Oceanographic Institute of the University of São Paulo
The Oceanographic Institute of the University of São Paulo, due to its name in Portuguese, was founded in 1946. It began as an independent institute, sponsored by the government, but was incorporated into the University of São Paulo, in 1951, it founded because its creators needed scientific basis to fishery and exploitation of all the available marine resources along the Brazilian coast in the state of São Paulo. IO-USP was transformed into a University Unit in 1972, started to offer post-graduate Masters courses in biological and physical oceanography in 1973, it offers an undergraduate course as well, performs many different researches. Now, the institute has two departments - Biological Oceanography and Physical and Geological Oceanography; the institute has around 150 general non-teaching workers. Its current director is Michel Michaelovitch de Mahiques; the institution has the support of three major vessels - the W. Besnard Oceanographic Ship, as well as the Albacora and the Veliger, used by the graduation students in their field research.
The institute has two research bases - Dr. João de Paiva Carvalho base, in the estuarine city of Cananéia, the Clarimundo de Jesus base, in the coastal city of Ubatuba. Both are equipped with advanced laboratories and sufficient research vessels, with the fundamental support of the main vessel, the W. Besnard Oceanographip Ship. Vivian Pellizari, Antarctic researcher, microbiologist http://io.usp.br http://www.io.usp.br/english/index_en.html
Serra do Mar State Park
The Serra do Mar State Park is a state park in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. It covers 315,000 hectares of the Serra do Mar mountain range, is one of the largest remaining areas of continuous Atlantic Forest; the State Park stretches from the border of Rio de Janeiro to Itariri in the southern part of São Paulo. The Serra do Mar State Park was created in 1977 when the BR-101 coastal highway was built, expanded in 2010. With an area of 332,000 hectares in 25 municipalities it is the largest Atlantic Forest protected area in Brazil; the park contains some traditional communities of quilombolas, Amerindians and caiçaras. It connects the Serra do Mar forests of Rio de Janeiro to the Vale do Ribeira and Paraná; the escarpments of the park dominate the coast of São Paulo. It is part of the 221,754 hectares Bocaina Mosaic, created in 2006; the Serra do Mar State Park is managed by the Forestry Foundation of São Paulo, linked to the São Paulo Secretariat of State for the Environment. The forest provides refuge to hundreds of species of other animals.
The park protects water sources that supply part of the São Paulo metropolitan region, Baixada Santista, Litoral Norte, the Paraíba Valley. It helps moderate the climate and maintain the stability of the slopes
Tropic of Capricorn
The Tropic of Capricorn is the circle of latitude that contains the subsolar point on the December solstice. It is thus the southernmost latitude, its northern equivalent is the Tropic of Cancer. The Tropic of Capricorn is one of the five major circles of latitude; as of 13 April 2019, its latitude is 23°26′12.4″ south of the Equator, but it is gradually moving northward at the rate of 0.47 arcseconds, or 15 metres, per year. When this line of latitude was named in the last centuries BC, the Sun was in the constellation Capricornus at the December solstice, the time each year that the Sun reaches its zenith at this latitude. Due to the precession of the equinoxes, this is no longer the case; the word "tropic" itself comes from the Greek "trope", meaning to turn or change direction, referring to the fact that the Sun appears to "turn back" at the solstices. The Tropic of Capricorn is the dividing line between the Southern Temperate Zone to the south and the tropics to the north; the Northern Hemisphere equivalent of the Tropic of Capricorn is the Tropic of Cancer.
The Tropic of Capricorn's position is not fixed, but changes because of a slight wobble in the Earth's longitudinal alignment relative to its orbit around the Sun. Earth's axial tilt varies over a 41,000 year period from 22.1 to 24.5 degrees and resides at about 23.4 degrees. This wobble means that the Tropic of Capricorn is drifting northward at a rate of half an arcsecond of latitude, or 15 metres, per year. See under circles of latitude for information. There are 13 hours, 35 minutes of daylight during the summer solstice. During the winter solstice, there are 41 minutes of daylight. In southern Africa, where rainfall is reliable, farming is possible, though yields are low with fertilisers. In Australia, areas on the Tropic have some of the most variable rainfall in the world and thus the wetter areas cannot be farmed, since irrigation sources invariably dry up in drought years. In South America, whilst in the continental cratons soils are as old as in Australia and Southern Africa, the presence of the geologically young and evolving Andes means that this region is on the western side of the subtropical anticyclones and thus receives warm and humid air from the Atlantic Ocean.
As a result, areas in Brazil adjacent to the Tropic are important agricultural regions, producing large quantities of crops such as sugarcane, the natural rainforest vegetation has been entirely cleared, except for a few remaining patches of Atlantic Forest. Further south in Argentina, the temperate grasslands of the Pampas region is one of the most productive agricultural regions in the world, producing of wheat, soybeans and beef, making the country one of the largest worldwide agricultural exporters, similar to the role played by the Prairies region in Canada. West of the Andes, the Humboldt Current makes conditions arid, creating the Atacama Desert, one of the driest in the world, so that no glaciers exist between Volcán Sajama at 18˚30'S and Cerro Tres Cruces at 27˚S. Vegetation here is non-existent, though on the eastern slopes of the Andes rainfall is adequate for rainfed agriculture. Starting at the Prime Meridian and heading eastwards, the Tropic of Capricorn passes through 10 countries: The following cities and landmarks are either located near the Tropic of Capricorn, or the tropic passes through them.
As the major portion of earth's land is located in the Northern Hemisphere there are only four countries south of the Tropic of Capricorn: Lesotho New Zealand Eswatini Uruguay Length of the Tropic on 11 June 2015, at 23°26′14″S is 36,788 kilometres. Temporal Epoch Calculations Useful constants" See: Obliquity of the ecliptic Montana State University: Milankovitch Cycles & Glaciation Circle of latitude Arctic Circle Tropic of Cancer Equator 23rd parallel south 24th parallel south Antarctic Circle Axial tilt Milankovitch cycles Capricornus
The Tupinambá were one of the various Tupi ethnic groups that inhabited present-day Brazil before the conquest of the region by Portuguese colonial settlers. The Tupinambás lived in Maranhão, their language survives today in the form of Nheengatu. The Tupinambás were abundantly described in André Thevet's 1572 Cosmographie universelle, in Jean de Léry's Histoire d'un voyage faict en la terre du Brésil, Hans Staden's Warhaftige Historia und beschreibung eyner Landtschafft der Wilden Nacketen, in which he describes the Tupinamba practicing cannibalism. Thevet and Léry were an inspiration for Montaigne's famous essay Des Cannibales, influenced the creation of the myth of the "noble savage" during the Enlightenment; the Tupinambá may have given their name to the common French word for the Jerusalem Artichoke, the topinambour. Léry, Janet Whatley. History of a Voyage to the Land of Brazil, Otherwise Called America. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1990. Print
Military history of Brazil
The military history of Brazil comprises centuries of armed actions in the territory encompassing modern Brazil, the role of the Brazilian Armed Forces in conflicts and peacekeeping worldwide. For several hundreds of years, the area was the site of intertribal wars of indigenous peoples. Beginning in the 16th century, the arrival of Portuguese explorers led to conflicts with the aboriginal peoples. Sporadic revolts of African slaves marked the colonial period, with a notable rebellion led by Zumbi dos Palmares. Conflicts were encountered with other European nations as well – two notable examples being the France Antarctique affair, a conflict with the Netherlands in the early 17th century over control of much of the Northeast. Although Portugal retained its possessions during conflicts with other nations, it lost control of the colony after the Brazilian war of Independence, which led to the establishment of the Empire of Brazil. Brazil's history after independence is marked by early territorial wars against its neighboring countries which have affected the formation of current political boundaries.
For example, the Cisplatine War, fought over the present day territory of Uruguay established that nation's independence. Brazil was affected in its infancy by minor – and unsuccessful – revolts in the Northern provinces. An armed conflict with Paraguay led to an establishment of Brazil's current border with that nation after a decisive victory. Internal conflicts between the executive government and the power of wealthy landowners led to the abolishment of the Brazilian Empire, the rise of the current republican government. Modern activity includes participation in both World Wars along with internal struggles due to military rule, participation in right wing military operations, such as Operation Condor. Recent developments include participation in peacekeeping efforts after the 2004 Haiti rebellion; the Tamoyo Confederation was a military alliance of aboriginal chieftains of the sea coast ranging from what is today Santos to Rio de Janeiro, which occurred from 1554 to 1567. The main reason for this rather unusual alliance between separate tribes was to react against slavery and wholesale murder and destruction wrought by the early Portuguese discoverers and colonisers of Brazil onto the Tupinambá people.
In the Tupi language, "Tamuya" means "elder" or "grandfather". Cunhambebe was elected chief of the Confederation by his counterparts, together with chiefs Pindobuçú, Araraí and Aimberê, declared war on the Portuguese. Slave rebellions were frequent until the practice of slavery was abolished in 1888; the most famous of the revolts was led by Zumbi dos Palmares. The state he established, named the Quilombo dos Palmares, was a self-sustaining republic of Maroons escaped from the Portuguese settlements in Brazil, was "a region the size of Portugal in the hinterland of Pernambuco". At its height, Palmares had a population of over 30,000. Forced to defend against repeated attacks by Portuguese colonial power, the warriors of Palmares were expert in capoeira, a martial arts form developed in Brazil by African slaves in the 16th century. An African known only as Zumbi was born free in Palmares in 1655, but was captured by the Portuguese and given to a missionary, Father António Melo when he was 6 years old.
Baptized Francisco, Zumbi was taught the sacraments, learned Portuguese and Latin, helped with daily mass. Despite attempts to "civilize" him, Zumbi escaped in 1670 and, at the age of 15, returned to his birthplace. Zumbi became known for his physical prowess and cunning in battle and was a respected military strategist by the time he was in his early twenties. By 1678, the governor of the captaincy of Pernambuco, Pedro Almeida, weary of the longstanding conflict with Palmares, approached its leader Ganga Zumba with an olive branch. Almeida offered freedom for all runaway slaves if Palmares would submit to Portuguese authority, a proposal which Ganga Zumba favored, but Zumbi was distrustful of the Portuguese. Further, he refused to accept freedom for the people of Palmares while other Africans remained enslaved, he challenged Ganga Zumba's leadership. Vowing to continue the resistance to Portuguese oppression, Zumbi became the new leader of Palmares. Fifteen years after Zumbi assumed leadership of Palmares, Portuguese military commanders Domingos Jorge Velho and Vieira de Mello mounted an artillery assault on the quilombo.
February 6, 1694, after 67 years of ceaseless conflict with the cafuzos, or Maroons, of Palmares, the Portuguese succeeded in destroying Cerca do Macaco, the republic's central settlement. Palmares' warriors were no match for the Portuguese artillery. Though he survived and managed to elude the Portuguese, he was betrayed, captured two years and beheaded on the spot November 20, 1695; the Portuguese transported Zumbi's head to Recife, where it was displayed in the central praça as proof that, contrary to popular legend among African slaves, Zumbi was not immortal. It was done as a warning of what would happen to others if they tried to be as brave as him. Remnants of the old quilombos continued to reside in the region for another hundred years. In 1864, the Paraguayan War started due to the expansionist desires of Paraguayan president, Francisco Solano López; the start of the war has been attributed to causes as varied as the after-effects of colonialism in Latin America, the struggle for physical power over the strategic River Plate region and Argentinian meddling in internal Uruguayan politics.
Since Brazil and Argentina ha
Southeast Region, Brazil
The Southeast Region of Brazil is composed by the states of Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo. It is the richest region of the country, responsible for 60% of the Brazilian GDP. São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais are three richest states of Brazil, the top three Brazilian states in terms of GDP; the Southeast of Brazil has the highest GDP per capita among all Brazilian regions. The Southeast region leads the country in population, urban population, population density, industries, airports, highways, schools and many other areas. São Paulo Heart of the largest continued remnant of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, the Ribeira Valley is a Natural Heritage of Humanity, granted heritage as a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO. One of the biggest attractions is the biologic and ecosystems diversity, where 400 species of birds, amphibians and mammals live; the Alto Ribeira Tourist State Park is paradise for ecotourists, for its enormous diversity in geologic formations, among grottos and caves and waterfalls.
There are 454 caves registered by the Brazilian Society of Speleology in the State of São Paulo, all at the Ribeira Valley. The 280 caves located at PETAR represent the biggest concentration of caves in Brazil. Minas Gerais The landscape of the State is marked by mountains and caverns. In the Serra do Cipó, Sete Lagoas and Lagoa Santa, the caves and waterfalls. Minas Gerais is the source of some of the biggest rivers in Brazil, most notably the São Francisco, the Paraná and to a lesser extent, the Rio Doce; the state holds many hydroelectric power plants, including Furnas dam. Some of the highest peaks in Brazil are in the mountain ranges in the southern part of the state, such as Serra da Mantiqueira and Serra do Cervo, that mark the border between Minas and its neighbors São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro; the most notable one is the Pico da Bandeira, the third highest mountain in Brazil at 2890 m, standing on the border with Espírito Santo state. The state has huge reserves of iron and sizeable reserves of gold and gemstones, including emerald and aquamarine mines.
Rio de Janeiro The state is part of the Mata Atlântica biome, its topography comprises both mountains and plains, located between the Mantiqueira Mountains and the Atlantic Ocean. Its coast is carved by the bays of Guanabara and Ilha Grande. There are prominent slopes near the ocean, featuring diverse environments, such as restinga vegetation, bays and tropical forests. Rio de Janeiro is one of the smallest in Brazil, it has, the third longest coastline in the country, extending 635 kilometers. Espírito Santo With 46.180 square kilometers, it is about the size of Estonia, or half the size of Portugal, has a variety of habitats including coastal plains, mountain forest and many others. The main river in the state is the Doce. Other important river basins include the Santa Maria River Basin, the northern branch of rivers which join the sea at Vitoria, Jucu River Basin which flows into the sea at the same place, but corresponds to the southern branch. Espírito Santo's climate is tropical with dry winters and rainy summers.
North of Doce River it's drier and hot. In the mountainous regions in the south and south west of the state, the tropical climate is influenced by altitude, the average temperatures are colder; the state can be divided into two areas: the low lying coastline and the highland area known as Serra, part of the larger Serra do Caparaó, the Caparaó Mountain Range. In the map to the right it is in the gray area in the extreme southwest of the state, is shared with Minas Gerais. São Paulo state is responsible for one-third of Brazilian GDP; the state's GDP consists of 550 billion dollars, making it the second biggest economy of South America after Brazil and the biggest subdivision economy in Latin America. Its economy is based on machinery, the automobile and aviation industries, financial companies, textiles, orange growing, sugar cane and coffee production. Minas Gerais is a growing state. Vehicles: 36,030,943. Portuguese is the official national language, thus the primary language taught in schools.
English and Spanish are part of the official high school curriculum. French is widely studied. Universidade de São Paulo. São Paulo São Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport connects Brazil to 28 countries and is visited every day by nearly 100 thousand people. With capacity to serve 15 million passengers a year, in two terminals, the airport handles 12 million users. Construction of a third passenger terminal is pending, to raise yearly capacity to 29 million passengers; the project, in the tendering phase, is part of the
Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro, or Rio, is anchor to the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area and the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas. Rio de Janeiro is the capital of the state of Brazil's third-most populous state. Part of the city has been designated as a World Heritage Site, named "Rio de Janeiro: Carioca Landscapes between the Mountain and the Sea", by UNESCO on 1 July 2012 as a Cultural Landscape. Founded in 1565 by the Portuguese, the city was the seat of the Captaincy of Rio de Janeiro, a domain of the Portuguese Empire. In 1763, it became the capital of the State of Brazil, a state of the Portuguese Empire. In 1808, when the Portuguese Royal Court transferred itself from Portugal to Brazil, Rio de Janeiro became the chosen seat of the court of Queen Maria I of Portugal, who subsequently, in 1815, under the leadership of her son, the Prince Regent, future King João VI of Portugal, raised Brazil to the dignity of a kingdom, within the United Kingdom of Portugal and Algarves.
Rio stayed the capital of the pluricontinental Lusitanian monarchy until 1822, when the War of Brazilian Independence began. This is one of the few instances in history that the capital of a colonising country shifted to a city in one of its colonies. Rio de Janeiro subsequently served as the capital of the independent monarchy, the Empire of Brazil, until 1889, the capital of a republican Brazil until 1960 when the capital was transferred to Brasília. Rio de Janeiro has the second largest municipal GDP in the country, 30th largest in the world in 2008, estimated at about R$343 billion, it is headquarters to Brazilian oil and telecommunications companies, including two of the country's major corporations – Petrobras and Vale – and Latin America's largest telemedia conglomerate, Grupo Globo. The home of many universities and institutes, it is the second-largest center of research and development in Brazil, accounting for 17% of national scientific output according to 2005 data. Despite the high perception of crime, the city has a lower incidence of crime than Northeast Brazil, but it is far more criminalized than the south region of Brazil, considered the safest in the country.
Rio de Janeiro is one of the most visited cities in the Southern Hemisphere and is known for its natural settings, samba, bossa nova, balneario beaches such as Barra da Tijuca, Copacabana and Leblon. In addition to the beaches, some of the most famous landmarks include the giant statue of Christ the Redeemer atop Corcovado mountain, named one of the New Seven Wonders of the World. Rio de Janeiro was the host of the 2016 Summer Olympics and the 2016 Summer Paralympics, making the city the first South American and Portuguese-speaking city to host the events, the third time the Olympics were held in a Southern Hemisphere city; the Maracanã Stadium held the finals of the 1950 and 2014 FIFA World Cups, the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup, the XV Pan American Games. Europeans first encountered Guanabara Bay on 1 January 1502, by a Portuguese expedition under explorer Gaspar de Lemos, captain of a ship in Pedro Álvares Cabral's fleet, or under Gonçalo Coelho; the Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci participated as observer at the invitation of King Manuel I in the same expedition.
The region of Rio was inhabited by the Tupi, Puri and Maxakalí peoples. In 1555, one of the islands of Guanabara Bay, now called Villegagnon Island, was occupied by 500 French colonists under the French admiral Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon. Villegagnon built Fort Coligny on the island when attempting to establish the France Antarctique colony; the city of Rio de Janeiro proper was founded by the Portuguese on 1 March 1565 and was named São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, in honour of St. Sebastian, the saint, the namesake and patron of the Portuguese then-monarch Sebastião. Rio de Janeiro was the name of Guanabara Bay; until early in the 18th century, the city was threatened or invaded by several French pirates and buccaneers, such as Jean-François Duclerc and René Duguay-Trouin. In the late 17th century, still during the Sugar Era, the Bandeirantes discovered gold and diamonds in the neighbouring captaincy of Minas Gerais, thus Rio de Janeiro became a much more practical port for exporting wealth than Salvador, much farther northeast.
On 27 January 1763, the colonial administration in Portuguese America was moved from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro. The city remained a colonial capital until 1808, when the Portuguese royal family and most of the associated Lisbon nobles, fleeing from Napoleon's invasion of Portugal, moved to Rio de Janeiro; the kingdom's capital was transferred to the city, thus, became the only European capital outside of Europe. As there was no physical space or urban structure to accommodate hundreds of noblemen who arrived many inhabitants were evicted from their homes. In the first decades, several educational establishments were created, such as the Military Academy, the Royal School of Sciences and Crafts and the Imperial Academy of Fine Arts, as well as the National Library of Brazil – with the largest collection in Latin America – and The Botanical Garden; the first printed newspaper in Brazil, the Gazeta do Rio de Janeiro, came into circulation during this period. When Brazil was elevated to Kingdom in 1815, it