmer T-300A Improved version of the T-300. Skyfarmer T-400 Enlarged, more powerful (400 hp Lycoming O-720 engine. PL-12 MIL Proposed multi-role utility transport, air ambulance, forward air control, light attack, counter-insurgency aircraft. Known as the M-300.
PL-12 550T Proposed variant powered by a 550-hp Pratt & Whitney Canada PT6A turboprop engine. Data from Jane's All the Worlds Aircraft 1988-89 General characteristics Crew: 1 Capacity: 2 pax / 2,000 lb dry chemicals or 818 l liquids Length: 21 ft 0 in Wingspan: 39 ft 4 in Height: 9 ft 0 in Wing area: 256 sq ft Airfoil: NACA 23012 Empty weight: 1,709 lb PL-12U 1,830 lb Max takeoff weight: 4,090 lb Fuel capacity: 181.5 l in two upper wing fuel tanks with optional second tank in each wing for a total of 373 l Powerplant: 1 × Rolls-Royce/Continental IO-520-D 6-cyl. Air-cooled horizontally opposed piston engine, 300 hp Propellers: 2-bladed McCauley D2A34C58/90AT-2 constant speed metal propeller, 7 ft 4 in diameterPerformance Maximum speed: 103 kn PL-12U 112 kn Cruise speed: 95 kn at 75% power at Sea level ISAPL-12U 102 kn Stall speed: 52 kn flaps downPL-12U 50 kn Never exceed speed: 180 kn PL-12U 150 kn Rate of climb: 600 ft/min PL-12U 4.066 m/s Wing loading: 16 lb/sq ft PL-12U 73 kg/m2 Power/mass: 0.12 kW/kg PL-12U 0.129 kW/kg Donald, David.
Genomatix GmbH is a computational biology company headquartered in Munich, with a seat of business in Ann Arbor, Michigan, U. S. A. Genomatix was founded in 1997 by Dr. Thomas Werner as a spin-off from the Helmholtz Zentrum München. Helmholtz Zentrum Munich is part of the Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres. Genomatix pioneered the understanding of eukaryotic gene regulation. Genomatix offers integrated databases for genome annotation and regulation analysis. Genomatix product portfolio contains solutions for: • Literature and pathway mining • Transcription factor analysis • Genome annotation integrating a wide variety of transcript sources and a special focus on regulatory regions • Analysis technology for high throughput genomic technologies Literature mining LitInspector is a literature search tool providing gene and signal transduction pathway mining within NCBI's PubMed database. Pathway mining GePS BiblioSphere Personalized medicine developed to a major field for Genomatix. Genomatix is involved in several projects and international conferences e.g. 5th Santorini Conference - "Functional Genomics towards personalized health care" Since 2008 Genomatix has focused on Next Generation Sequencing data analysis.
Because of the large amount of data and the need for high-end computing power, Genomatix deploys its solutions as in-house installations Two systems are available: 1. The Genomatix Mining Station is based on a proprietary genomic pattern recognition paradigm, or GenomeThesaurus, which allows for input of raw sequence reads plus optional quality files from any deep sequencing hardware, it provides ultra fast mapping of sequences of any length with no practical limits on the number of point mutations and/or insertions and deletions that can be taken into account during the mapping process. Depending on the nature of the experiment, the GMS can provide SNP detection and genotyping, copy number analysis, small RNA analysis. For ChIPseq data, the GMS delivers clustering and peak finding, performs automated binding pattern identification. For RNAseq experiments, normalized expression values are calculated at the exon and transcript level. A special GenomeThesaurus is provided for potential splice junctions, which allows for splice junction analysis and identification of new transcriptional units.
For genomic re-sequencing and newly sequenced genomes, a de-novo assembly will be provided. 2. The Genomatix Genome Analyzer delivers downstream software tools and databases for the deep biological analysis of data coming from the GMS, it allows for easy integration and visualization in the terabytes of background annotation of the ElDorado genome database. GGA extensively annotates genomic coordinates and surrounding areas derived by the GMS or any other mapping procedure. Clustering and peak finding, analysis for phylogenetic conservation, large scale correlation analysis with annotated genomic elements, meta-analysis of data correlation between different experiments, pathway mining for groups of identified genes, transcription factor binding site analysis and much more are all processes carried out on the GGA. With the GGA and GMS Genomatix delivers the worldwide first integrative data analysis platform for Next Generation Sequencing analysis with custom workflows tailored towards specific needs.