Arena Football League
The Arena Football League is a professional indoor American football league in the United States. It was founded in 1987 by Jim Foster, making it the third longest-running professional football league in North America, after the Canadian Football League and the National Football League; the AFL plays a proprietary code known as arena football, a form of indoor American football played on a 66-by-28 yard field, with rules encouraging offensive performance, resulting in a faster-paced and higher-scoring game. The sport was invented in the early 1980s and patented by Foster, a former executive of the United States Football League and the NFL. From 2000 to 2009, the AFL had its own developmental league, the af2; the AFL played 22 seasons from 1987 to 2008. That year both the AFL and af2 were dissolved and reorganized as a new corporation comprising teams from both leagues, the AFL returned in 2010; the league's average game attendance since returning in 2010 has been 9,500. The league has had a nationwide footprint, has been recognized as the most prominent professional indoor football league in North America, offering higher payment, more widespread media exposure, a longer history than competing leagues.
From a high of 19 teams in 2007, the league contracted to a low of four teams in 2018, all in the northeastern United States. Six teams are announced for the 2019 season. Jim Foster, a promotions manager with the National Football League, conceived of indoor football while watching an indoor soccer match at Madison Square Garden in 1981. While at the game, he wrote his idea on a 9 x 12 envelope, with sketches of the field and notes on gameplay, he presented the idea to a few friends at the NFL offices, where he received praise and encouragement for his concept. After solidifying the rules and a business plan, supplemented with sketches by a professional artist, Foster presented his idea to various television networks, he reached an agreement with NBC for a "test game". Plans for arena football were put on hold in 1982. Foster left the NFL to accept a position in the USFL, he became executive vice-president with the Chicago Blitz, where he returned to his concept of arena football. In 1983, he began organizing the test game in his spare time from his job with the Blitz.
By 1985, the USFL had ceased football operations and he began devoting all his time to arena football, on April 27, 1986, his concept was realized when the test game was played. The test game was played in Illinois on April 27, 1986 at the Rockford MetroCentre. Sponsors were secured, players and coaches from local colleges were recruited to volunteer to play for the teams, the Chicago Politicians and Rockford Metros, with the guarantee of a tryout should the league take off. Interest was high enough following the initial test game that Foster decided to put on a second, "showcase" game; the second game was held on February 27, 1987 at the Rosemont Horizon in Chicago with a budget of $20,000, quadruple the $4,000 in the test game. Foster invited ESPN to send a film crew to the game. Following the successes of his trial-run games, Foster moved ahead with his idea for arena football, he founded the Arena Football League with four teams: the Pittsburgh Gladiators, Denver Dynamite, Washington Commandos, Chicago Bruisers.
Foster appointed legendary Darrel "Mouse" Davis, godfather of the "run and shoot" and modern pro offenses, as executive director of football operations. Davis hired the original coaches and was the architect of the league's original wide-open offensive playbooks; the first game in Arena Football League history was played on June 19, 1987, between the Gladiators and Commandos at Pittsburgh Civic Arena in front of 12,117 fans. The game was deliberately not televised so that it could be analyzed and any follies and failures would not be subject to national public scrutiny. Following the inaugural game and adjustments were made, the first season continued; the Dynamite and Bruisers played in the first-ever televised AFL game the next night, on June 20, 1987, at the Rosemont Horizon in suburban Chicago on ESPN with Bob Rathbun and Lee Corso calling the play-by-play. The broadcast showed a short clip of the Commandos-Gladiators game; each team played two against each other team. The top two teams and Pittsburgh competed in the first-ever AFL championship game, ArenaBowl I.
On September 30, 1987, Foster filed an application with the United States Patent and Trademark Office to patent his invented sport. The patent application covered the rules of the game detailing the goalposts and rebound netting and their impact on gameplay. Foster's application was granted on March 27, 1990; the patent expired in 2007. From its inception, the AFL operated in a state of semi-obscurity. From the 1987 season until the late 1990s, the most exposure the league would receive was on ESPN, which aired tape-delayed games well after midnight, edited to match the allotted time slot; the league received its first taste of wide exposure in 1998, when Arena Bowl XII was televised nationally as part of ABC's old Wide World of Sports. On Saturday, July 23, 1989, much of America learned of the AFL for an unintended reason, when the Pittsburgh Gladiators' head coach, Joe Haering, made football history by punching commissioner Jim Foster during a game with the Chicago Bruisers; the national media ran with the story, including a photo in USA To
A keyboard layout is any specific mechanical, visual, or functional arrangement of the keys, legends, or key-meaning associations of a computer, typewriter, or other typographic keyboard. Mechanical layout is the keys of a keyboard. Visual layout is the arrangement of the legends. Functional layout is the arrangement of the key-meaning associations, determined in software, of all the keys of a keyboard. Most computer keyboards are designed to send scancodes to the operating system, rather than directly sending characters. From there, the series of scancodes is converted into a character stream by keyboard layout software; this allows a physical keyboard to be dynamically mapped to any number of layouts without switching hardware components – by changing the software that interprets the keystrokes. It is possible for an advanced user to change keyboard operation, third-party software is available to modify or extend keyboard functionality. A computer keyboard consists of alphanumeric or character keys for typing, modifier keys for altering the functions of other keys, navigation keys for moving the text cursor on the screen, function keys and system command keys – such as Esc and Break – for special actions, a numeric keypad to facilitate calculations.
There is some variation between different keyboard models in the mechanical layout – i.e. how many keys there are and how they are positioned on the keyboard. However, differences between national layouts are due to different selections and placements of symbols on the character keys; the core section of a keyboard consists of character keys, which can be used to type letters and other characters. There are three rows of keys for typing letters and punctuation, an upper row for typing digits and special symbols, the Space bar on the bottom row; the positioning of the character keys is similar to the keyboard of a typewriter. Besides the character keys, a keyboard incorporates special keys that do nothing by themselves but modify the functions of other keys. For example, the ⇧ Shift key can be used to alter the output of character keys, whereas the Ctrl and Alt keys trigger special operations when used in concert with other keys. A modifier key is held down while another key is struck. To facilitate this, modifier keys come in pairs, one functionally identical key for each hand, so holding a modifier key with one hand leaves the other hand free to strike another key.
An alphanumeric key labeled with only a single letter can be struck to type either a lower case or capital letter, the latter requiring the simultaneous holding of the ⇧ Shift key. The ⇧ Shift key is used to type the upper of two symbols engraved on a given key, the lower being typed without using the modifier key; the English alphanumeric keyboard has a dedicated key for each of the letters A–Z, along with keys for punctuation and other symbols. In many other languages there are additional letters or symbols, which need to be available on the keyboard. To make room for additional symbols, keyboards have what is a secondary shift key, labeled AltGr, it can be used to type an extra symbol in addition to the two otherwise available with an alphanumeric key, using it with the ⇧ Shift key may give access to a fourth symbol. On the visual layout, these third-level and fourth-level symbols may appear on the right half of the key top, or they may be unmarked. Instead of the Alt and AltGr keys, Apple Keyboards have ⌘ ⌥ Option keys.
The ⌥ Option key is used much like the AltGr, the ⌘ Cmd key like the Ctrl on IBM PCs, to access menu options and shortcuts. Macs have a Ctrl key for compatibility with programs, it is useful when using a terminal, X11 or MS Windows. The key can be used to produce a secondary mouse click as well. There is a Fn key on modern Mac keyboards, used for switching between use of the F1, F2, etc. keys either as function keys or for other functions like media control, accessing dashboard widgets, controlling the volume, or handling exposé. Fn key can be found on many IBM PC laptops, where it serves a similar purpose. Many Unix workstations keyboards placed the Ctrl key to the left of the letter A, the ⇪ Caps Lock key in the bottom left; this layout is preferred by programmers as it makes the Ctrl key easier to reach. This position of the Ctrl key is used on the XO laptop, which does not have a ⇪ Caps Lock; the UNIX keyboard layout differs in the placement of the ESC key, to the left of 1. Some early keyboards experimented with using large numbers of modifier keys.
The most extreme example of such a keyboard, the so-called "Space-cadet keyboard" found on MIT LISP machines, had no fewer than seven modifier keys: four control keys, Meta and Super, along with three shift keys, ⇧ Shift and Front. This allowed the user to type over 8000 possible characters by playing suitable "chords" with many modifier keys pressed simultaneously. A dead key is a special kind of a modifier key that, instead of being held while another key is struck, is pressed and released before the other key; the dead key does not generate a character by itself, but it modifies the character generated by the key struck after making it possible to type a letter with a specific diacritic. For example, on some keyboard layouts, the grave accent key ` is a dead key.
The Milwaukee Bucks are an American professional basketball team based in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The Bucks compete in the National Basketball Association as a member club of the league's Eastern Conference Central Division; the team was founded in 1968 as an expansion team, play at the Fiserv Forum. Former U. S. Senator Herb Kohl was the long-time owner of the team, but on April 16, 2014, a group led by billionaire hedge fund managers Wes Edens and Marc Lasry agreed to purchase a majority interest in the team from Kohl, a sale, approved by the owners of the NBA and its Board of Governors one month on May 16; the team is managed by Jon Horst, the team's former director of basketball operations, who took over for John Hammond in May 2017. The Bucks have won one league title, two conference titles, 14 division titles, they have featured such notable players as Kareem Abdul-Jabbar, Sidney Moncrief, Oscar Robertson, Bob Dandridge, Bob Lanier, Glenn Robinson, Ray Allen, Sam Cassell, Junior Bridgeman, Michael Redd, Terry Cummings, Vin Baker, Jon McGlocklin, Marques Johnson, Brian Winters.
On January 22, 1968, the NBA awarded a franchise to Milwaukee Professional Sports and Services, Inc. a group headed by Wesley Pavalon and Marvin Fishman. A fan contest was held to name the new team, with over 40,000 fans participating. While the most-voted fan entry was the Robins, named for Wisconsin's state bird, the contest judges went with the second-most popular choice, the Bucks, a reference to Wisconsin's official wild animal, the white-tailed deer. One fan, R. D. Trebilcox, was awarded a new car for his part in reasoning why the Bucks was a good nickname, saying that bucks were "spirited, good jumpers and agile." The Bucks marked a return of the NBA to Milwaukee after 13 years. In October, the Bucks played their first NBA regular-season game against the Chicago Bulls before a Milwaukee Arena crowd of 8,467; as is typical with expansion teams, the Bucks' first season was a struggle. Their first victory came in their sixth game as the Bucks beat the Detroit Pistons 134–118; the Bucks' record that year earned them a coin flip against their expansion cousins, the Phoenix Suns, to see who would get the first pick in the upcoming draft.
It was considered a foregone conclusion that the first pick in the draft would be Lew Alcindor of UCLA. The Bucks won the coin flip, but had to win a bidding war with the upstart American Basketball Association to secure him. Despite the Bucks' stroke of fortune in landing Alcindor, no one expected what happened in 1969–70, they finished with a 56–26 record – a nearly exact reversal of the previous year and good enough for the second-best record in the league, behind the New York Knicks. The 29-game improvement was the best in league history – a record which would stand for 10 years until the Boston Celtics jumped from 29 wins in 1978–79 to 61 in 1979–80; the Bucks defeated the Philadelphia 76ers in five games in the Eastern semifinals, only to be dispatched in five by the Knicks in the Eastern finals. Alcindor was a runaway selection for NBA Rookie of the Year; the following season, the Bucks got an unexpected gift when they acquired Oscar Robertson, known as the "Big O", in a trade with the Cincinnati Royals.
Subsequently, in only their third season, the Bucks finished 66–16 – the second-most wins in NBA history at the time, still the most in franchise history. During the regular season, the Bucks recorded, they steamrolled through the playoffs with a dominating 12–2 record, winning the NBA Championship on April 30, 1971, by sweeping the Baltimore Bullets in four games. By winning it all in only their third season, the Bucks became the fastest expansion team in the history of North American sports to win a championship; as of 2018, it remains the only title in team history. The Bucks remained a powerhouse for the first half of the 1970s. In 1972, they recorded their third consecutive 60-win season. During the year, Lew Alcindor changed his name to Kareem Abdul-Jabbar. Milwaukee beat the Warriors in the playoffs 4–1, but lost the conference finals to Los Angeles 4–2. Injuries resulted in an early 1973 playoff exit, but the Bucks were back in the 1974 NBA Finals against the Boston Celtics. In game six of the series, Abdul-Jabbar made his famous "sky hook" shot to end a classic double-overtime victory for the Bucks.
The Bucks lost the series to the Celtics. As the 1974–1975 season began, Abdul-Jabbar suffered a hand injury and the team got off to a 3–13 start. After his return, other injuries befell Milwaukee, sending them to the bottom of their division with 38 wins and 44 losses; when the season ended, Abdul-Jabbar made the stunning announcement that he no longer wished to play for the Bucks, stating that he needed the big city, requesting a trade to either Los Angeles or New York City. The front office was unable to convince him otherwise and on June 16, 1975, the Bucks pulled a mega-trade by sending Abdul-Jabbar to the Lakers for Elmore Smith, Junior Bridgeman, Brian Winters and David Meyers; the trade triggered a series of events. The Bucks' largest stockholder, cable television executive Jim Fitzgerald, opposed the trade and wanted to sell his stock. Although Fitzgerald was the largest stockholder, he did not own enough stock to control the team. After the deal, the Bucks
Continental Indoor Football League
The Continental Indoor Football League was an indoor football league based along the Midwestern United States region that played nine seasons from 2006 to 2014. It began play in April 2006 as the Great Lakes Indoor Football League, it was formed by Jeff Spitaleri, his brother Eric, a third member, Cory Trapp, all from the Canton, Ohio area. The league was called the Ohio-Penn Indoor Football League, but executives decided to increase the league's appeal to the entire Great Lakes region; the league was successful, having a cumulative attendance of over 75,000 in the inaugural regular season. However, the league, like other indoor football associations, was plagued by folding franchises and unenforceable policies throughout its existence. For example, the 2006 champion Port Huron Pirates were found to have been paying some of their players over the league salary cap. 2007 saw several teams fold during the season, during the 2008 season, the league's most successful team, the Rochester Raiders, moved to another league due to frustration over the failure of the league to provide notice of an opponent's forfeiture, resulting in lost ticket and advertising revenue.
The league failed to return the Raiders' owners' emergency fund deposit, collected to protect against such occurrences. The CIFL is among several indoor football leagues that maintained a regional operation, with most of its teams clustered in the Midwestern United States. Teams went back and forth between the CIFL and the other regional leagues, as well as the Indoor Football League, over the course of the league's history. Prior to its disbanding, the CIFL claimed itself to be the longest continually operating current indoor football league in the United States, noting that older leagues such as the Arena Football League and American Indoor Football had suspended operations at least once since the CIFL's founding. In July 2012, the CIFL changed ownership for the first time in its history, when Jeff Spitaleri sold the CIFL to Indoor Football Incorporated, which included Rob Licht, Jim O'Brien and Stuart Schweigert; the group owned the Saginaw Sting. The new ownership of the league sought to help current teams brand their product better, as well as look to expand the league, but its primary goal was to have competitive franchises.
The Great Lakes Indoor Football League was founded in 2005 by brothers Eric and Jeff Spitaleri and their friend Cory Trapp. The league's first franchise accepted was the Lehigh Valley Outlawz, who joined in late June, 2005. During the league's first season, it cost a new owner a $15,000 franchising fee, with a capped salary of $5,400 per team, per week, with no player earning more than $300 per game. While trying to attract teams, the league agreed to arena contracts before securing owners in efforts to attract owners in those specific market areas, they reached agreements with markets in Danville, Battle Creek, Rochester, New York, Port Huron, Toledo and Marion, Ohio. Of those markets, the league was able to sell ownership to four of them. In December, it was finalized that the league would begin with six teams in their inaugural season, with teach team playing a 10-game season over a 12-week span. On April 7, 2006, the league held its first games with the Battle Creek Crunch hosting the Port Huron Pirates and the Rochester Raiders hosting the New York/New Jersey Revolution.
The Crunch were defeated 62-22 by the Pirates, the Raiders defeating the Revolution 71-13. The league's first playoff format was a 4-team set up with the #1 seed hosting the #4 seed, the #2 seed hosting the #3 seed; the semifinals featured a pair of blowout games, with Port Huron and Rochester advancing to Great Lakes Bowl I, to be played at McMorran Arena as Port Huron was the #1 seed on July 22. The Pirates were able shut down the Raiders' offense for most of the second half earning a 40-34 victory for the Port Huron, thus completing the first undefeated season in league history. At the conclusion of the first season, the league put together an All-Star Game at Stabler Arena, where they split up three teams each for an East vs. West matchup; the West dominated, with a roster full of Port Huron's championship team. The 2007 season brought big changes, as the league changed its name to the Continental Indoor Football League, saw the league expand to 14 teams with only the Crunch not returning.
The league suspended operations in October 2014, when the league's five remaining teams, the champion Erie Explosion, the Saginaw Sting, Marion Blue Racers, Chicago Blitz and Northern Kentucky River Monsters, either suspended operations or joined other leagues. Shortly thereafter, the league Web site redirected to American Indoor Football's. On August 23, 2015, it was announced that the CIFL would return for the 2016 season and the Explosion and Blue Racers will return to the CIFL as a result. However, the league disbanded again that fall after no other teams agreed to join the revived league. Field Size – 50 yards long by 25 yards wide, with end zones a minimum of 5 yards in depth. Fields may vary in size due with CIFL permission. End zones may be rounded due to hockey board configurations. Padded dasher board walls around the entire field. Goal
The Milwaukee Admirals are a professional ice hockey team in the American Hockey League. They play in Milwaukee, United States at the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee Panther Arena, they have been affiliated with the NHL's Nashville Predators since that team's founding in 1998. The Admirals first took to the ice in the winter of 1970 as an amateur club known as the Milwaukee Wings, they lost their first game on January 25 when the Madison All-Stars beat them 17–7. They got their first win five days when they defeated the Milwaukee Winter Club 10–8; the next year the team was sold by the original owner Reed Fansher to a group of investors. One of the investors, Erwin J. Merar, owned an appliance store; the team was renamed the "Admirals" after a brand of household appliances sold in Merar's store. Beginning with the 1973–74 season the Admirals joined the newly formed United States Hockey League, their first season in a league was not successful as they ended the season in last place in their division.
They won only 11 games, lost 35, tied two games that season. The Admirals won the USHL league championship in 1976, winning seven straight games in the league's playoffs. In the off-season, the team was purchased by former Chicago Blackhawks announcer Lloyd Pettit and his wife, Jane Bradley Pettit. For the 1977–78 season the Admirals joined the International Hockey League as the USHL was becoming a amateur league; the Admirals appeared in the IHL's Turner Cup finals only once, where they lost to Toledo in six games. They stayed a part of the IHL until it joined the American Hockey League for the 2001–02 season when the IHL ceased operations. Five other IHL franchises joined the AHL that season; the team was allowed to keep their nickname despite the presence of the Norfolk Admirals in the AHL, as Milwaukee has had the nickname since 1977, well before the Norfolk team was established as the Hampton Roads Admirals in the ECHL. In the 2015-16 season, Norfolk moved to the AHL's Pacific Division as the newest incarnation of the San Diego Gulls.
They won their first Calder Cup in 2004. Prior to the finals, Milwaukee needed seven games to defeat the Cincinnati Mighty Ducks in the first round; the Admirals defeated the Chicago Wolves in six games to advance to the conference finals. The Admirals eliminated the Rochester Americans four games to one. Milwaukee went on to sweep the Wilkes-Barre/Scranton Penguins to win the Calder Cup; the Admirals completed a rare postseason run in which they needed one fewer games to eliminate their opponents in each subsequent series. The Admirals were purchased in June 2005 by a group of investors, led by Harris J. Turer, including Milwaukee Brewers owner Mark Attanasio, assistant general manager Gord Ash, pitcher Ben Sheets; the Brewers subsequently became the sole uniform sponsor of the Admirals, the Admirals wear a Brewers logo patch on their sweaters. The Admirals won their second division title as a member of the American Hockey League in 2006, clinching the title on the last day of their schedule with a win over the Grand Rapids Griffins.
In the 2006 Calder Cup playoffs after narrowly winning a seven-game playoff series over the Iowa Stars, Milwaukee swept both the Houston Aeros and Grand Rapids Griffins to advance to their second Calder Cup final series. To their disappointment, the Admirals would lose 4–2 to the Hershey Bears. On August 1, 2006, the Admirals unveiled their newest logo to the public at the Henry Maier Festival Park; the logo came with a color change for the team, away from red and blue hues to one of black and light blue. They unveiled their new slogan, "Never Say Die". On March 16, 2016, Milwaukee Admirals owner/CEO Harris Turer along with Wisconsin Center District announced that the Admirals signed a 10-year contract, bringing the Admirals to the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee Panther Arena for the 2016-17 AHL season; this 10-year contract results in a $6.4 million dollar investment to bring the arena up to AHL standards with the Admirals contributing two million and the rest being supplied by the Wisconsin Center District.
The Admirals have been the top-level affiliate of the Nashville Predators since that team's founding in 1998. On 22 February 2010, the clubs signed a new agreement that extended that relationship through the 2011–12 season with a mutual option for 2012–13. "I like to say that for our players, the road to Nashville runs through Milwaukee and a look at our roster illustrates this. His is the kind of environment that we want our prospects to develop in." Coincidentally, the two cities' baseball franchises shared a reverse affiliation, as the Nashville Sounds were the Triple-A affiliate of the Milwaukee Brewers from 2005 to 2014. During the 2006–07 season, the Admirals were part of an unusual affiliation agreement with the Edmonton Oilers, who used five partial affiliates in the AHL for the 2006–07 season; these five affiliates included the Milwaukee Admirals, the Grand Rapids Griffins, the Iowa Stars, the Wilkes-Barre/Scranton Penguins, the Hamilton Bulldogs. This arrangement lasted one season, as the Oilers announced a three-year affiliation with the Springfield Falcons on March 19, 2007.
Milwaukee Admirals 1977–2001 Milwaukee Admirals 2001–present Legend: — – round did not exist at the time Updated April 10, 2019. 9 Phil Wittliff, C, 1973–77 14 Mike McNeill, C, 1992–98 and Fred Berry, C, 1980–84, 1985–87 26 Tony Hrkac, C, 1994–97, 2003–05 27 Danny Lecours, LW, 1975–84, 1985–87 44 Gino Cavallini, C, 1993–96 and Kevin Willison, D, 1981–84, 1985–86 Neil Meadmore, 1987–88 Peter Bakovic, 1988–91 Gino Cavallini, 1994–1996 Tony Hrkac, 1996–97 Jeff Nelson, 1997–99 Marc Moro, 1999–
Marquette University is a private research university in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Established by the Society of Jesus as Marquette College on August 28, 1881, it was founded by John Martin Henni, the first Bishop of Milwaukee; the university was named after 17th-century missionary and explorer Father Jacques Marquette, with the intention to provide an affordable Catholic education to the area's emerging German immigrant population. An all-male institution, Marquette became the first coed Catholic university in the world in 1909, when it began admitting its first female students. Marquette is one of 28 member institutions of the Association of Jesuit Universities; the university is accredited by the Higher Learning Commission and has a student body of about 12,000. Marquette is one of the largest Jesuit universities in the United States, the largest private university in Wisconsin. Marquette is organized into 11 schools and colleges at its main Milwaukee campus, offering programs in the liberal arts, communications, engineering and various health sciences disciplines.
The university administers classes in suburbs around the Milwaukee area and in Washington, DC. While most students are pursuing undergraduate degrees, the university has over 68 doctoral and masters degree programs, a law school, a dental school, 22 graduate certificate programs; the university's varsity athletic teams, known as the Golden Eagles, are members of the Big East Conference and compete in the NCAA's Division I in all sports. In 2019, U. S. News & World Report ranked Marquette #89 among national universities. Forbes ranked Marquette #86 among American research universities and #173 on its top colleges list in 2017. Marquette University was founded 138 years ago on August 28, 1881, as Marquette College by John Martin Henni, the first Catholic bishop of the Archdiocese of Milwaukee, with the assistance of funding from Belgian businessman Guillaume Joseph DeBuey; the university was named after explorer Father Jacques Marquette. The highest priority of the newly established college was to provide an affordable Catholic education to the area's emerging German immigrant population.
The first five graduates of Marquette College received their bachelor of arts degrees in 1887. Between 1891 and 1906, the college employed one full-time lay professor, with many classes being taught by master's students. By 1906, Marquette had awarded 186 students the Bachelor of Arts, 38 the Master of Arts, one student Bachelor of Science. Marquette College became a university in 1907, after it became affiliated with a local medical school and moved to its present location. Johnston Hall, which now houses the university's College of Communication, was the first building erected on the new campus grounds. Marquette University High School the preparatory department of the university, became a separate institution the same year. In 1908, Marquette opened an engineering college and purchased two law schools, which would become the foundation of its current law program. An all-male institution, Marquette University became the first coed Catholic university in the world, when it admitted its first female students in 1909.
By 1916 its female students had increased to 375. Marquette acquired the Wisconsin College of Physicians and Surgeons in 1913, leading to the formation of the Marquette University School of Medicine. During the 1920s and again during the post-World War II years, Marquette expanded, opening a new library, athletics facilities, classroom buildings, residence halls; the student population increased markedly as well, met by the construction of buildings for the schools of law, business and the liberal arts. Marquette is credited with offering the first degree program specializing in hospital administration in the United States, graduated the first two students in 1927. Despite the promising growth of the university, financial constraints led to the School of Medicine separating from Marquette in 1967 to become the Medical College of Wisconsin. Marquette's Golden Avalanche football team was disbanded in December 1960, basketball became the leading spectator sport at the university. Graduate programs in the liberal arts and sciences, for which planning had begun in the preceding decade, were opened in the 1970s.
In 1977, the university celebrated the victory of their men's basketball team over the University of North Carolina to win the NCAA Championship title. In 1994, then-President Albert J. DiUlio made a controversial decision to discontinue the use of the "Warriors" nickname for the university's sports teams, citing growing pressure on schools to end the use of Native American mascots. Backlash from alumni and students ensued, though the administration and Marquette community settled on the nickname "Golden Eagles." The mascot controversy again boiled over in 2005 when the university's leadership changed the nickname to "the Gold," only to return to the "Golden Eagles" a week later. During the 1990s, the university invested in the neighborhood surrounding Marquette with its $50 million Campus Circle Project, it opened a Washington, D. C.-based study center called the Les Aspin Center for Government, named after the former Secretary of Defense. MBA programs and the College of Professional Studies, with programs aimed at adult education, were founded during the mid-1990s.
In 1996, Robert A. Wild was installed as the university's 22nd president and shortly thereafter began a fundraising campaign that culminated in a major campus beautification effort and the construction of
Mecca spelled Makkah, is a city in the Hejazi region of the Arabian Peninsula, the plain of Tihamah in Saudi Arabia, is the capital and administrative headquarters of the Makkah Region. The city is located 70 km inland from Jeddah in a narrow valley at a height of 277 m above sea level, 340 kilometres south of Medina, its resident population in 2012 was 2 million, although visitors more than triple this number every year during the Ḥajj period held in the twelfth Muslim lunar month of Dhūl-Ḥijjah. As the birthplace of Muḥammad, the site of Muhammad's first revelation of the Quran, Mecca is regarded as the holiest city in the religion of Islam and a pilgrimage to it known as the Hajj is obligatory for all able Muslims. Mecca is home to the Kaaba, by majority description Islam's holiest site, as well as being the direction of Muslim prayer. Mecca was long ruled by Muhammad's descendants, the sharifs, acting either as independent rulers or as vassals to larger polities, it was conquered by Ibn Saud in 1925.
In its modern period, Mecca has seen tremendous expansion in size and infrastructure, home to structures such as the Abraj Al Bait known as the Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel, the world's fourth tallest building and the building with the third largest amount of floor area. During this expansion, Mecca has lost some historical structures and archaeological sites, such as the Ajyad Fortress. Today, more than 15 million Muslims visit Mecca annually, including several million during the few days of the Hajj; as a result, Mecca has become one of the most cosmopolitan cities in the Muslim world, although non-Muslims are prohibited from entering the city. "Mecca" is the familiar form of the English transliteration for the Arabic name of the city, although the official transliteration used by the Saudi government is Makkah, closer to the Arabic pronunciation. The word "Mecca" in English has come to be used to refer to any place that draws large numbers of people, because of this some English speaking Muslims have come to regard the use of this spelling for the city as offensive.
The Saudi government adopted Makkah as the official spelling in the 1980s, but is not universally known or used worldwide. The full official name is Makkah al-Mukarramah or Makkatu l-Mukarramah, which means "Mecca the Honored", but is loosely translated as "The Holy City of Mecca"; the ancient or early name for the site of Mecca is Bakkah. An Arabic language word, its etymology, like that of Mecca, is obscure. Believed to be a synonym for Mecca, it is said to be more the early name for the valley located therein, while Muslim scholars use it to refer to the sacred area of the city that surrounds and includes the Ka‘bah; this form is used for the name Mecca in the Quran in 3:96, while the form Mecca is used in 48:24. In South Arabic, the language in use in the southern portion of the Arabian Peninsula at the time of Muhammad, the b and m were interchangeable. Other references to Mecca in the Quran call it Umm al-Qurā, meaning "Mother of All Settlements"/"mother of villages". Another name of Mecca is Ṫihāmah.
Another name for Mecca, or the wilderness and mountains surrounding it, according to Arab and Islamic tradition, is Faran or Pharan, referring to the Desert of Paran mentioned in the Old Testament at Genesis 21:21. Arab and Islamic tradition holds that the wilderness of Paran, broadly speaking, is the Tihamah and the site where Ishmael settled was Mecca. Yaqut al-Hamawi, the 12th century Syrian geographer, wrote that Fārān was "an arabized Hebrew word, one of the names of Mecca mentioned in the Torah." Mecca is governed by the Municipality of Mecca, a municipal council of fourteen locally elected members headed by a mayor appointed by the Saudi government. As of May 2015, the mayor of the city was Dr. Osama bin Fadhel Al-Bar. Mecca is the capital of the Makkah Region; the provincial governor was prince Abdul Majeed bin Abdulaziz Al Saud from 2000 until his death in 2007. On 16 May 2007, prince Khalid bin Faisal Al Saud was appointed as the new governor; the early history of Mecca is still disputed, as there are no unambiguous references to it in ancient literature prior to the rise of Islam.
The Roman Empire took control of part of the Hejaz in 106 CE, ruling cities such as Hegra, located to the north of Mecca. Though detailed descriptions were established of Western Arabia by Rome, such as by Procopius, there are no references of a pilgrimage and trading outpost such as Mecca; the first direct mention of Mecca in external literature occurs in 741 CE, in the Byzantine-Arab Chronicle, though here the author places it in Mesopotamia rather than the Hejaz. Given the inhospitable environment and lack of historical references in Roman and Indian sources, historians including Patricia Crone and Tom Holland have cast doubt on the claim that Mecca was a major historical trading outpost; the Greek historian Diodorus Siculus writes about Arabia in his work Bibliotheca historica, describing a holy shrine: "And a temple has been set up there, holy and exceedingly revered by all Arabians". Claims have been made. However, the geographic location Diodorus describes is located in northwest Arabia, around the area of Leuke Kome, closer to Petra and within the form