US Open (tennis)

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Coordinates: 40°44′59.26″N 73°50′45.91″W / 40.7497944°N 73.8460861°W / 40.7497944; -73.8460861

US Open
Usopen-header-logo.svg
Official website
Founded 1881; 137 years ago (1881)
Editions 138 (2018)
Location New York City, New York,
United States
Venue USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center
Surface Grass - outdoors (1881–1974)
Clay - outdoors (1975–1977)
Hard - outdoors (since 1978)[a]
Prize money US$53 million (2018)[1]
Men's
Draw 128S / 128Q / 64D
Current champions Rafael Nadal (singles)
Jean-Julien Rojer
Horia Tecău (doubles)
Most singles titles 7
Richard Sears
William Larned
Bill Tilden
Most doubles titles 6
Richard Sears
Holcombe Ward
Women's
Draw 128S / 128Q / 64D
Current champions Sloane Stephens (singles)
Chan Yung-jan
Martina Hingis (doubles)
Most singles titles 8
Molla Bjurstedt Mallory
Most doubles titles 13
Margaret Osborne duPont
Mixed doubles
Draw 32
Current champions Martina Hingis
Jamie Murray
Most titles (male) 4
Bill Tilden
Bill Talbert
Bob Bryan
Most titles (female) 8
Margaret Osborne duPont
Margaret Court
Grand Slam
Last completed
2017 US Open
Ongoing
2018 US Open

The United States Open Tennis Championships is a hard court tennis tournament. The tournament is the modern version of one of the oldest tennis championships in the world, the U.S. National Championship, for which men's singles was first played in 1881.

Since 1987, the US Open has been chronologically the fourth and final Grand Slam tournament of the year. The other three, in chronological order, are the Australian Open, the French Open, and Wimbledon. The US Open starts on the last Monday of August and continues for two weeks, with the middle weekend coinciding with the U.S. Labor Day holiday.

The tournament consists of five primary championships: men's and women's singles, men's and women's doubles, and mixed doubles. The tournament also includes events for senior, junior, and wheelchair players. Since 1978, the tournament has been played on acrylic hard courts at the USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows–Corona Park, Queens, New York City. The US Open is owned and organized by the United States Tennis Association (USTA), a non-profit organization, and the chairperson of the US Open is Katrina Adams.[citation needed] Revenue from ticket sales, sponsorships, and television contracts are used to develop tennis in the United States.

The US Open is the only Grand Slam tournament that employs tiebreakers in every set of a singles match. For the other three Grand Slam events, a match that reaches 6-6 in the last possible set (the third for women and the fifth for men) continues until a player takes a two-game lead. As with the US Open, those events use tiebreakers to decide the other sets.

The US Open also is the only Grand Slam tournament with 16 qualifiers (instead of 12) in the women's singles draw.[citation needed]

History[edit]

1881–1914: Newport Casino[edit]

The Newport Casino Tennis Court (as of 2005), where the US Open was first held in 1881

The tournament was first held in August 1881 on grass courts at the Newport Casino in Newport, Rhode Island. That year, only clubs that were members of the United States National Lawn Tennis Association (USNLTA) were permitted to enter.[2] Richard Sears won the men's singles at this tournament, which was the first of his seven consecutive singles titles.[3]

Semifinal at the 1890 US Tennis Championships at Newport. Match between Oliver Campbell and Bob Huntington

From 1884 through 1911, the tournament used a challenge system whereby the defending champion automatically qualified for the next year's final, where he would play the winner of the all-comers tournament. In 1915, the national championship was relocated to the West Side Tennis Club in Forest Hills, Queens, New York City. The effort to relocate it to New York City began as early as 1911 when a group of tennis players, headed by New Yorker Karl Behr, started working on it.[4]

In the first years of the U.S. National Championship, only men competed and the tournament was known as the U.S. National Singles Championships for Men. In 1887, six years after the men's nationals were first held, the first U.S. Women's National Singles Championship was held at the Philadelphia Cricket Club. The winner was 17-year-old Philadelphian Ellen Hansell. This was followed by the introduction of the U.S. Women's National Doubles Championship in 1899 and the U.S. Mixed Doubles Championship in 1892. The women's tournament used a challenge system from 1888 through 1918, except in 1917. Between 1890 and 1906, sectional tournaments were held in the east and the west of the country to determine the best two doubles teams, which competed in a play-off for the right to compete against the defending champions in the challenge round.[5]

1915–1977: West Side Tennis Club[edit]

In early 1915, a group of about 100 tennis players signed a petition in favor of moving the tournament. They argued that most tennis clubs, players, and fans were located in the New York City area and that it would therefore be beneficial for the development of the sport to host the national championship there.[6] This view was opposed by another group of players that included eight former national singles champions.[7][8] This contentious issue was brought to a vote at the annual USNLTA meeting on February 5, 1915, with 128 votes in favor of and 119 against relocation.[9][10][11]

From 1921 through 1923, the tournament was played at the Germantown Cricket Club in Philadelphia.[12] It returned to the West Side Tennis Club in 1924 following completion of the 14,000-seat Forest Hills Stadium.[5] Although many already regarded it as a major championship, the International Lawn Tennis Federation officially designated it as one of the world's major tournaments commencing in 1924.[citation needed]

At the 1922 U.S. National Championships, the draw seeded players for the first time to prevent the leading players from playing each other in the early rounds.[13][14]

Open era[edit]

The open era began in 1968 when professional tennis players were allowed to compete for the first time at the Grand Slam tournament held at the West Side Tennis Club. The previous U.S. National Championships had been limited to amateur player. Except for mixed doubles,[citation needed] all events at the 1968 national tournament were open to professionals. That year, 96 men and 63 women entered, and prize money totaled US$100,000. In 1970, the US Open became the first Grand Slam tournament to use a tiebreaker to decide a set that reached a 6–6 score in games. From 1970 through 1974, the US Open used a best-of-nine-point sudden-death tiebreaker before moving to the International Tennis Federation's (ITF) best-of-twelve points system.[3] In 1973, the US Open became the first Grand Slam tournament to award equal prize money to men and women, with that year's singles champions,John Newcombe and Margaret Court, receiving US$25,000 each.[3] Beginning in 1975, the tournament was played on clay courts instead of grass, and floodlights allowed matches to be played at night.

Since 1978: USTA National Tennis Center[edit]

In 1978, the tournament moved from the West Side Tennis Club to the larger and newly constructed USTA National Tennis Center in Flushing Meadows, Queens, three miles to the north. The tournament's court surface also switched from clay to hard. Jimmy Connors is the only individual to have won US Open singles titles on three surfaces (grass, clay, and hard), while Chris Evert is the only woman to win US Open singles titles on two surfaces (clay and hard).[3]

The US Open is the only Grand Slam tournament that has been played every year since its inception.[15]

During the 2006 US Open, the complex was renamed to "USTA Billie Jean King National Tennis Center" in honor of Billie Jean King, a four-time US Open singles champion and women's tennis pioneer .[16]

From 1984 through 2015, the US Open deviated from traditional scheduling practices for tennis tournaments with a concept that came to be known as "Super Saturday": the men's and women's finals were played on the final Saturday and Sunday of the tournament respectively, and their respective semifinals were held one day prior. The Women's final was originally held in between the two men's semi-final matches; in 2001, the Women's final was moved to the evening so it could be played on primetime television, citing a major growth in popularity for women's tennis among viewers.[17] This scheduling pattern helped to encourage television viewership, but proved divisive among players because it only gave them less than a day's rest between their semi-finals and championship match.[18][19]

For five consecutive tournaments between 2007 through 2012, the men's final was postponed to Monday due to weather. In 2013 and 2014, the USTA intentionally scheduled the men's final on a Monday—a move praised for allowing the men's players an extra day's rest following the semifinals, but drew the ire of the ATP for further deviating from the structure of the other Grand Slams.[20][18] In 2015, the Super Saturday concept was dropped, and the US Open returned to a format similar to the other Grand Slams, with men's and women's finals on Saturday and Sunday. However, weather delays forced both sets of semifinals to be held on Friday that year.[21][19]

Grounds[edit]

Arthur Ashe stadium in 2010

The grounds of the US Open have 22 outdoor courts (plus 12 practice courts just outside the East Gate) consisting of four "show courts" (Arthur Ashe Stadium, Louis Armstrong Stadium, the Grandstand, and Court 17), 13 field courts, and 5 practice courts.

The main court is the 23,771-seat[22] Arthur Ashe Stadium, which opened in 1997. A US$180 million[23] retractable roof was added in 2016.[24] The stadium is named after Arthur Ashe, the African-American who won the men's singles title at the inaugural US Open in 1968, the Australian Open in 1970, and Wimbledon in 1975 and who was inducted into the International Tennis Hall of Fame in 1985. The next largest court is the 14,061-seat Louis Armstrong Stadium, which cost US$200 million to build and opened in 2018.[23] The 6,400-seat lower tier of this stadium is seperately ticketed, reserved seating while the 7,661-seat upper tier is general admission and not separately ticketed.[23][25] The third largest court is the 8,125-seat Grandstand in the southwest corner of the grounds, which opened in 2016.[24] Court 17 in the southeast corner of the grounds is the fourth largest stadium. It opened with temporary seating in 2011 and received its permanent seating the following year.[26] It has a seating capacity of 2,800, all of which is general admission and not separately ticketed.[26] It is nicknamed "The Pit", partly because the playing surface is sunk 8 feet into the ground.[26][27] The total seating capacity for practice courts P1-P5 is 672 and for competition Courts 4-16 is 12,656, itemized as follows:[28]

  • Courts 11 & 12: 1,704 each
  • Court 7: 1,494
  • Court 5: 1,148
  • Courts 10 & 13: 1,104 each
  • Court 4: 1,066
  • Court 6: 1,032
  • Court 9: 624
  • Courts 14 & 15: 502 each
  • Courts 8 & 16: 336 each

All the courts used by the US Open are illuminated, allowing matches and television coverage to extend into primetime. In 2001, the women's singles final was intentionally scheduled for primetime for the first time. CBS Sports president Sean McManus cited significant public interest in star players Serena Williams and Venus Williams and the good ratings performance of the 1999 women's singles final, which was pushed into primetime by rain delays.[17]

Surface[edit]

Since 1978, the US Open has been played on a hard court surface called Pro DecoTurf. It is a multi-layer cushioned surface and classified by the International Tennis Federation as medium-fast.[29] Each August before the start of the tournament, the courts are resurfaced.[30]

Since 2005, all US Open and US Open Series tennis courts have been painted a shade of blue (trademarked as "U.S. Open Blue") inside the lines to make it easier for players, spectators, and television viewers to see the ball.[31] The area outside the lines is still painted "U.S. Open Green".[31]

Player line call challenges[edit]

In 2006, the US Open introduced instant replay reviews of line calls, using the Hawk-Eye computer system. It was the first Grand Slam tournament to use the system. According to many experts,[who?] the system was implemented because of a controversial quarterfinal match at the 2004 US Open[citation needed] between Serena Williams and Jennifer Capriati, where important line calls went against Williams.[32] Instant replay was available only on the Arthur Ashe Stadium and Louis Armstrong Stadium courts through the 2008 tournament. In 2009, it became available on the Grandstand court.[citation needed]

In 2007, JP Morgan Chase renewed its sponsorship of the US Open and, as part of the arrangement, the replay system was renamed to "Chase Review" on in-stadium video and television.[33]

Recent attendance[edit]

2017 2016 2015 2014 2013 2012 2011 2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005
691,143 688,542 691,280 713,642 713,026 710,803 658,664 712,976 721,059 720,227 715,587 640,000 659,538

Sources: US Open,[34] City University of New York (CUNY)[35][36]

Prize money[edit]

The total prize money for the 2017 US Open championships is US$50,400,000, divided as follows:[37][38][39]

Event W F SF QF 4R 3R 2R 1R Q3 Q2 Q1
Singles $3,700,000 $1,825,000 $920,000 $470,000 $253,625 $144,000 $86,000 $50,000 $16,350 $10,900 $5,606
Doubles* $675,000 $340,000 $160,000 $82,000 N/A $44,000 $26,500 $16,500 N/A N/A N/A
Mixed Doubles* $150,000 $70,000 $30,000 $15,000 N/A N/A $10,000 $5,000 N/A N/A N/A

* per team

In addition $600,000 will be the Champions' Invitational prize money, while $1,478,000 is estimated as players' per diem. A total of men's and women's singles prize money ($36,324,000) will account for more than 78% of total player compensation, while doubles ($5,463,000) and mixed doubles ($500,000) – for 12% and 1%, respectively.[38]

The US Open has made a five-year agreement to increase the total prize money to $50,400,000 by 2017. As a result, the total base prize money for the 2013 tournament was increased to $33.6 million, a record $8.1 million increase from 2012. The champions of the 2013 US Open Series will also have the opportunity to add $2.6 million in bonus prize money, potentially bringing the total 2013 US Open purse to more than $36 million.[40] In 2014 the total base prize money was $38.3 million.[41] In 2015 the prize money was raised to $42.3 million.[42]

The growth in prize money awarded to the participants has far outpaced inflation over the past forty years. For example, the singles champions in 1973 earned $25,000, which, in 2015 dollars, would equal approximately $133,000. However, in 2015, the singles champions each earned $3.3 million. In other words, in real dollars, today's champions are paid approximately twenty-five times more than champions were in 1973.

Ranking points[edit]

Ranking points for the men (ATP) and women (WTA) have varied at the US Open through the years but presently singles players receive the following points:

Event W F SF QF 4R 3R 2R 1R
Singles Men 2000 1200 720 360 180 90 45 10
Women[43] 2000 1300 780 430 240 130 70 10
Doubles Men 2000 1200 720 360 180 90 0
Women 2000 1300 780 430 240 130 10

Champions[edit]

Past champions[edit]

2017 champions[edit]

Event Champion Runner-up Score
Men's singles final Spain Rafael Nadal South Africa Kevin Anderson 6–3, 6–3, 6–4
Women's singles final United States Sloane Stephens United States Madison Keys 6–3, 6–0
Men's doubles final Netherlands Jean-Julien Rojer
Romania Horia Tecău
Spain Feliciano López
Spain Marc López
6–4, 6–3
Women's doubles final Chinese Taipei Chan Yung-jan
Switzerland Martina Hingis
Czech Republic Lucie Hradecká
Czech Republic Kateřina Siniaková
6–3, 6–2
Mixed doubles final Switzerland Martina Hingis
United Kingdom Jamie Murray
Chinese Taipei Chan Hao-ching
New Zealand Michael Venus
6–1, 4–6, [10–8]

Records[edit]

Record Era Player(s) Count Years
Men since 1881
Most men's
singles titles
Before 1968 United States Richard Sears
United States William Larned
United States Bill Tilden
7 1881-87
1901-02, 1907-11
1920-25, 1929
Open Era United States Jimmy Connors
United States Pete Sampras
Switzerland Roger Federer
5 1974, 1976, 1978, 1982-83
1990, 1993, 1995-96, 2002
2004-08
Most consecutive
men's singles titles
Before 1968 United States Richard Sears 7 1881-87
Open Era Switzerland Roger Federer 5 2004-08
Most men's doubles titles Before 1968 United States Richard Sears
United States Holcombe Ward
6 Sears: 1882-84 with James Dwight, 1885 with Joseph Clark, 1886-87 with James Dwight
Ward: 1899-1901 with Dwight F. Davis, 1904-06 with Beals Wright
Open Era United States Bob Bryan
United States Mike Bryan
5 2005, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2014
2005, 2008, 2010, 2012, 2014
Winner of most consecutive
men's doubles titles
Before 1968 United States Richard Sears 6 1882-87
Open Era Australia Todd Woodbridge
Australia Mark Woodforde
2 1995-96
1995-96
Winner of most
mixed doubles titles - Men
Before 1968 United States Bill Tilden
United States Bill Talbert
4 1913-14, 1922-23
1943-46
Open Era United States Bob Bryan 4 2003-04, 2006, 2010
Winner of most championships
(total: singles, men's doubles,
mixed doubles) - Men
Before 1968 United States Bill Tilden 16 1913–1929 (7 singles, 5 men's doubles, 4 mixed doubles)
Open Era United States Bob Bryan 9 2003–14 (5 men's doubles, 4 mixed doubles)
Women since 1887
Winner of most
women's singles titles
Before 1968 Norway/United States Molla Bjurstedt Mallory 8 1915-18, 1920-22, 1926
Open Era United States Chris Evert
United States Serena Williams
6 1975-78, 1980, 1982
1999, 2002, 2008, 2012-14
Winner of most consecutive
women's singles titles
Before 1968 Norway/United States Molla Bjurstedt Mallory
United States Helen Jacobs
4 1915-18
1932-35
Open Era United States Chris Evert 4 1975-78
Winner of most
women's doubles titles
Before 1968 United States Margaret Osborne duPont 13 1941 with Sarah Palfrey; 1942-50, 1955-57 with Louise Brough
Open Era United States Martina Navratilova 9 1977 with Betty Stöve; 1978, 1980 with Billie Jean King; 1983-84, 1986-87 with Pam Shriver; 1989 with Hana Mandlíková; 1990 with Gigi Fernández
Winner of most consecutive
women's doubles titles
Before 1968: United States Margaret Osborne duPont 10 1941-50
Open Era Spain Virginia Ruano Pascual
Argentina Paola Suárez
3 2002-04
2002-04
Winner of most
mixed doubles titles - Women
All-time United States Margaret Osborne duPont
Australia Margaret Court
8 1943-46, 1950, 1958-60
1961-65, 1969-70, 1972
Before 1968 United States Margaret Osborne duPont 8 1943-46, 1950, 1958-60
Open Era Australia Margaret Court
United States Billie Jean King
United States Martina Navratilova
3 1969, 1970, 1972
1971, 1973, 1976
1985, 1987, 2006
Winner of most championships
(total: singles, women's doubles,
mixed doubles) - women
All-time United States Margaret Osborne duPont 25 1941–60 (3 singles, 13 women's doubles, 9 mixed doubles)
Before 1968 United States Margaret Osborne duPont 25 1941–60 (3 singles, 13 women's doubles, 9 mixed doubles)
Open Era United States Martina Navratilova 16 1977–2006 (4 singles, 9 women's doubles, 3 mixed doubles)
Miscellaneous
Youngest winner (singles) Men: United States Pete Sampras 19 years and 1 month[44]
Women United States Tracy Austin 16 years and 8 months[44]
Oldest winner (singles) Men United States William Larned 38 years and 8 months[44]
Women Norway/United States Molla Bjurstedt Mallory 42 years and 5 months[44]

Media coverage[edit]

  • The US Open's website allows viewing of live streaming video, but unlike other Grand Slam tournaments, does not allow watching video on demand. The site also offers live radio coverage.
  • Africa, North: beIN Media Group
  • Australia: ESPN Australia and Special Broadcasting Service (SBS) (quarterfinals (night sessions) onward)
  • Belgium: public broadcasters Eén, Canvas, and commercial channel Eurosport
  • Brazil: SporTV and ESPN Brasil
  • Brunei: Fox Sports Asia has the exclusive right to broadcast the event from 2017 through 2021.[45]
  • Cambodia: Fox Sports Asia has the exclusive right to broadcast the event from 2017 through 2021.[45]
  • Canada: The Sports Network (TSN) and Réseau des sports (RDS)
  • China, People's Republic of: China Central Television (CCTV) and iQiyi
  • Czech Republic: O2 Czech Republic and Eurosport
  • Denmark: Eurosport, Eurosport 2, and Eurosport Player
  • East Timor: Fox Sports Asia has the exclusive right to broadcast the event from 2017 through 2021.[45]
  • Germany: Eurosport covers up to five multichannel feeds available only on Sky Germany (Eurosport 360 HD) and Eurosport Player
  • Hong Kong: Fox Sports Asia has the exclusive right to broadcast the event from 2017 through 2021.[45]
  • India: Star Sports Select
  • Indonesia: Fox Sports Asia has the exclusive right to broadcast the event from 2017 through 2021.[45]
  • Ireland: Starting in 2018, Amazon will show the US Open for the next five years.[46]
  • Italy: Eurosport, Eurosport 2, and Eurosport Player
  • Japan: Wowow since 1992
  • Laos: Fox Sports Asia has the exclusive right to broadcast the event from 2017 through 2021.[45]
  • Macau: Fox Sports Asia has the exclusive right to broadcast the event from 2017 through 2021.[45]
  • Malaysia: Fox Sports Asia has the exclusive right to broadcast the event from 2017 through 2021.[45]
  • Mexico: Televisa Deportes cable network
  • Middle East: beIN Media Group
  • Mongolia: Fox Sports Asia has the exclusive right to broadcast the event from 2017 through 2021.[45]
  • Myanmar: Fox Sports Asia has the exclusive right to broadcast the event from 2017 through 2021.[45]
  • Netherlands: Eurosport and Eurosport 2
  • Pakistan: Star Sports Select
  • Papua New Guinea: Fox Sports Asia has the exclusive right to broadcast the event from 2017 through 2021.[45]
  • Philippines: Fox Sports Asia has the exclusive right to broadcast the event from 2017 through 2021.[45]
  • Poland: Eurosport and Eurosport 2
  • Portugal: Eurosport
  • Russia: NTV Plus and Eurosport
  • Serbia: Radio Television of Serbia (RTS)
  • Singapore: Fox Sports Asia has the exclusive right to broadcast the event from 2017 through 2021.[45]
  • South Africa: SuperSport
  • South Korea: Fox Sports Asia has the exclusive right to broadcast the event from 2017 through 2021.[45]
  • Spain: Eurosport
  • Switzerland: Swiss Broadcasting Corporation (SRG SSR) and Eurosport
  • Taiwan: Fox Sports Asia has the exclusive right to broadcast the event from 2017 through 2021.[45]
  • Thailand: Fox Sports Asia has the exclusive right to broadcast the event from 2017 through 2021.[45]
  • United Kingdom: Starting in 2018, Amazon will show the US Open for the next five years.[46]
  • United States: ESPN took full control of televising the event in 2015, ending CBS's 46-years of coverage.[47]
  • Vietnam: Fox Sports Asia has the exclusive right to broadcast the event from 2017 through 2021.[45]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Except Arthur Ashe Stadium and Louis Armstrong Stadium during rain delays.
  2. ^ The last American to win the men's singles title was Andy Roddick in 2003.
  3. ^ The last American to win the women's singles title was Sloane Stephens in 2017.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ashley Marshall (July 17, 2018). "2018 US Open Prize Money to reach $53 Million". United States Tennis Association. Retrieved August 25, 2018. 
  2. ^ "National Lawn-Tennis Tournament" (PDF). The New York Times. July 14, 1881. Retrieved July 15, 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c d Bud Collins (2010). The Bud Collins History of Tennis (2nd ed.). New York City: New Chapter Press. pp. 10, 452, 454. ISBN 978-0942257700. 
  4. ^ "Tennis Tournament at Newport Again" (PDF). The New York Times. February 4, 1911. Retrieved July 16, 2012. 
  5. ^ a b Bill Shannon (1981). United States Tennis Association Official Encyclopedia of Tennis (Centennial edition). New York City: Harper & Row. pp. 237–249. ISBN 0-06-014896-9. 
  6. ^ "Newport May Lose Tennis Tourney" (PDF). The New York Times. January 17, 1915. Retrieved July 16, 2012. 
  7. ^ "Want Newport for Tennis Tourney" (PDF). The New York Times. January 18, 1915. Retrieved July 16, 2012. 
  8. ^ "A Tennis "Solar Plexus"" (PDF). The New York Times. January 23, 1915. Retrieved July 16, 2012. 
  9. ^ "Tourney Goes to New York". Boston Evening Transcript. February 6, 1915. Retrieved July 16, 2012. 
  10. ^ "'All-Comers' Tourney to be Restricted" (PDF). The New York Times. February 7, 1915. Retrieved July 16, 2012. 
  11. ^ "Newport Loses Tennis Tourney" (PDF). The New York Times. February 6, 1915. Retrieved July 21, 2012. 
  12. ^ "Germantown Cricket Club History". Germantown Cricket Club. Archived from the original on April 3, 2012. Retrieved December 15, 2013. 
  13. ^ "Recommendation is made for the abolition of blind draw in promotion of tennis tourneys". Newspapers.com. Evening Public Ledger. December 19, 1921. p. 21. 
  14. ^ E. Digby Baltzell. Sporting Gentlemen: Men's Tennis from the Age of Honor to the Cult of the Superstar. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers. p. 182. ISBN 978-14128-5180-0. 
  15. ^ "Grand Slams – US Open". Internatiomal. Retrieved August 23, 2012. 
  16. ^ Richard Sandomir (August 3, 2006). "Tennis Center to Be Named for Billie Jean King". The New York Times. 
  17. ^ a b "Ladies first – women's open final is so hot, they're moving it to prime-time". New York Post. Retrieved 12 September 2016. 
  18. ^ a b "ATP blasts US Open over Monday final". ESPN.co.uk. Retrieved August 31, 2015. 
  19. ^ a b "Traditional US Open scheduling favors Federer". ESPN.com. Retrieved 31 August 2015. 
  20. ^ "US Open schedules Monday finish". ESPN.co.uk. Retrieved August 31, 2015. 
  21. ^ "U.S. Open schedule: How to watch semifinal matches". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved September 12, 2015. 
  22. ^ "USTA ARTHUR ASHE STADIUM". Rossetti. Retrieved August 25, 2018. 
  23. ^ a b c Cindy Shmerler (August 20, 2018). "What's New, and What's Free, at the 2018 U.S. Open". The New York Times. Retrieved August 28, 2018. 
  24. ^ a b David W. Dunlap (August 29, 2016). "How the Roof Was Raised at Arthur Ashe Stadium". The New York Times. Retrieved August 25, 2018. 
  25. ^ Tim Newcomb (August 8, 2018). "Finishing Touches at U.S. Open's Home". VenuesNow. Retrieved August 28, 2018. 
  26. ^ a b c Howard Beck (September 4, 2011). "A Tiny New Stage for High-Energy Tennis". The New York Times. Retrieved August 25, 2018. 
  27. ^ Robson, Douglas. "New show court draws a crowd, quietly" USA Today (August 29, 2011)
  28. ^ "USTA Tennis Championships Magazine: 2018 US Open Edition". United States Tennis Association. p. 26. Retrieved August 28, 2018. 
  29. ^ "About Court Pace Classification". International Tennis Federation. Retrieved August 25, 2018. }
  30. ^ Thomas Lin (September 7, 2011). "Speed Bumps on a Hardcourt". The New York Times. Retrieved August 25, 2018. 
  31. ^ a b Tim Newcomb (August 24, 2015). "The science behind creating the U.S. Open courts and signature colors". Sports Illustrated. 
  32. ^ Chris Broussard (September 9, 2004). "Williams Receives Apology, and Umpire's Open Is Over". The New York Times. 
  33. ^ "Chase signs mega renewal with Open". Retrieved September 9, 2016. 
  34. ^ "US Open History – Year-by-Year". United States Tennis Association (USTA). 
  35. ^ "U.S. Open Tennis - Total Attendance (By Year)". www.baruch.cuny.edu. City University of New York. 
  36. ^ https://www.sportsbusinessdaily.com/Daily/Issues/2017/09/12/Events-and-Attractions/US-Open.aspx
  37. ^ "US Open Prize Money Increases Announced". ATP Tour. July 12, 2012. Retrieved August 23, 2012. 
  38. ^ a b "US Open Prize Money". USTA. Archived from the original on January 13, 2013. Retrieved August 23, 2012. 
  39. ^ 美网宣布今年奖金再涨400万美元 刷新大满贯纪录
  40. ^ "US Open makes long-term commitment to the game". US open. Retrieved June 25, 2013. 
  41. ^ "2014 US Open Prize Money" Archived August 26, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. US Open
  42. ^ "US prize money upped" DPA International, 14th of July 2014.
  43. ^ "All about rankings". www.wtatennis.com. Women's Tennis Association (WTA). 
  44. ^ a b c d "Youngest and oldest champions". United States Tennis Association. Retrieved October 17, 2017. 
  45. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q "Fox Sports Asia completes tennis Grand Slam with the acquisition of the US Open". Casbaa. May 19, 2016. Retrieved August 25, 2018. 
  46. ^ a b "US Open: Amazon to show Grand Slam online in UK & Ireland from 2018". BBC Sport. 19 April 2018. Retrieved 20 April 2018. 
  47. ^ "ESPN to Gain Full Rights to U.S. Open in 2015". The New York Times. Retrieved August 25, 2018. 

External links[edit]

Preceded by
Wimbledon
Grand Slam Tournament
August–September
Succeeded by
Australian Open
Preceded by
New Haven
US Open Series
July–September
Succeeded by
None