Udine is a city and comune in north-eastern Italy, in the middle of the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, between the Adriatic Sea and the Alps. Its population was 100,514 in 2012, 176,000 with the urban area. Udine was first attested in medieval Latin records as Udene in 983 and as Utinum around the year 1000; the origin of the name Udine is unclear. It has been tentatively suggested that the name may be of pre-Roman origin, connected with the Indo-European root *ou̯dh-'udder' used in a figurative sense to mean'hill'; the Slovene name Videm is a hypercorrection of the local Slovene name Vidan, based on settlements named Videm in Slovenia. The Slovene linguist Pavle Merkù characterized the Slovene form Videm as an "idiotic 19th-century hypercorrection." Udine is the historical capital of Friuli. The area has been inhabited since the Neolithic age, is believed to have been settled by Illyrians. Based on an old Hungarian legend, the leader of the Huns, built a hill there, when besieging Aquileia, because he needed a winter quarters billet: he instructed his soldiers to bring soil in their helmets and shields, because the landscape was too flat, without any hill.

He established the town there, built a square-shape tower. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, the area increased in importance after the decline of Aquileia and afterwards of Cividale also. In AD 983 Udine was mentioned for the first time, with the donation of the Utinum castle by emperor Otto II to the Patriarchs of Aquileia the main feudal lords of the region. In 1223, with the foundation of the market, the city became the most important in the area for economy and trade, became the Patriarch's seat. In 1420, it was conquered by the Republic of Venice. In 1511, it was the seat of a short civil war, followed by an earthquake and a plague. Udine remained under Venetian control until 1797. After the short French domination which ensued, it was part of the Austrian-puppet Lombardy-Venetia Kingdom, was included in the newly formed Kingdom of Italy in 1866. During World War I, before the defeat in the battle of Caporetto, Udine became the seat of the Italian High Command and was nicknamed "Capitale della Guerra".

After the battle, it was occupied by the Germans in 1917 and Austrians in 1918 until after the Battle of Vittorio Veneto in 1918. After the war it was made capital of a short-lived province which included the current provinces of Gorizia and Udine. After September 8, 1943, when Italy surrendered to the Allies in World War II, the city was under direct German administration, which ceased in April 1945. Udine has a humid subtropical climate. Precipitation is abundant year round with fall being the wettest seasons; the highest temperature recorded was 38.2 °C on July 21, 2006 while the lowest temperature recorded was −18.6 °C on December 19, 2009. In 2007, there were 97,880 people residing in Udine itself, located in the province of Udine, Friuli Venezia Giulia, of whom 46.9% were male and 53.1% were female. Minors totalled 14.36 percent of the population compared to pensioners. This compares with the Italian average of 19.94 percent. The average age of Udine residents is 47 compared to the Italian average of 42.

In the five years between 2002 and 2007, the population of Udine grew by 1.48 percent, while Italy as a whole grew by 3.56 percent. The current birth rate of Udine is 9.13 births per 1,000 inhabitants compared to the Italian average of 9.45 births. The nearby area close to the border has a Slovene population estimated at about 2,000. A 1475 document mentions Slovene as the language of the "lower class" in the town, the Udine Manuscript of 1458 contains Slovene vocabulary. Alasia da Sommaripa's Italian-Slovenian dictionary was printed in Udine in 1607. A chair for Slovene was established at the University of Udine in 1970; as of 2006, 90.90% of the population was of Italian descent. The largest immigrant group came from other European nations: 5.37%, followed by sub-saharan Africa: 1.65%, North African: 0.77%. The old residence of the patriarchs of Aquileia, the palazzo Patriarcale, was erected by Giovanni Fontana in 1517 in place of the older one destroyed by an earthquake in 1511. Under the Austrians it was used as a prison.

In the cathedral archives was preserved a recension of the Visigothic code of laws, called the Breviary of Alaric, in a manuscript known as the Codex Utinensis, printed before it was lost. In the 1550s, Andrea Palladio erected some buildings in Udine; the Oratorio della Purità has 18th-century frescoes by Giambattista Tiepolo and his son Giandomenico. The church dedicated to St. Mary of the Castle is the oldest in Udine, judging from extant fragments dating back to the Lombard era, it lost its parish status in 1263. It has been renovated many times over the centuries: the façade, for example, was rebuilt after the 1511 Idrija earthquake, its three naves preserve the suggestive atmosphere of silence and contemplation, found in old churches. The Venetian Governor, Tommaso Lippomano, commissioned the Venetian Gothic portico with steps and ramps leading down the hill in 1487. In the principal square stands the town hall built in 1448

H. B. Barnum

Hidle Brown "H. B." Barnum is an American pianist, record producer and former child actor. After winning a nationwide talent contest at the age of four and starring in the motion picture Valley of the Sun Marches On, Barnum continued his acting career on TV in the Amos'n Andy Shows, the Jack Benny Show, others, making his first solo recording as Pee Wee Barnum in 1950, he joined doo-wop groups the Dootones and, in late 1955, when Carl Gardner and bass Bobby Nunn left the Robins to form the Coasters for Atlantic, Barnum replaced Bobby Nunn as baritone and bass for the Robins, as well as playing piano for them. This version of the Robins recorded for the Whippet label. In 1960, under the pseudonym "Dudley" he recorded the radio hit "El Pizza", a parody of Marty Robbins' "El Paso". In 1961 he had the only hit under his own name, the instrumental "Lost Love", in the same year recorded the first version of "Nut Rocker", credited to Jack B. Nimble and the Quicks, he recorded three albums as a singer-pianist during the 1960s.

Since that time he became most known as an arranger, for a wide range of performers including Lou Rawls, Count Basie, O. C. Smith, Frank Sinatra, the Supremes, Donna Loren, Aretha Franklin, Little Richard, Gladys Knight, Melinda Marx, Al Wilson, the Pump Girls, the Little Tots. Barnum produced, along with Johnnie Walls of JWP Productions which distributed the record, the 1985 hip-hop comedy song "Rappin' Duke", he produced "The Fish Song", a rare song by the New Creation, released on Salaam Records. In addition, he co-wrote "Your Love", a 1977 Top 20 hit song by Marilyn McCoo & Billy Davis Jr. H. B. Barnum had an album recorded by the Novells, a Los Angeles area band, That Did It! in 1968. The album re-emerged as an import some 40 years when it was released in the United Kingdom in July 2005 and again in December 2007 by Radioactive Records. H. B. Barnum is the older brother of backup singer Billie Barnum. H. B. Barnum discography at Discogs H. B. Barnum on IMDb H. B. Barnum Interview - NAMM Oral History Library

Green Island (Fortune), Newfoundland and Labrador

Green Island is a rocky island in the mouth of Fortune Bay, Newfoundland. It is located about 9.5 kilometres west of the Burin Peninsula of Newfoundland and 11 kilometres east of Langlade Island in Saint-Pierre and Miquelon. In Article XIII of the Treaty of Utrecht, France acknowledged British ownership of Newfoundland and its adjacent islands, of which Green Island is one. However, in 1763, with the Treaty of Paris, there may be possible that this island had been bring back to France, with Saint-Pierre and Miquelon. Today, the sovereignty is still not sure; the southern island of this archipelago, called "L'enfant perdu de l'île verte", is definitly french. That is explicitly wrote in the 1972's agreement about Canadian mutual fishing relations; the first lighthouse was built on Green Island in 1908. It was replaced in 1955 with an aluminium skeletal tower, this was replaced with the present structure in 1993, its light is visible for 16 nautical miles. The foghorn sounds every 60 seconds as well.

Point The low water mark on the west point of the south-westernmost island of the Little Green Island group. Latitude 46° 51' 36" N. Longitude 56° 05' 58" W. approximately. List of lighthouses in Newfoundland and Labrador List of lighthouses in Canada Aids to Navigation Canadian Coast Guard Lighthouse website, complete with picture Picture of Green Island Lighhouse