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Udayagiri Caves

The Udayagiri Caves are twenty rock-cut caves near Vidisha, Madhya Pradesh from the early years of the 5th century CE. They contain some of the oldest surviving Hindu iconography in India, they are the only site that can be verifiably associated with a Gupta period monarch from its inscriptions. One of India's most important archaeological sites, the Udayagiri hills and its caves are protected monuments managed by the Archaeological Survey of India. Udayagiri caves contain iconography of Vaishnavism and Shaivism, they are notable for the ancient monumental relief sculpture of Vishnu in his incarnation as the man-boar Varaha, rescuing the earth symbolically represented by Bhudevi clinging to the boar's tusk as described in Hindu mythology. The site has important inscriptions of the Gupta dynasty belonging to the reigns of Chandragupta II and Kumaragupta I. In addition to these, Udayagiri has a series of rock-shelters and petroglyphs, ruined buildings, water systems and habitation mounds, all of which remain a subject of continuing archaeological studies.

The Udayagiri Caves complex consists of twenty caves, of which one is dedicated to Jainism and all others to Hinduism. The Jain cave is notable for one of the oldest known Jaina inscriptions from 425 CE, while the Hindu Caves feature inscriptions from 401 CE. There are a number of places in India with the same name, the most notable being the mountain called Udayagiri at Rajgir in Bihar and the Udayagiri and Khandagiri Caves in Odisha. Udayagiri means the'sunrise mountain'. Udayagiri and Vidisha were a Buddhist and Bhagavata site by the 2nd century BCE as evidenced by the Heliodorus pillar. While the Heliodorus pillar has been preserved, others have survived in ruins. Buddhism was prominent in Sanchi, near Udayagiri, in the last centuries of the 1st millennium BCE. According to Dass and Willis, recent archaeological evidence such as the Udayagiri Lion Capital suggests that there was a Sun Temple at Udayagiri; the Surya tradition in Udayagiri dates at least from the 2nd century BCE, one that predated the arrival of Buddhism.

It is this tradition. The town is referred to as Udaigiri in some texts; the site is referred to as Visnupadagiri, as in inscriptions at the site. The term means the hill at "the feet of Vishnu'. Udayagiri Caves are set on the banks of its tributary Bes River; this is an isolated ridge about 2.5 kilometres long, running from southeast to northwest, rising to about 350 feet height. The hill is rocky and consists of horizontal layers of white sandstone, a material common in the region, they are about 6 kilometres west of the town of Vidisha, about 11 kilometres northeast of the Buddhist site of Sanchi, 60 kilometres northeast of Bhopal. The site is connected to the capital Bhopal by a highway. Bhopal is the nearest major railway airport with regular services. Udayagiri is north of the current Tropic of Cancer, but over a millennium ago it would have been nearer and directly on it. Udayagiri residents must have seen the sun directly overhead on the Summer solstice day, this played a role in the sacred of this site for the Hindus.

The site at Udayagiri Caves was the patronage of Chandragupta II, accepted by scholars to have ruled the Gupta Empire in central India between c. 380-414 CE. The Udayagiri Caves were created in final decades of the 4th-century, consecrated in 401 CE; this is based on three inscriptions: A post-consecration Sanskrit inscription in Cave 6 by a Vaishnava minister, the inscription mentions Chandragupta II and "year 82". This is sometimes referred to as the "inscription in Chandragupta cave" or the "Chandragupta inscription of Udayagiri". A Shaiva devotee's Sanskrit inscription on the back wall of Cave 7, which does not mention a date but the information therein suggests it too is from 5th-century. A Sanskrit inscription in Cave 20 by a Jainism devotee dated 425 CE; this is sometimes referred to as the "Kumaragupta inscription of Udayagiri". These inscriptions are not isolated. There are a number of additional stone inscriptions elsewhere at the Udayagiri site and nearby which mention court officials and Chandragupta II.

Further the site contains inscriptions from centuries providing a firm floruit for historical events, religious beliefs and the development of Indian script. For example, a Sanskrit inscription found on the left pillar at the entrance of Cave 19 states a date of Vikrama 1093, mentions the word Visnupada, states that this temple, made by Chandragupta, its script is Nagari both for alphabet and numerals. Many of the early inscriptions in this region is in Sankha Lipi, yet to be deciphered in a way that a majority of scholars would accept it. Archaeological excavations of the 20th century on mounds between Vidisha rampart and Udayagiri have yielded evidence that suggests that Udayagiri and Vidisha formed a contiguous human settlement zone in the ancient times. Udayagiri hills would have been the suburb of Vidisha located near the confluence of two rivers The Udayagiri Caves are euphemistically mentioned in Kalidasa text Meghduta in section 1.25 as the "Silavesma on the Nicaih hill", or the pleasure spot of Vidisha elites on the caves filled hill.

Between the 5th-century and the 12th-century, the Udayagiri site remained important to Hindu pilgrims as sacred geography. This is evidenced by a number of inscriptions in scripts; some inscriptions between the 9th and the 12th centuries, for example, mention land grants to the temple, an ancient tradition that provid

Bond County, Illinois

Bond County is a county located in the U. S. state of Illinois. As of the 2010 census, the population was 17,768, its county seat is Greenville. Bond County is included in MO-IL Metropolitan Statistical Area. Bond County was formed in 1817 out of Madison County, it was named for Shadrach Bond, the delegate from the Illinois Territory to the United States Congress, who thereupon became the first governor of Illinois, serving from 1818 to 1822. The county's primary city, had a post office from 1819 and was incorporated as a town in 1855 and as a city in 1872. A few possible reasons have been put forth for the naming of the town; some think the town was named after Greenville, North Carolina, named after Revolutionary War general Nathanael Greene. Others say that Greenville was named by early settler Thomas White because it was "so green and nice." A third possibility is that Greenville was named after the town's first merchant. In 1824, a vote taken on slavery in Bond County had received 240 votes against and 63 votes for slavery.

While Illinois was not a slave state, it was adjacent to slave states and Kentucky, did allow the continued use of "indentured servants," a process many slaveowners used to keep their slaves in a free state. In Bond County, at one point 14 slaves were registered to eight owners. One slave, Silas Register, took his last name from the act of being registered at the county clerk's office. Register was the last known Bond County slave. A few of the slaves are buried in the county with the families they were indentured to. One former slave, was free after her owners moved out of the state and worked in the town so that she could buy her husband, Stephen, at auction in Missouri. During the 1840s, Bond County played host to a few people conducting slaves to freedom on the Underground Railroad. Teacher T. A. Jones lived in Reno and in 2008, a letter in which he told of his Underground Railroad activities was discovered in a staircase in Sparta. Slaves were spirited from Missouri, sometimes through Carlyle to Bond County.

Rev. John Leeper was able to disguise his Underground Railroad activities due to his milling business. Dr. Henry Perrine helped with the secret railroad activities. Rev. George Denny's house was found in the 1930s to conceal a secret chamber, used in the Railroad. Greenville University was founded as Almira College in 1855. In 1941, college president H. J. Long "declared the founding of Almira and Greenville ran parallel, for both were founded on prayer."When Abraham Lincoln and Stephen Douglas gave speeches in Greenville in 1858 during a campaign for the United States Senate, Douglas said: "Ladies and gentlemen it gives me great and supreme gratification and pleasure to see this vast concourse of people assembled to hear me upon this my first visit to Old Bond." The Illinois State Register reported of the occasion: "I've seen many gatherings in Old Bond county but I never saw anything equal to this and I never expect to."On November 21, 1915, the Liberty Bell passed through Greenville on its nationwide tour returning to Pennsylvania from the Panama-Pacific International Exposition in San Francisco.

After that trip, the Liberty Bell will not be moved again. The Greenville Public Library was established as a Carnegie library and is on the National Register of Historic Places. Hogue Hall at Greenville College appears on the National Register. On April 18, 1934, during the Great Depression, a group of 500 protesters marched to the Illinois Emergency Relief Commission to lodge complaints about the delivery of emergency supplies from the state and federal governments. Ronald Reagan visited Greenville on the campaign trail in the 1980s and gave a speech on the courthouse lawn. Barack Obama, the junior Senator from Illinois elected as President in November 2008 visited Greenville while campaigning for his Senate seat in 2004, in a visit hosted by the Bond County Democrats. Women in Bond County could vote for the first time in 1914. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 383 square miles, of which 380 square miles is land and 2.5 square miles is water. Montgomery County – north Fayette County – east Clinton County – south Madison County – west Interstate 70 U.

S. Route 40 Illinois Route 127 Illinois Route 140 Illinois Route 143 In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Greenville have ranged from a low of 21 °F in January to a high of 91 °F in July, although a record low of −22 °F was recorded in February 1905 and a record high of 114 °F was recorded in July 1954. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 2.00 inches in February to 4.31 inches in May. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 17,768 people, 6,427 households, 4,340 families residing in the county; the population density was 46.7 inhabitants per square mile. There were 7,089 housing units at an average density of 18.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 90.9% white, 6.1% black or African American, 0.5% American Indian, 0.4% Asian, 0.3% from other races, 1.8% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 3.1% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 26.6% were German, 12.2% were English, 10.1% were Irish, 8.4% were American.

Of the 6,427 households, 30.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.6% were married couples living together, 9.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.5% were non-families, 26.8% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 2

Muttart Conservatory

The Muttart Conservatory is a botanical garden located in the North Saskatchewan river valley, across from the downtown core in Edmonton, Canada. One of the best-known landmarks of Edmonton, the conservatory consists of three city-operated greenhouses, public gardens, as well as four feature pyramids for display of plant species found across three biomes, with the fourth pyramid hosting as a seasonal display. A fifth minor skylight pyramid lights up the central foyer. A donation from the Gladys and Merrill Muttart Foundation provided momentum for the conservatory's construction, with the remaining funding supplied by the Province of Alberta and the City of Edmonton; the conservatory is operated by the Edmonton Parks and Recreation Department. The conservatory's unusual structure, designed by architect Peter Hemingway, is composed of four glassed pyramids built around a central service core; the two larger pyramids are 660 square metres in area, the two medium-sized ones are 410 square metres in size.

Three of the pyramids are devoted to displays of plants from the tropical and arid regions the fourth being used for shows that change with the seasons and which feature massed displays of ornamental flowering plants. The Temperate pyramid houses plants typical of temperate climates, from such zones as the southern Great Lakes and the mountainous areas of Asia. Near the entrance and fed by a stream is a bog area, with white water lilies and parrot's feather; the bog merges into a woodland with eastern deciduous trees and low shrubs but including redwoods and pampas grass. Eucalyptus trees and flowering shrubs complement the Australian section. In the woodland floor and alpine section are many tiny flowering plants, some native to Alberta and others from all over the world. Controlled environmental conditions allow the plants to go dormant in winter and burst into spring growth of green leaves and colourful blooms; the plants from the Arid pyramid come from cold dry areas spanning five continents.

They share an ability to thrive in environments with dry air, irregular moisture and wide day/night temperature fluctuations. In spring 2013, the Arid Pyramid featured an Agave Americana plant bloom which reached a height of 30 feet before reaching the top of the pyramid; this plant was planted a year. The Tropical pyramid provides an enormous diversity of species; the plants come from tropical rainforests, evergreen forests or grasslands, are showy and bright. A waterfall cascades into the centre of the pyramid where small fish and water lilies make their home; this pyramid has been home in the past to a kiwi bird and a sloth. On March 11, 2013, the bud to an imported Amorphophallus titanum plant budded and bloomed here on April 22; the Feature pyramid offers seasonal displays that change several times per year, focusing on themed displays and seasonal celebrations. Other amenities at the facility are an outdoor gazebo, gift shop, the Culina Muttart Café; the café serves several menu items made with locally-sourced ingredients, including herbs and salad greens grown on-site at the greenhouse.

The facility and operated by the City of Edmonton, is a popular site for special events, such as weddings. The conservatory underwent a $6.3 million renovation, completed in June 2009. List of botanical gardens in Canada Muttart Conservatory website

Pragmatic clinical trial

A pragmatic clinical trial, sometimes called a practical clinical trial, is a clinical trial that focuses on correlation between treatments and outcomes in real-world health system practice rather than focusing on proving causative explanations for outcomes, which requires extensive deconfounding with inclusion and exclusion criteria so strict that they risk rendering the trial results irrelevant to much of real-world practice. A typical example is that an anti-diabetic medication in the real world will be used in people with diabetes-induced kidney problems, but if a study of its efficacy and safety excluded some subsets of people with kidney problems, the study's results may not reflect well what will happen in broad practice. PCTs thus contrast with explanatory clinical trials, which focus more on causation through deconfounding; the pragmatic versus explanatory distinction is a spectrum or continuum rather than a dichotomy, but the distinction is nonetheless important to evidence-based medicine because physicians have found that treatment effects in explanatory clinical trials do not always translate to outcomes in typical practice.

Decision-makers hope to build a better evidence base to inform decisions by encouraging more PCTs to be conducted. The distinction between pragmatic and explanatory trials is not the same as the distinction between randomized and nonrandomized trials. Any trial can be either randomized or nonrandomized and have any degree of pragmatic and explanatory power, depending on its study design, with randomization being preferable if practicably available. However, most randomized controlled trials to date have leaned toward the explanatory side of the pragmatic-explanatory spectrum because of the value traditionally placed on proving causation by deconfounding as part of proving efficacy, but sometimes because "attempts to minimize cost and maximize efficiency have led to smaller sample sizes"; the movement toward supporting pragmatic randomized controlled trials hopes to make sure that money spent on RCTs is well spent by providing information that matters to real-world outcomes, regardless of conclusively tying causation to particular variables.

This is the pragmatic element of such designs. Thus pRCTs are important to comparative effectiveness research, a distinction is made between efficacy and effectiveness, whereby efficacy implies causation proved by deconfounding other variables but effectiveness implies correlation with outcomes regardless of presence of other variables. Explanation remains important, as does traditional efficacy research, because we still value knowledge of causation to advance our understanding of molecular biology and to maintain our ability to differentiate real efficacy from placebo effects. What has become apparent in the era of advanced health technology is that we need to know about comparative effectiveness in real-world applications so that we can ensure the best use of our limited resources as we make countless instances of clinical decisions, and it is apparent that explanatory evidence, such as in vitro evidence and in vivo evidence from clinical trials with tight exclusion criteria does not help enough, by itself, with that task


The shinobue is a Japanese transverse flute or fue that has a high-pitched sound. It is found in hayashi and nagauta ensembles, plays important roles in noh and kabuki theatre music, it is heard in traditional Japanese folk songs. There are two styles: hayashi; the uta is properly tuned to the Western scale, can be played in ensembles or as a solo instrument. The hayashi is not in the correct pitch, because it is a piece of hollow bamboo with holes cut into it, it emits a high-pitched sound, is appropriate for the festival/folk music of Japan. Both shinobue flutes play a important role in the Japanese theater. Ryuteki Bamboo musical instruments Kotos and More Ron Korb's Asian Flute Gallery Syoji Yamaguchi's web site on Japanese transverse flutes Japanese Traditional Music

The Singles Collection (Britney Spears album)

The Singles Collection is the second greatest hits album by American singer Britney Spears. It was released on November 10, 2009 through Jive Records to commemorate her ten-year anniversary since entering the music industry; the compilation was released in many different formats, including a one-disc edition, a CD+DVD edition and a box set, which contained twenty-nine singles, each packaged in its own slip case with original cover art. The CD+DVD edition, as well as the box set, contains a DVD with Spears's music videos; the album includes a new song "3" produced by Max Shellback. The Singles Collection was praised by contemporary music critics, who noted Spears's impact and influence on pop music during her first decade in the music industry; the album entered the top ten in France and Japan, peaked at number twenty-two on the US Billboard 200. "3" was released as the only single from the album. In the United States, it debuted atop the Billboard Hot 100. On July 12, 2009, Spears confirmed through her Twitter account that she had begun recording new material, stating she was going into the studio with Swedish songwriter and producer Max Martin.

On September 23, 2009, Jive Records announced the release of a greatest hits titled The Singles Collection through Spears's official website, in celebration of Spears's ten-year anniversary in the music industry. The album followed; the release date was confirmed to be November 24, 2009 and the album included a new song titled "3", produced by Martin. The compilation was available in a standard edition as well as a box set; the standard version contained a single CD with seventeen tracks, including "3". The boxset contained her twenty-nine singles including "3", with each single packaged in its own slip case with original cover art, accompanied by an original b-side or remix, it included a booklet featuring iconic images and facts about each track as well as a DVD featuring all of Spears's music videos to date in chronological order. On October 14, 2009, Jive Records announced in a new press release that the date for the standard edition was moved up to November 10, 2009; the date for the release of the box set remained the same.

The following day, a CD+DVD edition was announced to be released on November 10, 2009 outside North America. This edition included the standard edition track listing as well as the single "I'm Not a Girl, Not Yet a Woman". "3" was confirmed as the only single from the album, released on October 6, 2009 along with the announcement of The Singles Collection. It was released to radio stations on September 29, 2009; the song received positive reviews from critics, debuted at number one on the US Billboard Hot 100, breaking many chart records. It made Spears the first artist in over three years to debut at the top position and the only non-American Idol artist in eleven years to do so, it was the sixteenth song in the chart history to debut at the top position and the shortest title for a song reaching the top of the chart. "3" debuted at number one in Canada and reached the top ten in Australia, Czech Republic, France, Norway and the United Kingdom. The compilation album received universal critical acclaim.

Stephen Thomas Erlewine of AllMusic gave the collection five stars and compared it to Greatest Hits: My Prerogative, saying that although they had the same length, they were "different listening experiences". He noted that the more recent tracks "help push The Singles away from teen pop and toward pure dance-pop bliss, it does result in a stronger overall listen, since there are no slow patches here, just a parade of relentless hooks and rhythms that wound up defining the sound of a decade". Mayer Nissim of Digital Spy gave the album five stars stating that " captures the career of one of the best singles artists of the last ten years. Running from'... Baby One More Time' to'Radar', you get a single-disc timeline that shows a progression in style and substance from school uniform-wearing pop ingénue to sultry motorik saucepot; the only arguable weak link is the Madonna-featuring'Me Against the Music', but in this context what once looked like a respectful passing of the baton now seems like an unconditional surrender of pop Queendom to its rightful heir."

The reviewer noted the impact on popular culture and pop music of Spears, highlighting "Oops!... I Did It Again", "Toxic" and "Stronger". Brian Linder of IGN commented "2004's Greatest Hits: My Prerogative captured the highlights from Britney's heyday, but lacks the more mature club-oriented material that she's churned out in recent years; that helps make this collection a justifiable fan purchase". Mike Diver of BBC Online called it "the definitive Britney album" and added that "these songs don't just make a mark, lingering in the memory – they are essential pieces of the past ten years of pop history, deserve better than dismissal by so-called discerning listeners". Evan Sawdey of PopMatters called the album "a high-gloss collection of tunes that selectively sums up the career of one of the biggest female pop singers of the past decade. It's a disc that's light on filler and heavy on Spears' more high-energy cuts, without question, play to her strengths as a performer". In the United States, The Singles Collection debuted at number twenty-two in the Billboard 200, selling 26,800 copies in its first week.

The album has sold over 250,000 copies in the United States. In Canada, the album was certified gold by the Canadian Recording Industry Association for sales over 40,000 copies; the album debuted at number fifteen in Mexico and was certified gold by the Asociación Mexicana de Productores de Fonogramas y Videogramas (AMPROF