Christian Social Union in Bavaria
The Christian Social Union in Bavaria is a Christian-democratic and conservative political party in Germany. The CSU operates only in Bavaria while its larger counterpart, the Christian Democratic Union, operates in the other fifteen states of Germany, it differs from the CDU by being somewhat more conservative in social matters. The CSU is considered an effective successor of the Weimar-era Catholic Bavarian People's Party. At the federal level, the CSU forms a common faction in the Bundestag with the CDU, referred to as the Union Faction; the CSU has had 46 seats in the Bundestag since the 2017 federal election, making it the smallest of the seven parties represented. The CSU is a member of the International Democrat Union; the CSU has three ministers in the cabinet of Germany of the federal government in Berlin, including party leader Horst Seehofer, Federal Minister of the Interior while party member Markus Söder serves as Minister-President of Bavaria, a position that CSU representatives have held from 1946 to 1954 and again since 1957.
Franz Josef Strauß had left behind the strongest legacy as a leader of the party, having led the party from 1961 until his death in 1988. His political career in the federal cabinet was unique in that he had served four ministerial posts in the years between 1953 and 1969. From 1978 until his death in 1988, Strauß served as the Minister-President of Bavaria. Strauß was the first leader of the CSU to be a candidate for the German chancellery in 1980. In the 1980 federal election, Strauß ran against the incumbent Helmut Schmidt of the Social Democratic Party of Germany, but lost thereafter as the SPD and the Free Democratic Party managed to secure an absolute majority together, forming a social-liberal coalition; the CSU has led the Bavarian state government since it came into existence in 1946, save from 1954 to 1957 when the SPD formed a state government in coalition with the Bavaria Party and the state branches of the GB/BHE and FDP. Before the 2008 elections in Bavaria, the CSU perennially achieved absolute majorities at the state level by itself.
This level of dominance is unique among Germany's 16 states. Edmund Stoiber took over the CSU leadership in 1999, he ran for Chancellor of Germany in 2002, but his preferred CDU/CSU–FDP coalition lost against the SPD candidate Gerhard Schröder's SPD–Green alliance. In the 2003 Bavarian state election, the CSU won 60.7% of the vote and 124 of 180 seats in the state parliament. This was the first time; the Economist suggested that this exceptional result was due to a backlash against Schröder's government in Berlin. The CSU's popularity declined in subsequent years. Stoiber stepped down from the posts of Minister-President and CSU chairman in September 2007. A year the CSU lost its majority in the 2008 Bavarian state election, with its vote share dropping from 60.7% to 43.4%. The CSU remained in power by forming a coalition with the FDP. In the 2009 general election, the CSU received only 42.5% of the vote in Bavaria in the 2009 election, which constitutes its weakest showing in the party's history.
The CSU made gains in the 2013 Bavarian state election and the 2013 federal election, which were held a week apart in September 2013. The CSU remained in government in Berlin, they have three ministers in Angela Merkel's current cabinet, namely Horst Seehofer, Andreas Scheuer and Gerd Müller. The CSU forms after Bavarian state election, 2018 on October 14, 2018 a new government with partner Free Voters of Bavaria; the CSU is the sister party of the Christian Democratic Union. Together, they are called The Union; the CSU operates only within Bavaria and the CDU operates in all other states, but not Bavaria. While independent, at the federal level the parties form a common CDU/CSU faction. No Chancellor has come from the CSU, although Strauß and Edmund Stoiber were CDU/CSU candidates for Chancellor in the 1980 federal election and the 2002 federal election which were both won by the Social Democratic Party of Germany. Below the federal level, the parties are independent. Since its formation, the CSU has been more conservative than the CDU.
The CSU and the state of Bavaria decided not to sign the Grundgesetz of the Federal Republic of Germany as they could not agree with the division of Germany into two states after World War II. Although Bavaria like all German states has a separate police and justice system, the CSU has participated in all political affairs of the German Parliament, the German government, the German Bundesrat, the parliamentary elections of the German President, the European Parliament and meetings with Mikhail Gorbachev in Russia; the CSU has contributed eleven of the twelve Ministers-President of Bavaria since 1945, with only Wilhelm Hoegner of the SPD holding the office. List of Christian Social Union of Bavaria politicians Politics of Germany Alf Mintzel. Die CSU. Anatomie einer konservativen Partei 1945-1972. Opladen. Christlich-Soziale Union – official site Christian-Social Union Christian-Social Union of Bavaria
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
Herbert Reul is a German politician of the Christian Democratic Union who serves as State Minister for Internal Affairs in the government of Minister-President Armin Laschet. He served as a Member of the European Parliament. Reul was born in Rhineland; the son of a mayor, Reul joined the youth wing of the CDU, the Junge Union, at the age of 18. In 1975, while still a student at University of Cologne, he became a town councillor in his hometown of Leichlingen, near Cologne, served for 17 years. From 1981 until 1985, he worked as a secondary school teacher. In the 1985 state elections, Reul gained a seat in the State Parliament of North Rhine-Westphalia and occupied it for 19 years. In parliament, he was his political group's spokesperson on education policy from 1985 to 1991. Between 1991 and 2003, he served as Secretary General of the CDU in North Rhine-Westphalia, under the leadership of successive chairmen Norbert Blüm and Jürgen Rüttgers. Reul first became a Member of the European Parliament in the 2004 European elections.
During his time in parliament, he was a member of the Committee on Industry and Energy. Between 2006 and 2009, he served as the energy spokesman for the German Christian Democrats’ delegation in the European People's Party in the Parliament. From 2012, Reul was a member of the European Parliament's delegation for relations with the Korean Peninsula, he had been a member of the delegation for relations with the People's Republic of China between 2004 and 2012. In addition to his committee assignments, Reul was a member of the European Parliament Intergroup on Long Term Investment and Reindustrialisation, the Sky and Space Intergroup and the European Parliament Intergroup on Climate Change and Sustainable Development. Reul was regarded as one of the driving forces behind blocking Martin Schulz’ reelection as President of the European Parliament in early 2017. Since the North Rhine-Westphalia state elections in 2017, Reul has been serving as State Minister for Internal Affairs in the government of Minister-President Armin Laschet.
He succeeded Ralf Jäger. As one of his state's representatives at the Bundesrat, he is a member of the Committee on Internal Affairs and of the Defence Committee. Reul was a CDU delegate to the Federal Convention for the purpose of electing the President of Germany in 1994, 1999, 2004, 2009, 2010 and 2017. Since 2012, he has been serving on the Presidium of the CDU, under the leadership of chairwoman Angela Merkel. In the negotiations to form a Grand Coalition of Merkel's Christian Democrats together with the Bavarian CSU) and the Social Democrats following the 2013 German elections, he led the CDU/CSU delegation in the working group on banking regulation and the Eurozone. Ahead of the Christian Democrats’ leadership election in 2018, Reul publicly endorsed Annegret Kramp-Karrenbauer to succeed Angela Merkel as the party's chair. RheinEnergie AG, Member of the Supervisory Board, Member of the Advisory Board German Forum for Crime Prevention, Ex-Officio Member of the Board of Trustees Institute of Energy Economics at the University of Cologne, Member of the Advisory Board Institute for European Politics, Member of the Board of Trustees Konrad Adenauer Foundation, Member Karl Arnold Foundation, Member of the Board Karl Reul Foundation, Member of the Advisory Board Max Planck Institute for Biology of Ageing, Member of the Board of Trustees Institute for Mining and Energy Law at the Ruhr University Bochum, Member of the Advisory Board Westdeutscher Rundfunk, Member of the Broadcasting Council, Substitute Member of the Broadcasting Council Shortly after the CDU donations scandal and amid the campaign for the state elections in 2000, Reul became the target of public criticism when he – in his capacity as Secretary General of the CDU in North Rhine-Westphalia – had his party pay for a private trip to the Bayreuth Festival.
Leverkusen who's who
Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats
The Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats is the political group in the European Parliament of the Party of European Socialists. The Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats was founded as a Socialist Group on 29 June 1953 which makes it the second oldest political group in the European Parliament after ALDE, it adopted its present-day name on 23 June 2009. Centre-left in orientation, the group comprises social-democratic parties and is affiliated with the Progressive Alliance; until the 1999 European Parliament elections, it was the largest group in the Parliament, but since those elections it has been the second-largest group. During the 8th EU Parliament Assembly, the S&D is the only Parliament group with representation from all 28 EU member states. In the European Council, 8 out of 28 Heads of State and Government belong to the S&D Group and in the European Commission, 8 out of 28 Commissioners come from PES parties; the Socialist Group was one of the first three groups to be created when it was founded on 23 June 1953 in the Common Assembly of the European Coal and Steel Community.
The Common Assembly was the predecessor of the European Parliament. A group bureau and secretariat was established in Luxembourg; the group continued through the creation of the appointed Parliament in 1958 and, when the Parliament became an elected body in 1979 following the first European election, the group became the largest in terms of returned MEPs. It has since remained the largest or second largest Group. In 1987, the Single European Act came into force and the group began co-operating with the European People's Party to secure the majorities needed under the cooperation procedure; the left–right coalition between the Socialists and EPP has dominated the Parliament since and the post of President of the Parliament has been split between the two groups since. Meanwhile, the national parties making up the group were organising themselves on a European level outside the Parliament, creating the Confederation of Socialist Parties of the European Community in 1974; the Confederation was succeeded by the Party of European Socialists, in 1992.
As a result, the parliamentary group was renamed the Group of the Party of European Socialists on 21 April 1993. In 1999, the Parliament refused to approve the Santer Commission's handling of the EU budget. Allegations of corruption centred on Édith Cresson and Manuel Marín; the group supported the Commission but withdrew their support, forcing the Commission to resign. The group was renamed again to the Socialist Group in the European Parliament on 20 July 2004 and was given a different logo, to further distinguish the PES group organisation from the PES European political party. In 2007, the Socialist Group was the second largest group in Parliament, with MEPs from all but two member states and Cyprus. However, the 2009 European election saw a reduction in the number of PES MEPs returned from 2004; the group sought additional members in the Democratic Party of Italy, not affiliated to the PES in 2009. By the conclusion of the 2004-2009 parliamentary term, the Democratic Party had 8 MEPs in the Socialist Group, but had 8 MEPs in ALDE Group.
The Democratic Party is a big tent centre-left party influenced by social democracy and the Christian left, had MEPs who were former Christian Democrats or had other political views. So a new and more inclusive group name had to be found; the group was going to be named Alliance of Socialists and Democrats for Europe but this was seemed too similar to Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe. The name Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats was suggested on 18 June by group president Martin Schulz and it was renamed on 23 June 2009; the English abbreviation was unclear, being variously reported as PASD, S&D Group or PASDE. Dissatisfaction by Socialist MEPs towards the new name led Martin Schulz to admit that the name was still under consideration and that the group was to be referred to as the'Socialists and Democrats' until a final title was chosen. On 14 July 2009, the first day of the constitutive session of the 2009-2014 term, the full formal group name was Group of the Progressive Alliance of Socialists and Democrats in the European Parliament and the abbreviation was S&D.
The S&D Group joined the Progressive Alliance upon its official foundation on 22 May 2013 and is a member of the organisation's board. The group was an Associated Organisation of the Socialist International. For Presidents of the European Parliament from the group, see President of the European Parliament; the group is led by a Bureau of Vice-Presidents. There is a Treasurer and a Secretary General. Presidents of the Group include: Current Vice-Presidents of the group appointed at the mid-term constitution of the group in December 2016 Victor Boştinaru, Udo Bullmann, Tanja Fajon, Jeppe Kofod, Maria João Rodrigues, Isabelle Thomas, Elena Valenciano, Kathleen Van Brempt, Péter Niedermüller Previous Vice-Presidents of the group appointed at the start of the current legislature in 2014 Victor Boştinaru, Tanja Fajon, Isabelle Thomas, Enrique Guerrero Salom, Marju Lauristin, Jörg Leichtfried, Knut Fleckenstein, Maria João Rodrigues, Kathleen Van Brempt, Péter Niedermüller Previous Vice-Presidents of the group appointed at the start of the 2009 legislature: María Badía i Cutchet – Communication Policy and Public Relations Monika Be
Angela Dorothea Merkel is a German politician serving as Chancellor of Germany since 2005. She served as the leader of the centre-right Christian Democratic Union from 2000 to 2018. Merkel has been described as the de facto leader of the European Union, the most powerful woman in the world, by many commentators as the leader of the Free World. Merkel was born in Hamburg in then-West Germany and moved to East Germany as an infant when her father, a Lutheran clergyman, received a pastorate in Perleberg, she obtained a doctorate in quantum chemistry in 1986 and worked as a research scientist until 1989. Merkel entered politics in the wake of the Revolutions of 1989, served as a deputy spokesperson for the first democratically elected East German Government headed by Lothar de Maizière in 1990. Following German reunification in 1990, Merkel was elected to the Bundestag for the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, has been reelected since; as the protégée of Chancellor Helmut Kohl, Merkel was appointed as the Federal Minister for Women and Youth in Kohl's government in 1991, became the Federal Minister for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety in 1994.
After her party lost the federal election in 1998, Merkel was elected Secretary-General of the CDU before becoming the party's first female leader two years in the aftermath of a donations scandal that toppled Wolfgang Schäuble. Following the 2005 federal election, Merkel was appointed Germany's first female chancellor at the head of a grand coalition consisting of the CDU, its Bavarian sister party the Christian Social Union, the Social Democratic Party of Germany. In the 2009 federal election the CDU obtained the largest share of the vote, Merkel was able to form a coalition government with the Free Democratic Party. At the 2013 federal election, Merkel's CDU won a landslide victory with 41.5% of the vote and formed a second grand coalition with the SPD, after the FDP lost all of its representation in the Bundestag. After the 2017 federal election the CDU was again the largest party, she was reelected to her fourth term on 14 March 2018. In 2007, Merkel was President of the European Council and played a central role in the negotiation of the Treaty of Lisbon and the Berlin Declaration.
One of Merkel's consistent priorities has been to strengthen transatlantic economic relations. Merkel played a crucial role in managing the financial crisis at the European and international level, she has been referred to as "the decider." In domestic policy, health care reform, problems concerning future energy development and more her government's approach to the ongoing migrant crisis have been major issues during her Chancellorship. On 26 March 2014, Merkel became the longest-serving incumbent head of government in the European Union and she is the senior G7 leader. In October 2018, Merkel announced that she would not seek reelection as leader of the CDU at the party convention in December 2018 and as Chancellor in 2021. Merkel was born Angela Dorothea Kasner in 1954, in Hamburg, West Germany, the daughter of Horst Kasner, a Lutheran pastor and a native of Berlin, his wife Herlind, born in Danzig, a teacher of English and Latin, she has two younger siblings, Marcus Kasner, a physicist, Irene Kasner, an occupational therapist.
In her childhood and youth, Merkel was known among her peers by the nickname "Kasi", derived from her last name Kasner. Merkel is of Polish descent, her paternal grandfather, Ludwik Kasner, was a German policeman of Polish ethnicity, who had taken part in Poland's struggle for independence in the early 20th century. He married Merkel's grandmother Margarethe, a German from Berlin, relocated to her hometown where he worked in the police. In 1930, they Germanized the Polish name Kaźmierczak to Kasner. Merkel's maternal grandparents were the Danzig politician Willi Jentzsch, Gertrud Alma née Drange, a daughter of the city clerk of Elbing Emil Drange. Since the mid 1990s, Merkel has publicly mentioned her Polish heritage on several occasions and described herself as a quarter Polish, but her Polish roots became better known as a result of a 2013 biography. Religion played a key role in the Kasner family's migration from West Germany to East Germany. Merkel's paternal grandfather was Catholic but the entire family converted to Lutheranism during the childhood of her father, who studied Lutheran theology in Heidelberg and Hamburg.
In 1954, when Angela was just three months old, her father received a pastorate at the church in Quitzow, in East Germany. The family moved to Templin and Merkel grew up in the countryside 90 km north of East Berlin. In 1968, Merkel joined the Free German Youth, the official communist youth movement sponsored by the ruling Marxist–Leninist Socialist Unity Party of Germany. Membership was nominally voluntary, but those who did not join found it difficult to gain admission to higher education, she did not participate in the secular coming of age ceremony Jugendweihe, common in East Germany. Instead, she was confirmed. During this time, she participated in several compulsory courses on Marxism-Leninism with her grades only being regarded as "sufficient". At the Academy of Sciences, she became a member of its FDJ secretariat. According to her former colleagues, she propagated Marxism as the secretary for "Agitation and Propaganda". However, Merkel has denied this claim and stated that she was secretary for culture, which involved activities like obtaining theatre tickets and organising talks by visiting Soviet