Jabiru, Northern Territory
Jabiru is a town in the Northern Territory of Australia. It was originally built in 1982 as a town to house the community living at Jabiru East near the Ranger Uranium Mine eight kilometres away. Both the mine and the town are surrounded by Kakadu National Park. At the 2006 census, Jabiru had a population of 1,135, Jabiru Township is thirteen square kilometres in size. The town is owned as freehold by the Director of National Parks and Wildlife, the JTDA subleases to the mining company, government agencies and private business. The head lease expires in 2021, the JTDA has delegated local government responsibility to the Jabiru Town Council. The Northern Territory Government is in the process of amalgamating Jabiru Town Council into the West Arnhem Shire in 2008, Jabiru town services are administered by the West Arnhem Regional Council, whose council chambers are in the town plaza. Apart from the Ranger mine, Jabirus most notable industries are tourism, Jabiru has a tropical monsoon season, typical of most of the Top End.
Jabiru experiences heavy rain that often results in flooding along the Arnhem Highway. During 2006–07 Jabiru had its biggest wet season on record cutting both highways after almost 2 metres of rain fell over a 3-month period, the Arnhem Highway was cut off for several weeks as the West Alligator bridge was severely damaged. Temperatures can drop below 10 °C in the season from May to August. Spectacular electrical storms are frequent during this period, before the prolonged rains of the wet season arrive. Magela Field in Jabiru is home to the Jabiru Bushratz RUFC, there is a 9-hole golf course which is the only licensed premises for takeaway alcohol, however only members can buy takeaway alcohol there. Visitors can consume alcohol in opened containers on licensed premises
Fraser Island is a heritage-listed island located along the south-eastern coast of the state of Queensland, Australia. It is approximately 250 kilometres north of the state capital - Brisbane and it is a locality within the Fraser Coast local government in the Wide Bay–Burnett region. Its length is about 120 kilometres and its width is approximately 24 kilometres and it was inscribed as a World Heritage site in 1992. The island is considered to be the largest sand island in the world at 1,840 km2 and it is Queenslands largest island, Australias sixth largest island and the largest island on the East Coast of Australia. The island has rainforests, eucalyptus woodland, mangrove forests and peat swamps, sand dunes and coastal heaths. Unlike on many sand dunes, plant life is abundant due to the naturally occurring mycorrhizal fungi present in the sand, which release nutrients in a form that can be absorbed by the plants. Fraser Island is home to a number of mammal species, as well as a diverse range of birds and amphibians.
The island is protected in the Great Sandy National Park, Fraser Island has been inhabited by humans for as much as 5,000 years. Explorer James Cook sailed by the island in May 1770, matthew Flinders landed near the most northern point of the island in 1802. For a short period the island was known as Great Sandy Island, the island became known as Fraser due to the stories of a shipwreck survivor named Eliza Fraser. Today the island is a tourism destination. Its resident human population was 194 at the 2011 Australian Census, Fraser Island is separated from the mainland by Great Sandy Strait. The southern tip, near Tin Can Bay, is situated to the north of Inskip Peninsula, the most northern point of the island is Sandy Cape where the Sandy Cape Light operated from 1870 to 1994. The establishment of the lighthouse was the first permanent European settlement on the island, the nearest large town to Fraser Island is Hervey Bay, while Maryborough and Bundaberg are close by. The bay on the north east coast is called Marloo Bay, the most westerly place on the island is Moon Point.
Eli Creek is the largest creek on the east coast of the island with a flow of 80 million litres per day, Eli Creek has its own unique and varied wild life. Coongul Creek on the west coast has a rate of four to five million litres per hour. Some of the swamps on the island are fens, particularly near Moon Point and this was only discovered in 1996 when a group of experts who had attended a Ramsar conference in Brisbane flew over the island and conducted an aerial survey
The Ningaloo Coast is a World Heritage Site located in the north west coastal region of Western Australia. The 705, 015-hectare heritage–listed area is located approximately 1,200 kilometres north of Perth, the Yamatji peoples of the Baiyungu and Yinigudura clans have inhabited the area for over 30,000 years. The site was gazetted on the Australian National Heritage List on 6 January 2010 under the Environment Protection, in 1987 the reef and surrounding waters were designated as the Ningaloo Marine Park. Although most famed for its whale sharks which feed there during March to June, during the winter months, the reef is part of the migratory routes for dolphins, manta rays and humpback whales. The beaches of the reef are an important breeding ground of the loggerhead and they depend on the reef for nesting and food. The Ningaloo supports an abundance of fish, molluscs, the reef is less than half a kilometre offshore in some areas, such as Coral Bay. In 2006, researchers from the Australian Institute of Marine Science discovered gardens of sponges in the marine parks deeper waters that are thought to be completely new to science.
The short-nosed sea snake, thought to have been extinct for 17 years, was found on Ningaloo Reef in December 2015. In the early 2000s there was controversy about the proposed construction of a resort at an area called Mauds Landing. It was feared that the resort would be degrading to the entire marine park. Author Tim Winton, who lives in the area, was vocal in his opposition to the development, in 2002, when he won the WA Premiers Book Award, he donated the A$25,000 prize money to the community campaign to save the reef. Ultimately the planned resort did not go ahead, developers continue to take an interest in the area. The Ningaloo Collaboration Cluster is a research project that commenced in the region in 2007. It is part of the CSIRO flagship Collaboration Fund Research Initiative, the study involves the collection and processing of socioeconomic data from tourists and the host communities of Exmouth, Coral Bay and Carnarvon. It involves the collection of data concerning the load of human activity including natural resource use, waste generation, visual impacts and impacts on flora.
The project engages with planners and managers in the region to tourism development and management. A. Dept. of Conservation and Land Management, the Ningaloo Coast, Ningaloo Rd, Ningaloo, WA, Australia. Department of the Environment, Australian Government, World Heritage Nomination, IUCN Technical Evaluation, Ningaloo Coast
Indigenous Australian art
Indigenous Australian art or Australian Aboriginal art is art made by the Indigenous peoples of Australia and in collaborations between Indigenous Australians and others. It includes works in a range of media including painting on leaves, wood carving, rock carving, ceremonial clothing. This article discusses works that pre-date European colonisation as well as contemporary Indigenous Australian art by Aboriginal Australians and these have been studied in recent years and have gained much international recognition. There are several types of art, and ways of making art, including rock painting, dot painting, rock engravings, bark painting, sculptures. Australian Indigenous art is the oldest unbroken tradition of art in the world, dated at 28,000 years, it is one of the oldest known pieces of rock art on Earth with a confirmed date. Rock art, including painting and engraving or carving, can be found at sites throughout Australia, rock paintings appear on caves in the Kimberley region of Western Australia known as Bradshaws.
They are named after the European, Joseph Bradshaw, who first reported them in 1891, to Aboriginal people of the region they are known as Gwion Gwion or Giro Giro. Other painted rock art sites include Laura, Ubirr, in the Kakadu National Park, examples have been found that are believed to depict extinct megafauna such as Genyornis and Thylacoleo as well as more recent historical events such as the arrival of European ships. Rock engraving depends on the type of rock being used, many different methods are used to create rock engravings. The Sydney engravings, depicting carved animals and humans, have their own peculiar style not found elsewhere in Australia, the rock art at Murujuga is said to be the worlds largest collection of petroglyphs and includes images of extinct animals such as the thylacine. Activity prior to the last ice age until colonisation is recorded, Papunya art consists of various paint colours like yellow, brown and white. Papunya paintings can be painted on anything though traditionally they were painted on rocks, in caves, the paintings were mostly images of animals or lakes, and the Dreamtime.
Stories and legends were depicted on caves and rocks to represent the artists religion, on modern artwork, dots are generally applied with bamboo satay sticks. The larger flat end of bamboo sticks are more commonly used for single application of dots to paintings. To create superimposed dotting, artists may take a bunch of satay sticks, dip the pointy ends into the paint, bark paintings are regarded as fine art, and today the finest art commands high prices on the international art markets. The best artists are recognized annually in the National Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander Art Award, from ancient times, Australian aboriginal culture produced a genre of aerial landscape art, often titled simply country. It is a kind of maplike, birds-eye view of the desert landscape, in the distant past, the common media for such artwork were rock, sand or body painting, but the tradition continues today in the form of coloured drawings with liquid based colour on canvas. See Aboriginal stone arrangements for more details, carved shells – Riji Mimih small man-like carvings of mythological impish creatures
Great Barrier Reef
The reef is located in the Coral Sea, off the coast of Queensland, Australia. The Great Barrier Reef can be seen from space and is the worlds biggest single structure made by living organisms. This reef structure is composed of and built by billions of tiny organisms and it supports a wide diversity of life and was selected as a World Heritage Site in 1981. CNN labelled it one of the seven wonders of the world. The Queensland National Trust named it a icon of Queensland. A large part of the reef is protected by the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, other environmental pressures on the reef and its ecosystem include runoff, climate change accompanied by mass coral bleaching, and cyclic population outbreaks of the crown-of-thorns starfish. According to a study published in October 2012 by the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the Great Barrier Reef has long been known to and used by the Aboriginal Australian and Torres Strait Islander peoples, and is an important part of local groups cultures and spirituality.
The reef is a popular destination for tourists, especially in the Whitsunday Islands. Tourism is an important economic activity for the region, generating over AUD$3 billion per year, in November 2014, Google launched Google Underwater Street View in 3D of the Great Barrier Reef. A March 2016 report stated that coral bleaching was more widespread than previously thought, in October 2016, Outside published an obituary for the reef, the article was criticized for being premature and hindering efforts to bolster the resilience of the reef. The Great Barrier Reef is a feature of the East Australian Cordillera division. It includes the smaller Murray Islands and it reaches from Torres Strait in the north to the unnamed passage between Lady Elliot Island and Fraser Island in the south. Lady Elliot Island is located 1,915 km southeast of Bramble Cay as the crow flies, the Plate tectonic theory indicates Australia has moved northwards at a rate of 7 cm per year, starting during the Cenozoic. Eastern Australia experienced a period of uplift, which moved the drainage divide in Queensland 400 km inland.
Also during this time, Queensland experienced volcanic eruptions leading to central and shield volcanoes, some of these became high islands. The Great Barrier Reefs development history is complex, after Queensland drifted into tropical waters, it was influenced by reef growth. 10 million years ago, the sea level lowered, which further enabled sedimentation. The reefs substrate may have needed to build up from the sediment until its edge was too far away for suspended sediments to inhibit coral growth
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Greater Blue Mountains Area
The Greater Blue Mountains Area is a World Heritage Site in the Blue Mountains of New South Wales, Australia. The rare plants and animals live in this natural place relate an extraordinary story of Australias antiquity. This is the story of the evolution of Australias unique eucalypt vegetation and its communities, plants. The Greater Blue Mountains Area consists of 10,300 square kilometres of mostly forested landscape on a sandstone plateau 60 to 180 kilometres inland from the Sydney central business district. The area includes vast expanses of wilderness and is equivalent in area to almost one third of Belgium, the reflected landscape from mountains seems bluish by human eyes. There are basalt outcrops on the higher ridges and this plateau is thought to have enabled the survival of a rich diversity of plant and animal life by providing a refuge from climatic changes during recent geological history. It is particularly noted for its wide and balanced representation of eucalypt habitats from wet and dry sclerophyll, mallee heathlands, as well as localised swamps, ninety-one species of eucalypts occur in the Greater Blue Mountains Area.
Twelve of these are believed to only in the Sydney sandstone region. The area has been described as a laboratory for studying the evolution of the eucalypts. The largest area of diversity of eucalypts on the continent is located in south-east Australia. The Greater Blue Mountains Area includes much of this eucalypt diversity, as well as supporting such a significant proportion of the worlds eucalypt species, the area provides examples of the range of structural adaptations of the eucalypts to Australian environments. These vary from tall forests at the margins or rainforest in the valleys, through open forests and woodlands. In addition to its outstanding eucalypts, the Greater Blue Mountains Area contains ancient, the most famous of these is the recently discovered Wollemi pine, a living fossil dating back to the age of the dinosaurs. Thought to have been extinct for millions of years, the few surviving trees of this ancient species are only from three small populations located in remote, inaccessible gorges within the area.
The Wollemi pine is one of the worlds rarest species, more than 400 different kinds of animals live within the rugged gorges and tablelands of the Greater Blue Mountains Area. The largest predator of the area is the dingo and these wild dogs hunt for grey kangaroos and other prey. The endangered regent honeyeater is seen there regularly and it is a migration bottleneck for yellow-faced honeyeaters. The Greater Blue Mountains Area was unanimously listed as a World Heritage Area by UNESCO on 29 November 2000 and it thus became the fourth area in New South Wales to be listed
The thylacine was the largest known carnivorous marsupial of modern times. It is commonly known as the Tasmanian tiger or the Tasmanian wolf, native to continental Australia and New Guinea, it is believed to have become extinct in the 20th century. It was the last extant member of its family, the thylacine was an apex predator, like the tigers and wolves of the Northern Hemisphere from which it obtained two of its common names. As a marsupial, it was not closely related to these placental mammals and its closest living relative is thought to be either the Tasmanian devil or the numbat. The thylacine was one of only two marsupials to have a pouch in both sexes, the male thylacine had a pouch that acted as a protective sheath, covering his external reproductive organs while he ran through thick brush. The thylacine has been described as a predator because of its ability to survive. Despite its official classification as extinct, sightings are still reported, the modern thylacine first appeared about 4 million years ago.
Dicksons thylacine is the oldest of the seven discovered fossil species and this thylacinid was much smaller than its more recent relatives. The largest species, the powerful thylacine which grew to the size of a wolf, was the species to survive into the late Miocene. In late Pleistocene and early Holocene times, the thylacine was widespread throughout Australia. Since the thylacine filled the ecological niche in Australia as the dog family did elsewhere. Despite this, it is unrelated to any of the Northern Hemisphere predators, numerous examples of thylacine engravings and rock art have been found dating back to at least 1000 BC. Petroglyph images of the thylacine can be found at the Dampier Rock Art Precinct on the Burrup Peninsula in Western Australia, by the time the first European explorers arrived, the animal was already extinct in mainland Australia and rare in Tasmania. Europeans may have encountered it as far back as 1642 when Abel Tasman first arrived in Tasmania and his shore party reported seeing the footprints of wild beasts having claws like a Tyger.
Marc-Joseph Marion du Fresne, arriving with the Mascarin in 1772, positive identification of the thylacine as the animal encountered cannot be made from this report since the tiger quoll is similarly described. The first definitive encounter was by French explorers on 13 May 1792, as noted by the naturalist Jacques Labillardière, in 1805 William Paterson, the Lieutenant Governor of Tasmania, sent a detailed description for publication in the Sydney Gazette. The first detailed description was made by Tasmanias Deputy Surveyor-General, George Harris in 1808. Harris originally placed the thylacine in the genus Didelphis, which had created by Linnaeus for the American opossums, describing it as Didelphis cynocephala
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to European colonisation. In present-day Australia these groups are divided into local communities. At the time of initial European settlement, over 250 languages were spoken, it is estimated that 120 to 145 of these remain in use. Aboriginal people today mostly speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English, a population collapse following European settlement, and a smallpox epidemic spreading three years after the arrival of Europeans may have caused a massive and early depopulation. Since 1995, the Australian Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag have been among the flags of Australia. The word aboriginal has been in the English language since at least the 16th century, to mean, first or earliest known and it comes from the Latin word aborigines, derived from ab and origo.
The word was used in Australia to describe its indigenous peoples as early as 1789 and it soon became capitalised and employed as the common name to refer to all Indigenous Australians. Strictly speaking, Aborigine is the noun and Aboriginal the adjectival form, use of either Aborigine or Aboriginal to refer to individuals has acquired negative connotations in some sectors of the community, and it is generally regarded as insensitive and even offensive. The more acceptable and correct expression is Aboriginal Australians or Aboriginal people, the term Indigenous Australians, which includes Torres Strait Islander peoples, has found increasing acceptance, particularly since the 1980s. The broad term Aboriginal Australians includes many groups that often identify under names from local Indigenous languages. Anindilyakwa on Groote Eylandt off Arnhem Land, Palawah in Tasmania and these larger groups may be further subdivided, for example, Anangu recognises localised subdivisions such as Pitjantjatjara, Ngaanyatjarra and Antikirinya.
It is estimated that prior to the arrival of British settlers, the Torres Strait Islanders possess a heritage and cultural history distinct from Aboriginal traditions. The eastern Torres Strait Islanders in particular are related to the Papuan peoples of New Guinea, they are not generally included under the designation Aboriginal Australians. This has been another factor in the promotion of the inclusive term Indigenous Australians. Six percent of Indigenous Australians identify themselves fully as Torres Strait Islanders, a further 4% of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as having both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal heritage. The Torres Strait Islands comprise over 100 islands which were annexed by Queensland in 1879, eddie Mabo was from Mer or Murray Island in the Torres Strait, which the famous Mabo decision of 1992 involved. The term blacks has been used to refer to Indigenous Australians since European settlement, while originally related to skin colour, the term is used today to indicate Aboriginal heritage or culture in general and refers to people of any skin pigmentation.
In the 1970s, many Aboriginal activists, such as Gary Foley, proudly embraced the term black, the book included interviews with several members of the Aboriginal community including Robert Jabanungga reflecting on contemporary Aboriginal culture
Wet Tropics of Queensland
The Wet Tropics of Queensland World Heritage Site consists of approximately 8,940 km² of Australian wet tropical forests growing along the north-east Queensland portion of the Great Dividing Range. The Wet Tropics of Queensland meets all four of the criteria for natural heritage for selection as a World Heritage Site, World Heritage status was declared in 1988. The Wet Tropics were added to the Australian National Heritage List in May 2007, the tropical forests have the highest concentration of primitive flowering plant families in the world. Only Madagascar and New Caledonia, due to their isolation, have humid. The Wet Tropics of Queensland stretches in part from Townsville to Cooktown, the Great Dividing Range and a number of small coastal ranges, tablelands, foothills and an escarpment dominate the landscape. The heritage site contains the section of the Queensland tropical rain forests including the Daintree Rainforest. 16 different structural types of rainforest have been identified, the World Heritage area includes Australias highest waterfall, Wallaman Falls.
In total it spans 13 major river systems including the Annan, Daintree, Mulgrave, Johnstone, Herbert, Mitchell, copperlode Dam, Koombooloomba Dam and Paluma Dam are found within the World Heritage Area. 15% of the area is protected as national park, the Wet Tropics Management Authority was established in 1983, it is responsible for managing the site according to Australias obligations under the World Heritage Convention. The agency employed 20 staff in 2012 as a unit within the Department of Environment and it is headed by a Board of Directors responsible to the Wet Tropics Ministerial Council which contains both Queensland and Federal Government representatives. The site contains many features such as over 390 rare plant species. There are at least 85 species that are endemic to the area,13 different types of rainforest and 29 species of mangrove, of the 19 families of primitive flowering plants worldwide,12 are found in the Wet Tropics including two families found nowhere else. This includes at least 50 individual species which are endemic to the area,90 species of orchids have been noted.
The large rare trees Stockwellia or Vic Stockwells Puzzle Stockwellia quadrifida grow only in restricted areas of well developed upland rain forest in the Wet Tropics, 65% of Australia’s fern species are protected here, including all seven of the ancient fern species. 370 species of bird have been recorded in the area,11 species of those are found nowhere else. The endangered southern cassowary and rare spotted-tailed quoll are some of the threatened species. The musky rat-kangaroo is significant because it represents a stage in the evolution of kangaroos. Other rare animals include the yellow-bellied gliders and brush-tailed bettong,107 mammal species have been identified