Kathmandu is the capital city of the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal, the largest Himalayan state in Asia. Kathmandu is the largest metropolis in the Himalayan hill region, the city stands at an elevation of approximately 1,400 metres above sea level in the bowl-shaped Kathmandu Valley of central Nepal. The valley is termed as Nepal Proper and has been the home of Newar culture. The city was the capital of the Kingdom of Nepal and hosts palaces. It has been home to the headquarters of the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation since 1985, today, it is the seat of government of the Nepalese republic established in 2008, and is part of the Bagmati Zone in Nepalese administrative geography. Kathmandu has been the center of Nepals history, culture and it has a multiethnic population within a Hindu and Buddhist majority. Religious and cultural festivities form a part of the lives of people residing in Kathmandu. Tourism is an important part of the economy as the city is the gateway to the Nepalese Himalayas, there are seven casinos in the city.
In 2013, Kathmandu was ranked third among the top ten upcoming travel destinations in the world by TripAdvisor, historic areas of Kathmandu were devastated by a 7.8 magnitude earthquake on 25 April 2015. Nepali is the most spoken language in the city, while English is understood by the citys educated residents, the city of Kathmandu is named after Kasthamandap temple, that stood in Durbar Square. In Sanskrit, Kāṣṭha means wood and Maṇḍap means covered shelter and this temple, known as Maru Satal in the Newar language, was built in 1596 by Biseth in the period of King Laxmi Narsingh Malla. The two-story structure was entirely of wood, and used no iron nails nor supports. According to legend, all the used to build the pagoda was obtained from a single tree. The structure collapsed during the earthquake on 25 April 2015. The colophons of ancient manuscripts, dated as late as the 20th century, the city is called Kāṣṭhamaṇḍap in a vow that Buddhist priests still recite to this day. Thus, Kathmandu is known as Kāṣṭhamaṇḍap, during medieval times, the city was sometimes called Kāntipur.
This name is derived from two Sanskrit words – Kānti and pur, Kānti is a word that stands for beauty and is mostly associated with light and pur means place. Thus, giving it a meaning as City of light, among the indigenous Newar people, Kathmandu is known as Yeṃ Deśa, and Patan and Bhaktapur are known as Yala Deśa and Khwopa Deśa
Aiguille du Dru
The Aiguille du Dru is a mountain in the Mont Blanc massif in the French Alps. It is situated to the east of the village of Les Praz in the Chamonix valley, the mountains highest summit is Grande Aiguille du Dru 3,754 m Another, slightly lower sub-summit is, Petite Aiguille du Dru 3,733 m. The two summits are located on the west ridge of the Aiguille Verte and are connected to other by the Brèche du Dru. The north face of the Petit Dru is considered one of the six great north faces of the Alps. Dent, in his description of the climb, Those who follow us, taken together, it affords the most continuously interesting rock climb with which I am acquainted. There is no wearisome tramp over moraine, no great extent of snow fields to traverse, sleeping out as we did, it would be possible to ascend and return to Chamonix in about 16 to 18 hrs. But the mountain is never safe when snow is on the rocks, the best time for the expedition would be, in ordinary seasons, in the month of August. The rocks are sound and are peculiarly unlike those of other mountains, from the moment the glacier is left, hard climbing begins, and the hands as well as the feet are continuously employed.
The difficulties are therefore enormously increased if the rocks be glazed or cold, the Petit Dru was climbed in the following year, on 29 August 1879, by J. E. Charlet-Straton, P. Payot and F. Follignet via the south face and the south-west ridge. The first traverse of both summits of the Drus was by E. Fontaine and J. Ravanel on 23 August 1901, the first winter traverse of the Drus was by Armand Charlet and Camille Devouassoux on 25 February 1938. In 1889 both peaks of the Dru were climbed for the first time from the Petit Dru to the Grand Dru by two parties. One party contained Katharine Richardson and guides Emile Rey and Jean-Baptiste Bich, and these 1000 m-high rock faces have seen serious rockfalls in 1950,1997,2003,2005 and 2011, which have considerably affected the structure of the mountain and destroyed a number of routes. Seven years later, from 24–26 July 1962, Gary Hemming and Royal Robbins climbed the American Direct, on 10–13 August 1965, Royal Robbins, this time accompanied by John Harlin, climbed the American Direttissima.
This route was destroyed by the 2005 rockfall, on 4 September 1913 a party of climbers led by Camille Simond and Roberts Charlet-Straton attempted to carry a hollow metal statue of Our Lady of Lourdes up the peak. The Aiguille du Dru on SummitPost
Shishapangma, called Gosainthān, is the 14th highest mountain in the world at 8,027 metres above sea level. Geologist Toni Hagen explained the name as meaning a plain or meadow above a comb or a range in the local Tibetan dialect. According to the story, one year a heavy snowfall killed most of the animals at pasture, the Sanskrit name of the mountain, means place of the saint or Abode of God. Still, its most common name is Shishapangma, Shishapangma is located in south-central Tibet, five kilometres from the border with Nepal. It is the only eight-thousander entirely within Chinese territory and it is the highest peak in the Jugal Himal which is contiguous with and often considered part of Langtang Himal. The Jugal/Langtang Himal straddles the Tibet/Nepal border, since Shishapangma is on the dry north side of the Himalayan crest and further from the lower terrain of Nepal, it has less dramatic vertical relief than most major Himalayan peaks. Shishapangma has a peak higher than 8000 m, Central-Peak at 8008 m.
Many of Shishapangmas ascents are not exactly verified, as quite a few people claiming that was at this summit, was in only on the central peak. As of 2016,29 people have died climbing Shishapangma, including Alex Lowe and Dave Bridges in 1999, Shishapangma is regarded one of the easier eight-thousanders to climb. The standard route ascends via the northwest face and northeast ridge and face, Routes on the steeper southwest face are more technically demanding and involve 2,200 metres of ascent on a 50-degree slope. Shishapangma was first climbed via the Northern Route on 2 May 1964 by a Chinese expedition led by Xǔ Jìng 许竞. In addition to Xǔ Jìng, the team consisted of Zhāng Jùnyán 张俊岩, Wang Fuzhou, Wū Zōngyuè 邬宗岳, Chén Sān 陈三, Soinam Dorjê, Chéng Tiānliàng 程天亮, Migmar Zhaxi, Dorjê. 19807 May, Northern Route, by Michl Dacher, Wolfgang Schaffert, Gunter Sturm and Fritz Zintl, Sigi Hupfauer and Manfred Sturm,1980,13 October, Northern Route, by Ewald Putz and Egon Obojes, as part of an Austrian expedition.
1981,30 April, Northern Route, by Junko Tabei, Rinzing Phinzo and Gyalbu Jiabu,1981,28 May, Northern Route, by Reinhold Messner and Friedl Mutschlechner, as part of an Austrian expedition. 1982,28 May, British Route, southwest face, known as Right-hand couloir, FA by Doug Scott, Alex Macintyre, Route follows the right-hand couloir on the southwest face. 1987,18 September, Elsa Ávila and Carlos Carsolio become the first Mexicans to summit Shishapangma,1987,18 September, west ridge, FA by Jerzy Kukuczka and Artur Hajzer. A new road along the ridge west, by the western summit, Kukuczka skied down from near the summit. This was his last of fourteen eight-thousanders,1987,19 September, central couloir, north face, FA by Alan Hinkes and Steve Untch
Interlaken is a statistic town and municipality in the Interlaken-Oberhasli administrative district in the Swiss canton of Bern. It is an important and well-known tourist destination in the Bernese Highlands region of the Swiss Alps, and the main transport gateway to the mountains and lakes of that region. The town is located on the alluvial land called Bödeli between the two Lakes of Brienz to the east and Thun to the west and alongside the river Aare. Interlaken is the town of a Small Agglomeration with the same name of 23,300 inhabitants. The official language of Interlaken is German, but the spoken language is the local variant of the Alemannic Swiss German dialect. Until 1891, Interlaken was known as Aarmühle, the convent of the Augustinian Canons was built around 1133 when it was mentioned as inter lacus Madon and lasted until 1528. The mill on the bank of the Aare was first mentioned in 1365 as Amuli. Previously, textiles, and to a smaller extent watchmaking were of importance, Interlaken is one of the oldest tourist resorts in Switzerland, and it remains one of the most popular.
While some scattered Neolithic flint objects, early Bronze Age swords and Roman era coins have been found near Interlaken, Interlaken Monastery was built around 1133 on imperial land on the left side of the Aare. The monastery controlled a bridge over the river and generated an income from tolls, a village grew up around the monastery, along with a mill. On the right bank of the river, Interlaken village developed, in 1279/80 the village of Unterseen developed near Interlaken village. Also near the village were the castle of Weissenau and the market town of Widen. The castle and market became the possessions of the monastery. The Interlaken Monastery was first mentioned in 1133 when Lothair III, by 1247, there were women at the monastery. During the 13th century the monasterys influence spread throughout the area and into the Aare. They eventually had authority over two dozen churches along with a number of villages and farms and became the largest religious landholder in the region, during the 13th and the beginning of the 14th century the monastery grew and prospered.
However, in 1350 a period of crises and conflicts led to a decline in the number of monks and nuns, a document from 1310, indicates that there were 30 priests,20 lay brothers and 350 women at the monastery. In contrast, in 1472 there were only the provost, the prior, nine ordinary canons, at this time, the monastery had problems with its tenants and neighbors
The Jungfrau at 4,158 metres is one of the main summits of the Bernese Alps, located between the northern canton of Berne and the southern canton of Valais, halfway between Interlaken and Fiesch. Together with the Eiger and Mönch, the Jungfrau forms a wall overlooking the Bernese Oberland. The summit was first reached on August 3,1811 by the Meyer brothers of Aarau, the ascent followed a long expedition over the glaciers and high passes of the Bernese Alps. It was not until 1865 that a direct route on the northern side was opened. Along with the Aletsch Glacier to the south, the Jungfrau is part of the Jungfrau-Aletsch area, the Jungfrau is split between the municipalities of Lauterbrunnen and Fieschertal. It is the third-highest mountain of the Bernese Alps after the nearby Finsteraarhorn and Aletschhorn and this, and the extreme steepness of the north face, secured for it an early reputation for inaccessibility. The Jungfrau is the westernmost and highest point of a gigantic 10 km wall dominating the valleys of Lauterbrunnen, the Jungfrau is approximately 6 km from the Eiger, with the summit of the Mönch between the two mountains,3.5 km from the Jungfrau.
The wall is extended to the east by the Fiescherwand and to the west by the Lauterbrunnen Wall, the difference of altitude between the deep valley of Lauterbrunnen and the summit is particularly visible from the area of Mürren. From the valley floor, west of the massif, the gain is more than 3 km for a horizontal distance of 4 km. The landscapes around the Jungfrau are extremely contrasted, instead of the vertiginous precipices of the north-west, the south-east side emerges from the upper snows of the Aletsch Glacier at around 3,500 metres. The 20 km long valley of Aletsch on the south-east is completely uninhabited, the whole area constitutes the largest glaciated area in the Alps as well as in Europe. After the Guttannen porter was sent back alone over the Lötschenlücke and they recrossed the two passes named to their point of departure in Valais, and went home again over the Grimsel. The journey was a most extraordinary one for the time, to settle these another expedition was undertaken in 1812.
In this the two sons and Gottlieb, of Johann Rudolf Meyer, played the chief parts. Next day the party attempted the ascent of the Finsteraarhorn from the Studer névé on the east by way of the southeast ridge. The following day the party crossed the Grünhornlücke to the Aletsch Glacier, at a bivouac, probably just opposite the present Konkordia Hut, the rest of the party, having come over the Oberaarjoch and the Grünhornlücke, joined the Finsteraarhorn party. Gottlieb, Rudolfs younger brother, had more patience than the rest and remained longer at the huts near the Märjelensee, where the adventurers had taken refuge. He could make the ascent of the Jungfrau, the Rottalsattel being reached from the east side as is now usual
The term mountaineering describes the sport of mountain climbing, including ski mountaineering. Hiking in the mountains can be a form of mountaineering when it involves scrambling, or short stretches of the more basic grades of rock climbing. All require experience, athletic ability, and technical knowledge to maintain safety, mountaineering is often called Alpinism, especially in European languages, which implies climbing with difficulty such high and often snow and ice-covered mountains as the Alps. A mountaineer with such great skill is called an Alpinist, many cultures have harbored superstitions about mountains, which they often regarded as sacred due to their proximity with heaven, such as Mount Olympus for the Ancient Greeks. In 1492 Antoine de Ville, lord of Domjulien and Beaupré, was the first to ascend the Mont Aiguille, in France, with a team, using ladders. It appears to be the first recorded climb of any technical difficulty, in 1573 Francesco De Marchi and Francesco Di Domenico ascended Corno Grande, the highest peak in the Apennine Mountains.
During the Enlightenment, as a product of the new spirit of curiosity for the natural world, in 1741 Richard Pococke and William Windham made a historic visit to Chamonix. By the early 19th century many of the peaks were reached, including the Grossglockner in 1800, the Ortler in 1804, the Jungfrau in 1811, the Finsteraarhorn in 1812. In 1808 Marie Paradis became the first female to climb Mont Blanc and this inaugurated what became known as the Golden age of alpinism, with the first mountaineering club - the Alpine Club - being founded in 1857. Well-known guides of the era include Christian Almer, Jakob Anderegg, Melchior Anderegg, J. J. Bennen, Michel Croz, in the early years of the golden age, scientific pursuits were intermixed with the sport, such as by the physicist John Tyndall. In the years, it shifted to a more competitive orientation as pure sportsmen came to dominate the London-based Alpine Club and this ascent is generally regarded as marking the end of the mountaineering golden age.
By this point the sport of mountaineering had largely reached its modern form, with a body of professional guides, mountaineering in the Americas became popular in the 1800s. In North America, Pikes Peak in the Colorado Rockies was first climbed by Edwin James, though lower than Pikes Peak, the heavily glaciated Fremont Peak in Wyoming was thought to be the tallest mountain in the Rockies when it was first climbed by John C. Frémont and two others in 1842, pico de Orizaba, the tallest peak in Mexico and third tallest in North America, was first climbed by U. S. military personnel which included William F. Raynolds and a half dozen other climbers in 1848. Heavily glaciated and more technical climbs in North American were not achieved until the late 19th, in 1897 Mount Saint Elias on the Alaska-Yukon border was summitted by the Duke of the Abruzzi and party. But it was not until 1913 that Mount Mckinley, the tallest peak in North America was successfully climbed by Hudson Stuck, Mount Logan, the tallest peak in Canada was first summitted by a half dozen climbers in 1925 in an expedition that took more than two months.
In 1879-1880 the exploration of the highest Andes in South America began when English mountaineer Edward Whymper climbed Chimborazo, the summit of Aconcagua was finally reached on January 14,1897 by Swiss mountaineer Matthias Zurbriggen during an expedition led by Edward FitzGerald that began in December 1896. The Andes of Bolivia were first explored by Sir William Martin Conway in 1898 and it took until the late 19th century for European explorers to penetrate Africa
Nuptse or Nubtse is a mountain in the Khumbu region of the Mahalangur Himal, in the Nepalese Himalayas. It lies two kilometres WSW of Mount Everest, Nubtse is Tibetan for west peak, as it is the western segment of the Lhotse-Nubtse massif. After a long hiatus, Nubtse again became the objective of high-standard mountaineers in the 1990s and 2000s, with important routes being put up on its west, hence it is not ranked on the list of highest mountains. Nuptse on Summitpost Nuptse on Peakware - photos Günther Seifferth, Nuptse at himalaya-info. org
Tre Cime di Lavaredo
The Tre Cime di Lavaredo, called the Drei Zinnen, are three distinctive battlement-like peaks, in the Sexten Dolomites of northeastern Italy. They are probably one of the mountain groups in the Alps. The three peaks, from east to west, Cima Piccola / Kleine Zinne Cima Grande / Große Zinne Cima Ovest / Westliche Zinne. The peaks are composed of well-layered dolostones of the Dolomia Principale formation, Carnian to Rhaetian in age, until 1919 the peaks formed part of the border between Italy and Austria. Now they lie on the border between the Italian provinces of South Tyrol and Belluno and still are a part of the boundary between German-speaking and Italian-speaking majorities. The Cima Grande has an elevation of 2,999 metres and it stands between the Cima Piccola, at 2,857 metres, and the Cima Ovest, at 2,973 metres. The first ascent of the Cima Grande was on August 21,1869, the Cima Ovest was first climbed exactly ten years later, on August 21,1879, by Michel Innerkofler with G. Ploner, a tourist.
The Cima Piccola was first climbed on July 25,1881, by Michel, the routes of these three first ascents are still the normal ascent routes, the Cima Piccolas route is the most difficult of the three. Emilio Comici was the first to climb the face of the Cima Grande in 1933 in a party of three, after an ascent time of 3 days and 2 nights. This partly overhanging northern face is considered by climbers to be one of the north faces of the Alps. Numerous routes lead from the communities to and around the peaks. The most common route is from Paternkofel/Monte Paterno to the alpine hut Auronzo at 2,333 m, over Paternsattel to the alpine hut Dreizinnenhütte/Locatelli at 2,405 m, there are a number of other routes as well. Since the front line between Italy and Austria during World War I ran through these mountains, there are a number of fortifications, man-made caves, nearby communities include Auronzo di Cadore, Toblach/Dobbiaco, Sexten/Sesto, and the Puster Valley. The area has staged many finishes in Giro dItalia, List of highest paved roads in Europe List of mountain passes Lake Misurina Huber, Willi Schwenkmeier.
Die Kämpfe im Drei-Zinnen-Gebiet und am Kreuzberg bei Sexten 1915-1917, Auronzo di Cadore Cai Auronzo The Great War in the Dolomites 360° Panorama view Homepage of the Tourism Authority
Great north faces of the Alps
In mountaineering, the six great north faces of the Alps are known for their difficulty and great height. Making the first ascent of each of six faces was a major preoccupation of the best European climbers in the 1930s. Gaston Rébuffat, a Chamonix mountain guide and renowned French alpinist, was the first to all six of them. Three of these north faces—the Eiger, the Matterhorn and the Grandes Jorasses—are considerably harder to climb than the others and this led to their becoming known as the Trilogy. The first to climb these three faces within a year was the Austrian Leo Schlömmer, from the summer of 1961 to the summer of 1962, ivano Ghirardini was the first man to climb the Trilogy in winter and Catherine Destivelle was the first woman. Anker, Daniel Eiger, The Vertical Arena, a Hard Days Summer, Six Classic North Faces Solo. Starlight and Storm, The Conquest of the Great North Faces of the Alps
Ringgenberg is a village and a municipality in the Interlaken-Oberhasli administrative district in the canton of Bern in Switzerland. Besides the village of Ringgenberg, the municipality includes the village of Goldswil. Ringgenberg is located on the shores of Lake Brienz. It has a church that was built on the ruins of a castle in the 17th century. Ringgenberg and Goldswil belong to the Small Agglomeration Interlaken with 23,300 inhabitants, the oldest traces of a settlement in the area are neolithic graves which have been discovered in the village and at Goldswil-Mätteli. The original name of Ringgenberg was Rinchenwile which appears in the record in 1240. This name stems from the Old High German personal name Rinco or Rincho, the modern name is based on an elision of Ringgenwil with the castle, which was built in the Middle Ages. In 1230 Kuno von Brienz was appointed overlord of the Lake Brienz area by the German Emperor Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, the noble family took its name from Ringgenberg.
Johann von Ringgenberg was the most significant member of this family and he was known as the knight who handled the sword and lyre equally well. His songs were collected in Zurich in around 1300 in the Codex Manesse collection, during the 13th century, the Counts of Ringgenberg expanded their power, often at the expense of Interlaken Abbey. The ruin of the began in the time of Philipp von Ringgenberg. In 1351 part of the estate was sold to the Abbey, in 1381 Ringgenberg castle was burnt and plundered by troops from the Canton of Uri and Count Petermann von Ringgenberg was taken in chains to Obwalden. In 1386, the castle and lands were assigned to Bern, however the city lacked the funds to rebuild the burned castle and in 1411 and 1439 parts of the castle and village were sold to Interlaken. A few years later, in 1445, Bern reacquired the land, in 1528, the city of Bern adopted the new faith of the Protestant Reformation and began imposing it on the Bernese Oberland. Ringgenberg joined many other villages and the Abbey in a rebellion against the new faith.
After Bern imposed its will on the Oberland, they secularized the Abbey, Ringgenberg became a part of the Bernese bailiwick of Interlaken. The church was built in the ruins of Ringgenberg Castle in 1670 under the architect Abraham Dunz, the imposing building stands on a hill between the town and lake. In 1853 the separate municipalities of Goldswil and Ringgenberg were combined, a small lake, Burgseeli is located between the two villages