Saint Peter known as Simon Peter, Simon, or Cephas, according to the New Testament, was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus Christ, leaders of the early Christian Great Church. Pope Gregory I called him the "Prince of the Apostles". According to Catholic teaching, Jesus promised Peter in the "Rock of My Church" dialogue in Matthew 16:18 a special position in the Church, he is traditionally counted as the first Bishop of Rome—or pope—and by Eastern Christian tradition as the first Patriarch of Antioch. The ancient Christian churches all venerate Peter as a major saint and as the founder of the Church of Antioch and the Roman Church, but differ in their attitudes regarding the authority of his present-day successors; the New Testament indicates that Peter's father's name was John and was from the village of Bethsaida in the province of Galilee or Gaulanitis. His brother Andrew was an apostle. According to New Testament accounts, Peter was one of twelve apostles chosen by Jesus from his first disciples.
A fisherman, he played a leadership role and was with Jesus during events witnessed by only a few apostles, such as the Transfiguration. According to the gospels, Peter confessed Jesus as the Messiah, was part of Jesus's inner circle, thrice denied Jesus and wept bitterly once he realised his deed, preached on the day of Pentecost. According to Christian tradition, Peter was crucified in Rome under Emperor Nero, it is traditionally held that he was crucified upside down at his own request, since he saw himself unworthy to be crucified in the same way as Jesus. Tradition holds, his remains are said to be those contained in the underground Confessio of St. Peter's Basilica, where Pope Paul VI announced in 1968 the excavated discovery of a first-century Roman cemetery; every 29 June since 1736, a statue of Saint Peter in St. Peter's Basilica is adorned with papal tiara, ring of the fisherman, papal vestments, as part of the celebration of the Feast of Saints Peter and Paul. According to Catholic doctrine, the direct papal successor to Saint Peter is the incumbent pope Pope Francis.
Two general epistles in the New Testament are ascribed to Peter, but modern scholars reject the Petrine authorship of both. The Gospel of Mark was traditionally thought to show the influence of Peter's preaching and eyewitness memories. Several other books bearing his name—the Acts of Peter, Gospel of Peter, Preaching of Peter, Apocalypse of Peter, Judgment of Peter—are considered by Christian denominations as apocryphal, are thus not included in their Bible canons. Peter's original name, as indicated in the New Testament, was "Simon" or "Simeon"; the Simon/Simeon variation has been explained as reflecting "the well-known custom among Jews at the time of giving the name of a famous patriarch or personage of the Old Testament to a male child along with a similar sounding Greek/Roman name". He was given the name כֵּיפָא in Aramaic, rendered in Greek as Κηφᾶς, whence Latin and English Cephas; the precise meaning of the Aramaic word is disputed, some saying that its usual meaning is "rock" or "crag", others saying that it means rather "stone" and in its application by Jesus to Simon, "precious stone" or "jewel", but most scholars agree that as a proper name it denotes a rough or tough character.
Both meanings, "stone" and "rock", are indicated in dictionaries of Syriac. Catholic theologian Rudolf Pesch argues that the Aramaic cepha means "stone, clump, clew" and that "rock" is only a connotation; the combined name Σίμων Πέτρος appears 19 times in the New Testament. In some Syriac documents he is called, in Simon Cephas. Peter's life story is told in the four canonical gospels, the Acts of the Apostles, New Testament letters, the non-canonical Gospel of the Hebrews and other Early Church accounts of his life and death. In the New Testament, he is among the first of the disciples called during Jesus' ministry. Peter became the first listed apostle ordained by Jesus in the early church. Peter was a fisherman in Bethsaida, he was named son of Jonah or John. The three Synoptic Gospels recount how Peter's mother-in-law was healed by Jesus at their home in Capernaum. 1 Cor. 9:5 has been taken to imply that he was married. In the Synoptic Gospels, Peter was a fisherman along with his brother and the sons of Zebedee and John.
The Gospel of John depicts Peter fishing after the resurrection of Jesus, in the story of the Catch of 153 fish. In Matthew and Mark, Jesus called Simon and his brother Andrew to be "fishers of men". A Franciscan church is built upon the traditional site of Apostle Peter's house. In Luke, Simon Peter owns the boat that Jesus uses to preach to the multitudes who were pressing on him at the shore of Lake Gennesaret. Jesu
Nemo 33 is an indoor non-chlorinated fresh water facility in Brussels, Belgium. It held the record as the deepest indoor swimming pool in the world between its opening on May 1, 2004, the completion of Y-40 in Montegrotto Terme, Italy on June 5, 2014; the pool's maximum depth is 34.5 metres. It contains 2,500,000 litres of non-chlorinated filtered spring water, maintained at 30 °C by a solar heater, holds several simulated underwater caves at the 10 metres depth level. Due to the warm temperature in the pool, divers can dive for extended periods without a dry suit; the complex was designed by Belgian diving expert John Beernaerts as a multipurpose diving instruction and film production facility in 2004. Popular Mechanics rates Nemo 33 as one of the top 18 strangest pools in the world; the facility allows tourists, amateur divers, professional divers. It requires that divers be at least 12 years in good health. All divers must be either supervised by a trainer. All divers must have a certified diver as a dive buddy.
The facility contains a restaurant, swimwear store, souvenir store, rooms for other water activities. There are numerous underwater windows that allow outside visitors to look into the pools at various depths, it offers tours around the city of Brussels. Official website Diving to Nemo 33 - Deepest Indoor Pool in the World
Charlemagne or Charles the Great, numbered Charles I, was King of the Franks from 768, King of the Lombards from 774, Holy Roman Emperor from 800. He united much of central Europe during the Early Middle Ages, he was the first recognised emperor to rule from western Europe since the fall of the Western Roman Empire three centuries earlier. The expanded Frankish state that Charlemagne founded is called the Carolingian Empire, he was canonized by Antipope Paschal III. Charlemagne was the eldest son of Pepin the Short and Bertrada of Laon, born before their canonical marriage, he became king in 768 following his father's death as co-ruler with his brother Carloman I. Carloman's sudden death in December 771 under unexplained circumstances left Charlemagne as the sole ruler of the Frankish Kingdom, he continued his father's policy towards the papacy and became its protector, removing the Lombards from power in northern Italy and leading an incursion into Muslim Spain. He campaigned against the Saxons to his east, Christianizing them upon penalty of death and leading to events such as the Massacre of Verden.
He reached the height of his power in 800 when he was crowned "Emperor of the Romans" by Pope Leo III on Christmas Day at Rome's Old St. Peter's Basilica. Charlemagne has been called the "Father of Europe", as he united most of Western Europe for the first time since the classical era of the Roman Empire and united parts of Europe that had never been under Frankish or Roman rule, his rule spurred the Carolingian Renaissance, a period of energetic cultural and intellectual activity within the Western Church. All Holy Roman Emperors considered their kingdoms to be descendants of Charlemagne's empire, as did the French and German monarchies. However, the Eastern Orthodox Church views Charlemagne more controversially, labelling as heterodox his support of the filioque and the Pope's recognition of him as legitimate Roman Emperor rather than Irene of Athens of the Byzantine Empire; these and other machinations led to the eventual split of Rome and Constantinople in the Great Schism of 1054. Charlemagne died in 814, having ruled as emperor for 14 years and as king for 46 years.
He was laid to rest in his imperial capital city of Aachen. He married at least four times and had three legitimate sons, but only his son Louis the Pious survived to succeed him. By the 6th century, the western Germanic tribe of the Franks had been Christianised, due in considerable measure to the Catholic conversion of Clovis I. Francia, ruled by the Merovingians, was the most powerful of the kingdoms that succeeded the Western Roman Empire. Following the Battle of Tertry, the Merovingians declined into powerlessness, for which they have been dubbed the rois fainéants. All government powers were exercised by their chief officer, the mayor of the palace. In 687, Pepin of Herstal, mayor of the palace of Austrasia, ended the strife between various kings and their mayors with his victory at Tertry, he became the sole governor of the entire Frankish kingdom. Pepin was the grandson of two important figures of the Austrasian Kingdom: Saint Arnulf of Metz and Pepin of Landen. Pepin of Herstal was succeeded by his son Charles known as Charles Martel.
After 737, Charles declined to call himself king. Charles was succeeded in 741 by his sons Pepin the Short, the father of Charlemagne. In 743, the brothers placed Childeric III on the throne to curb separatism in the periphery, he was the last Merovingian king. Carloman resigned office in 746. Pepin brought the question of the kingship before Pope Zachary, asking whether it was logical for a king to have no royal power; the pope handed down his decision in 749, decreeing that it was better for Pepin to be called king, as he had the powers of high office as Mayor, so as not to confuse the hierarchy. He, ordered him to become the true king. In 750, Pepin was elected by an assembly of the Franks, anointed by the archbishop, raised to the office of king; the Pope ordered him into a monastery. The Merovingian dynasty was thereby replaced by the Carolingian dynasty, named after Charles Martel. In 753, Pope Stephen II fled from Italy to Francia, appealing to Pepin for assistance for the rights of St. Peter.
He was supported in this appeal by Charles' brother. In return, the pope could provide only legitimacy, he did this by again anointing and confirming Pepin, this time adding his young sons Carolus and Carloman to the royal patrimony. They thereby became heirs to the realm that covered most of western Europe. In 754, Pepin accepted the Pope's invitation to visit Italy on behalf of St. Peter's rights, dealing with the Lombards. Under the Carolingians, the Frankish kingdom spread to encompass an area including most of Western Europe. Orman portrays the Treaty of Verdun between the warring grandsons of Charlemagne as the foundation event of an independent France under its first king Charles the Bald; the middle kingdom had broken up by 890 and absorbed into the Western kingdom and the Eastern kingdom and the rest developing into smaller "buffer" nations that exist between Fr
Château de La Fougeraie
The Château de La Fougeraie called the Château Wittouck, is a stately home in Belgium built in 1911 for the industrialist Paul Wittouck. The château is located on the outskirts of Brussels, in the Sonian Forest; the château was built in 1911 for the industrialist Paul Wittouck by the architect Louis Süe. Paul Huillard collaborated with Süe on the project; the engineer was L. Bogaerts. Gustave Louis Jaulmes decorated the interior. During World War II the Belgian fascist leader Léon Degrelle occupied the chateau. In September–October 1944 Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands made it his base; the Dutchman Christiaan Lindemans, known as King Kong due to his physique, had served the British secret service for four years before offering his services to the Germans. He was arrested at the Chateau Wittouck on 28 October 1944 on suspicion that he had betrayed the attack on Arnhem; the charge was certainly false
Georges Prosper Remi, known by the pen name Hergé, was a Belgian cartoonist. He is best known for creating The Adventures of Tintin, the series of comic albums which are considered one of the most popular European comics of the 20th century, he was responsible for two other well-known series, Quick & Flupke and The Adventures of Jo, Zette and Jocko. His works were executed in his distinct ligne claire drawing style. Born to a lower middle-class family in Etterbeek, Hergé began his career by contributing illustrations to Scouting magazines, developing his first comic series, The Adventures of Totor, for Le Boy-Scout Belge in 1926. Working for the conservative Catholic newspaper Le Vingtième Siècle, he created The Adventures of Tintin in 1929 on the advice of its editor Norbert Wallez. Revolving around the actions of boy reporter Tintin and his dog Snowy, the series' early installments – Tintin in the Land of the Soviets, Tintin in the Congo, Tintin in America – were designed as conservative propaganda for children.
Domestically successful, after serialisation the stories were published in book form, with Hergé continuing the series and developing both the Quick & Flupke and Jo, Zette and Jocko series for Le Vingtième Siècle. Influenced by his friend Zhang Chongren, from 1934 Hergé placed far greater emphasis on conducting background research for his stories, resulting in increased realism from The Blue Lotus onward. Following the German occupation of Belgium in 1940, Le Vingtième Siècle was closed but Hergé continued his series in Le Soir, a popular newspaper controlled by the Nazi administration. After the Allied liberation of Belgium in 1944, Le Soir was shut down and its staff – including Hergé – accused of having been collaborators. An official investigation was launched, while no charges were brought against Hergé, in subsequent years he faced accusations of having been a traitor and collaborator. With Raymond Leblanc he established Tintin magazine in 1946, through which he serialised new Adventures of Tintin stories.
As the magazine's artistic director, he oversaw the publication of other successful comics series, such as Edgar P. Jacobs' Blake and Mortimer. In 1950 he established Studios Hergé as a team to aid him in his ongoing projects. Amid personal turmoil following the collapse of his first marriage, he produced Tintin in Tibet, his personal favourite of his works. In years he became less prolific, unsuccessfully attempted to establish himself as an abstract artist. Hergé's works have been acclaimed for their clarity of draughtsmanship and meticulous, well-researched plots, they have been the source of a wide range of adaptations, in theatre, television and computer gaming. He remains a strong influence on the comic book medium in Europe. Celebrated in Belgium, a Hergé Museum was established in Louvain-la-Neuve in 2009. Georges Prosper Remi was born on 22 May 1907 in his parental home in Etterbeek, Brussels, a central suburb in the capital city of Belgium, his was a lower middle-class family. His Walloon father, Alexis Remi, worked in a confectionery factory, whilst his Flemish mother, Elisabeth Dufour, was a housewife.
Married on 18 January 1905, they moved into a house at 25 rue Cranz, where Hergé was born, although a year they moved to a house at 34 rue de Theux. His primary language was his father's French, but growing up in the bilingual Brussels, he learned Dutch, developing a Marollien accent from his maternal grandmother. A younger brother, was born five years after Hergé. Like most Belgians, his family belonged to the Roman Catholic Church, though they were not devout, he characterised his life in Etterbeek as dominated by a monochrome grey, considering it boring. Biographer Benoît Peeters suggested that this childhood melancholy might have been exacerbated through being sexually abused by a maternal uncle. Remi developed a love of cinema, favouring Winsor McCay's Gertie the Dinosaur and the films of Charlie Chaplin, Harry Langdon and Buster Keaton. Although not a keen reader, he enjoyed the novels of British and American authors, such as Huckleberry Finn, Treasure Island, Robinson Crusoe and The Pickwick Papers, as well as the novels of Frenchman Alexandre Dumas.
Drawing as a hobby, he sketched out scenes from daily life along the edges of his school books. Some of these illustrations were of German soldiers, because his four years of primary schooling at the Ixelles Municipal School No. 3 coincided with the First World War, during which Brussels was occupied by the German army. In 1919, his secondary education began at the secular Place de Londres in Ixelles, but in 1920 he was moved to Saint-Boniface School, an institution controlled by the archbishop where the teachers were Roman Catholic priests. Remi proved a successful student, he completed his secondary education in July 1925 as the top of his class. Aged 12, Remi joined the Boy Scout brigade attached to Saint-Boniface School, becoming troop leader of the Squirrel Patrol and earning the name "Curious Fox". With the Scouts, he travelled to summer camps in Italy, Switzerland and Spain, in the summer of 1923 his troop hiked 200 miles across the Pyrenees, his experiences with Scouting would have a significant influence on the rest of his life, sparking his love of camping and the natural world, providing him with a moral compass that stressed personal loyalty and keep
A weather station is a facility, either on land or sea, with instruments and equipment for measuring atmospheric conditions to provide information for weather forecasts and to study the weather and climate. The measurements taken include temperature, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, wind direction, precipitation amounts. Wind measurements are taken with as few other obstructions as possible, while temperature and humidity measurements are kept free from direct solar radiation, or insolation. Manual observations are taken at least once daily, while automated measurements are taken at least once an hour. Weather conditions out at sea are taken by ships and buoys, which measure different meteorological quantities such as sea surface temperature, wave height, wave period. Drifting weather buoys outnumber their moored versions by a significant amount. Typical weather stations have the following instruments: Thermometer for measuring air and sea surface temperature Barometer for measuring atmospheric pressure Hygrometer for measuring humidity Anemometer for measuring wind speed Pyranometer for measuring solar radiation Rain gauge for measuring liquid precipitation over a set period of time.
In addition, at certain automated airport weather stations, additional instruments may be employed, including: Present Weather/Precipitation Identification Sensor for identifying falling precipitation Disdrometer for measuring drop size distribution Transmissometer for measuring visibility Ceilometer for measuring cloud ceilingMore sophisticated stations may measure the ultraviolet index, leaf wetness, soil moisture, soil temperature, water temperature in ponds, creeks, or rivers, other data. Except for those instruments requiring direct exposure to the elements, the instruments should be sheltered in a vented box a Stevenson screen, to keep direct sunlight off the thermometer and wind off the hygrometer; the instrumentation may be specialized to allow for periodic recording otherwise significant manual labour is required for record keeping. Automatic transmission of data, in a format such as METAR, is desirable as many weather station's data is required for weather forecasting. A personal weather station is a set of weather measuring instruments operated by a private individual, association, or business.
Personal weather stations have become more advanced and can include many different sensors to measure weather conditions. These sensors can vary between models but most measure wind speed, wind direction and indoor temperatures and indoor humidity, barometric pressure, UV or solar radiation. Other available sensors can measure soil moisture, soil temperature, leaf wetness; the quality, number of instruments, placement of personal weather stations can vary making the determination of which stations collect accurate and comparable data difficult. There are a comprehensive number of retail weather stations available. Personal weather stations involve a digital console that provides readouts of the data being collected; these consoles may interface to a personal computer where data can be displayed and uploaded to websites or data ingestion/distribution systems. Open-source weather stations are available that are designed to be customizable by users. Personal weather stations may be operated for the enjoyment and education of the owner, while some owners share their results with others.
They do this by manually compiling data and distributing it, distributing data over the Internet, or sharing data via amateur radio. The Citizen Weather Observer Program is a service which facilitates the sharing of information from personal weather stations; this data is submitted through use of software, a personal computer, internet connection and are utilized by groups such as the National Weather Service when generating forecast models. Each weather station submitting data to CWOP will have an individual Web page that depicts the data submitted by that station; the Weather Underground Internet site is another popular destination for the submittal and sharing of data with others around the world. As with CWOP, each station submitting data to Weather Underground has a unique Web page displaying their submitted data; the UK Met Office's Weather Observations Website allows such data to be shared and displayed. Home weather stations include hygrometers, thermometers and barometers. Wall mounted and made by manufacturers such as Airguide, Springfield and Stormoguide.
A weather ship was a ship stationed in the ocean as a platform for surface and upper air meteorological measurements for use in weather forecasting. It was meant to aid in search and rescue operations and to support transatlantic flights; the establishment of weather ships proved to be so useful during World War II that the International Civil Aviation Organization established a global network of 13 weather ships in 1948. Of the 12 left in operation in 1996, nine were located in the northern Atlantic ocean while three were located in the northern Pacific ocean; the agreement of the weather ships ended in 1990. Weather ship observations proved to be helpful in wind and wave studies, as they did not avoid weather systems like merchant ships tended to and were considered a valuable resource; the last weather ship was MS Polarfront, known as weather station M at 66°N, 02°E, run by the Norwegian Meteorological Institute. MS Polarfront was removed from service January 1, 2010. Since the 1960s this role has been superseded by satellites, long range aircraft
Isabella of Portugal, Duchess of Burgundy
Isabella of Portugal was Duchess of Burgundy as the third wife of Duke Philip the Good. Born a Portuguese infanta of the House of Aviz, Isabella was the only surviving daughter of King John I of Portugal and his wife Philippa of Lancaster, her son by Philip was the last Valois Duke of Burgundy. Isabella was the regent of the Burgundian Low Countries during the absence of her spouse in 1432 and in 1441–1443, she served as her husband's representative in negotiations with England regarding trade relations in 1439 and those with the rebellious cities of Holland in 1444. Isabella was born to John I of Portugal and Philippa of Lancaster, who had six children survive infancy. Born in 1397 in Évora, raised in the Portuguese court in Lisbon, Isabella was the fourth child and only daughter to survive to adulthood. Phillippa instilled in all her children, including her daughter, a sense of duty and belief in education. Isabella held an interest in politics, her father ensured that she was given a good understanding of politics, joining her brothers in their instructions in affairs of state and she became proficient in Latin, French and Italian during her studies with the princes.
She was fond of hunting with her brothers. In 1415 Isabella received an offer of marriage from her cousin Henry V of England, an effort for England to form closer links with Portugal against France; the negotiations failed and Isabella remained unmarried. In 1415 she grieved at the death of her mother on 19 June, with whom she had a close relationship. At age of 30 Isabella was still unmarried when the Burgundian house of Valois provided her with an offer of marriage in 1428; the reigning Duke of Burgundy, Philip the Good, had been widowed twice - by Michelle of Valois and Bonne of Artois. Neither marriage left surviving issue. For his third wife, Philip was anxious to seek a candidate from England or a nation allied to England, since he wanted to secure his alliance with England further. Isabella was attractive to Philip as a potential consort being well-bred and accomplished. On 19 October 1428, Philip sent a delegation from Sluys led by his chief counsellor, the Seigneur de Roubaix, that arrived in Lisbon on 16 December after calling at Sandwich until 2 December and acquiring two more ships.
The delegation waited another month while Isabella's father and brothers met at Aviz to discuss the matter. On 19 January 1429, a formal request for the Infanta's hand was made by the Burgundians, discussions between the two parties began; the Portuguese agreed to the marriage and sent messengers on 2 February to receive the Duke of Burgundy's formal response, signed on 5 May and received by the Portuguese on 4 June. The marriage contract was drawn up, Isabella, still in Portugal, was married to Philip the Good by proxy on 24 July 1429, with Roubaix acting as groom. Isabella did not leave Portugal for another eight weeks, her father had a fleet and trousseau prepared and on 19 October 1429, with a flotilla of about 20 ships, Isabella—accompanied by 2000 Portuguese—left Portugal forever. After an eleven-week journey when the fleet was beset by storms, causing the loss of several ships and much of her bridal trousseau, the convoy reached Sluys on 25 December 1429; the Duchess disembarked the following day where she and Philip celebrated their formal religious marriage two weeks on 7 January 1430.
With her husband, accompanied by the Countess of Namur, Jeanne de Harcourt, Isabella travelled through the main territories of Burgundy: from Ghent to Kortrijk to Lille, to Brussels, Arras, Péronne-en-Mélantois, Mechelen and, by mid-March Noyon, where Isabella, now pregnant, chose to rest through the spring, only leaving when Joan of Arc led a campaign against the nearby Compiègne. She returned to Ghent, where she dealt with a potential guild uprising. Isabella was at first unprepared for the lavish style of court life in Burgundy, one of the most extravagant in Europe; the Portuguese infanta, described by the Burgundian embassy that had negotiated her marriage as appearing to their eyes as a nun when they had first met, now dressed in loose clothing and flat over-panels to hide her pregnancy, looked dowdy at her new court. More upsetting to Isabella, was her husband's behaviour, he had showered gifts on her when she had first arrived, still more when she had become pregnant. He kept numerous women as his lovers, most living away from the court, as many as 50 illegitimate children.
Isabella gave birth to her first child on 30 December 1430 at Coudenberg in Brussels, a year after her marriage. The child, sickly at birth, was christened on 16 January 1431, soon after both parents left to attend to ducal business. By the autumn of that year, Isabella was once again pregnant with Joseph; because of this, when Charles VII of France began attacking Burgundy in January 1432, Philip—leaving Coudenburg to defend Dijon—ordered that she represent him during his absence. Antoine and Joseph both died in 1432, but the duchess gave birth to the future Charles the Bold on 10 November 1433. Isabella was a intelligent woman who liked to be surrounded by artists and poets, she was a generous patron of the arts. In politics, she had a great influence on her son, but more so on her husband, whom she represented on several diplomatic conferences and for whom she governed when he was absent. Mos